Antonio M. López

Antonio M. López
Autonomous University of Barcelona | UAB · Department of Computer Sciences

About

239
Publications
79,172
Reads
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11,813
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1995 - present
CVC Computer Vision Center
Position
  • Head of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) group
September 1992 - present
Autonomous University of Barcelona
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (239)
Preprint
Full-text available
Semantic image segmentation is addressed by training deep models. Since supervised training draws to a curse of human-based image labeling, using synthetic images with automatically generated ground truth together with unlabeled real-world images is a promising alternative. This implies to address an unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) problem. In...
Article
Full-text available
Top-performing computer vision models are powered by convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Training an accurate CNN highly depends on both the raw sensor data and their associated ground truth (GT). Collecting such GT is usually done through human labeling, which is time-consuming and does not scale as we wish. This data-labeling bottleneck may be...
Preprint
Full-text available
Top-performing computer vision models are powered by convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Training an accurate CNN highly depends on both the raw sensor data and their associated ground truth (GT). Collecting such GT is usually done through human labeling, which is time-consuming and does not scale as we wish. This data labeling bottleneck may be...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents a GPU-accelerated software design of the recently proposed model of Slanted Stixels, which represents the geometric and semantic information of a scene in a compact and accurate way. We reformulate the measurement depth model to reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm, relying on the confidence of the depth estimatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Depth information is essential for on-board perception in autonomous driving and driver assistance. Monocular depth estimation (MDE) is very appealing since it allows for appearance and depth being on direct pixelwise correspondence without further calibration. Best MDE models are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) trained in a supervise...
Article
Modern computer vision requires processing large amounts of data, both while training the model and/or during inference, once the model is deployed. Scenarios where images are captured and processed in physically separated locations are increasingly common (e.g. autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, smartphones). In addition, many devices suffer fr...
Preprint
Human drivers produce a vast amount of data which could, in principle, be used to improve autonomous driving systems. Unfortunately, seemingly straightforward approaches for creating end-to-end driving models that map sensor data directly into driving actions are problematic in terms of interpretability, and typically have significant difficulty de...
Preprint
Providing ground truth supervision to train visual models has been a bottleneck over the years, exacerbated by domain shifts which degenerate the performance of such models. This was the case when visual tasks relied on handcrafted features and shallow machine learning and, despite its unprecedented performance gains, the problem remains open withi...
Article
A crucial component of an autonomous vehicle (AV) is the artificial intelligence (AI) is able to drive towards a desired destination. Today, there are different paradigms addressing the development of AI drivers. On the one hand, we find modular pipelines, which divide the driving task into sub-tasks such as perception and maneuver planning and con...
Article
Full-text available
Deep video action recognition models have been highly successful in recent years but require large quantities of manually-annotated data, which are expensive and laborious to obtain. In this work, we investigate the generation of synthetic training data for video action recognition, as synthetic data have been successfully used to supervise models...
Preprint
Full-text available
Modern computer vision requires processing large amounts of data, both while training the model and/or during inference, once the model is deployed. Scenarios where images are captured and processed in physically separated locations are increasingly common (e.g. autonomous vehicles, cloud computing). In addition, many devices suffer from limited re...
Article
Variable rate is a requirement for flexible and adaptable image and video compression. However, deep image compression methods (DIC) are optimized for a single fixed rate-distortion (R-D) tradeoff. While this can be addressed by training multiple models for different tradeoffs, the memory requirements increase proportionally to the number of models...
Article
Full-text available
On-board vision systems may need to increase the number of classes that can be recognized in a relatively short period. For instance, a traffic sign recognition system may suddenly be required to recognize new signs. Since collecting and annotating samples of such new classes may need more time than we wish, especially for uncommon signs, we propos...
Article
Full-text available
Providing ground truth supervision to train visual models has been a bottleneck over the years, exacerbated by domain shifts which degenerate the performance of such models. This was the case when visual tasks relied on handcrafted features and shallow machine learning and, despite its unprecedented performance gains, the problem remains open withi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Variable rate is a requirement for flexible and adaptable image and video compression. However, deep image compression methods are optimized for a single fixed rate-distortion tradeoff. While this can be addressed by training multiple models for different tradeoffs, the memory requirements increase proportionally to the number of models. Scaling th...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents and evaluates a novel compact scene representation based on Stixels that infers geometric and semantic information. Our approach overcomes the previous rather restrictive geometric assumptions for Stixels by introducing a novel depth model to account for non-flat roads and slanted objects. Both semantic and depth cues are used jo...
Preprint
The cost of drawing object bounding boxes (i.e. labeling) for millions of images is prohibitively high. For instance, labeling pedestrians in a regular urban image could take 35 seconds on average. Active learning aims to reduce the cost of labeling by selecting only those images that are informative to improve the detection network accuracy. In th...
Article
Full-text available
Recent progress of self-supervised visual representation learning has achieved remarkable success on many challenging computer vision benchmarks. However, whether these techniques can be used for domain adaptation has not been explored. In this work, we propose a generic method for self-supervised domain adaptation, using object recognition and sem...
Article
Anticipating the intentions of vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists is critical for performing safe and comfortable driving maneuvers. This is the case for human driving and, thus, should be taken into account by systems providing any level of driving assistance, from advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) to fully autono...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep video action recognition models have been highly successful in recent years but require large quantities of manually annotated data, which are expensive and laborious to obtain. In this work, we investigate the generation of synthetic training data for video action recognition, as synthetic data have been successfully used to supervise models...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anticipating the intentions of vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists is critical for performing safe and comfortable driving maneuvers. This is the case for human driving and, thus, should be taken into account by systems providing any level of driving assistance, from advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) to fully autono...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work presents and evaluates a novel compact scene representation based on Stixels that infers geometric and semantic information. Our approach overcomes the previous rather restrictive geometric assumptions for Stixels by introducing a novel depth model to account for non-flat roads and slanted objects. Both semantic and depth cues are used jo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Autonomous driving systems require huge amounts of data to train. Manual annotation of this data is time-consuming and prohibitively expensive since it involves human resources. Therefore, active learning emerged as an alternative to ease this effort and to make data annotation more manageable. In this paper, we introduce a novel active learning ap...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent progress of self-supervised visual representation learning has achieved remarkable success on many challenging computer vision benchmarks. However, whether these techniques can be used for domain adaptation has not been explored. In this work, we propose a generic method for self-supervised domain adaptation, using object recognition and sem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are key for the intelligent mobility of the future. A crucial component of an AV is the artificial intelligence (AI) able to drive towards a desired destination. Today, there are different paradigms addressing the development of AI drivers. On the one hand, we find modular pipelines, which divide the driving task into sub-...
Preprint
Driving requires reacting to a wide variety of complex environment conditions and agent behaviors. Explicitly modeling each possible scenario is unrealistic. In contrast, imitation learning can, in theory, leverage data from large fleets of human-driven cars. Behavior cloning in particular has been successfully used to learn simple visuomotor polic...
Article
Pedestrian detection is a highly relevant topic for both advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving. In this entry, we review the ideas behind pedestrian detection systems from the point of view of perception based on computer vision and machine learning.
Preprint
Autonomous driving models should ideally be evaluated by deploying them on a fleet of physical vehicles in the real world. Unfortunately, this approach is not practical for the vast majority of researchers. An attractive alternative is to evaluate models offline, on a pre-collected validation dataset with ground truth annotation. In this paper, we...
Chapter
Autonomous driving models should ideally be evaluated by deploying them on a fleet of physical vehicles in the real world. Unfortunately, this approach is not practical for the vast majority of researchers. An attractive alternative is to evaluate models offline, on a pre-collected validation dataset with ground truth annotation. In this paper, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we propose an approach to avoiding catastrophic forgetting in sequential task learning scenarios. Our technique is based on a network reparameterization that approximately diagonalizes the Fisher Information Matrix of the network parameters. This reparameterization takes the form of a factorized rotation of parameter space which, when...
Preprint
Full-text available
When neural networks process images which do not resemble the distribution seen during training, so called out-of-distribution images, they often make wrong predictions, and do so too confidently. The capability to detect out-of-distribution images is therefore crucial for many real-world applications. We divide out-of-distribution detection betwee...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our recent work suggests that, thanks to nowadays powerful CNNs, image-based 2D pose estimation is a promising cue for determining pedestrian intentions such as crossing the road in the path of the ego-vehicle, stopping before entering the road, and starting to walk or bending towards the road. This statement is based on the results obtained on non...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous driving has harsh requirements of small model size and energy efficiency, in order to enable the embedded system to achieve real-time on-board object detection. Recent deep convolutional neural network based object detectors have achieved state-of-the-art accuracy. However, such models are trained with numerous parameters and their high...
Article
Full-text available
Depth estimation provides essential information to perform autonomous driving and driver assistance. Especially, Monocular Depth Estimation is interesting from a practical point of view, since using a single camera is cheaper than many other options and avoids the need for continuous calibration strategies as required by stereo-vision approaches. S...
Patent
A computer-implemented video classification method and system are disclosed. The method includes receiving an input video including a sequence of frames. At least one transformation of the input video is generated, each transformation including a sequence of frames. For the input video and each transformation, local descriptors are extracted from t...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we propose an approach to avoiding catastrophic forgetting in sequential task learning scenarios. Our technique is based on a network reparameterization that approximately diagonalizes the Fisher Information Matrix of the network parameters. This reparameterization takes the form of a factorized rotation of parameter space which, when...
Article
We introduce CARLA, an open-source simulator for autonomous driving research. CARLA has been developed from the ground up to support development, training, and validation of autonomous urban driving systems. In addition to open-source code and protocols, CARLA provides open digital assets (urban layouts, buildings, vehicles) that were created for t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the comparison of two non-linear model-based control strategies for autonomous cars. A control oriented model of vehicle based on a bicycle model is used. The two control strategies use a model reference approach. Using this approach, the error dynamics model is developed. Both controllers receive as input the longitudinal, late...
Article
Full-text available
Deep networks trained on demonstrations of human driving have learned to follow roads and avoid obstacles. However, driving policies trained via imitation learning cannot be controlled at test time. A vehicle trained end-to-end to imitate an expert cannot be guided to take a specific turn at an upcoming intersection. This limits the utility of such...
Article
Full-text available
Avoiding vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes is a critical requirement for nowadays advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and future self-driving vehicles. Accordingly, detecting pedestrians from raw sensor data has a history of more than 15 years of research, with vision playing a central role. During the last years, deep learning has boosted the acc...
Chapter
Full-text available
Supervised learning tends to produce more accurate classifiers than unsupervised learning in general. This implies that training data is preferred with annotations. When addressing visual perception challenges, such as localizing certain object classes within an image, the learning of the involved classifiers turns out to be a practical bottleneck....
Chapter
Full-text available
Vision-based semantic segmentation in urban scenarios is a key functionality for autonomous driving. Recent revolutionary results of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) foreshadow the advent of reliable classifiers to perform such visual tasks. However, CNNs require learning of many parameters from raw images; thus, having a sufficient amount...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a novel representation for dense pixel-wise estimation tasks using CNNs that boosts accuracy and reduces training time, by explicitly exploiting joint coarse-and-fine reasoning. The coarse reasoning is performed over a discrete classification space to obtain a general rough solution, while the fine details of the solution are obtained ov...
Article
Computer vision technologies are at the core of different advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and will play a key role in oncoming autonomous vehicles too. One of the main challenges for such technologies is to perceive the driving environment, i.e. to detect and track relevant driving information in a reliable manner (e.g. pedestrians in the...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss-rate and inability to perform visual assessment o...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we present a novel compact scene representation based on Stixels that infers geometric and semantic information. Our approach overcomes the previous rather restrictive geometric assumptions for Stixels by introducing a novel depth model to account for non-flat roads and slanted objects. Both semantic and depth cues are used jointly to...
Chapter
This chapter examines different vision-based commercial solutions for real-live problems related to vehicles. It is worth mentioning the recent astonishing performance of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) in difficult visual tasks such as image classification, object recognition/localization/detection, and semantic segmentation. In fact, d...