Anton Beynen

Anton Beynen

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Publications (1,289)
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4-Hydroxynonenal in petfood HNE (4-hydroxynonenal) is an aldehyde product that can be formed during frying or cooking of foods that contain the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid. Published data on HNE in commercial dry and wet petfoods appear to be unavailable. Based on a rat diet containing beef and safflower oil, the maximum HNE level in...
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2,4-Decadienal in petfood DDE (2,4-decadienal) is a volatile diene-aldehyde which can be formed during heat treatment of foods that contain the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid. Published data on DDE contents in commercial dry and wet petfoods appear to be unavailable. DDE has been detected in an experimental kibbled dog food coated with v...
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2,4-Hexadienal in petfood HDE (2,4-hexadienal) is a volatile diene-aldehyde that likely contributes to the flavor effect in various fresh and prepared foodstuffs. As such, HDE is part of complex mixtures of extremely varied compounds that generally include aldehydes, esters, ketones and alcohols. HDE can be formed as a plant metabolite or as a proc...
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Pyridoxine voor hond en kat Pyridoxine (vitamine B6) is een wateroplosbare, essentiële voedingsstof voor hond en kat. Tekort leidt tot groeivertraging/gewichtsverlies, bloedarmoede en stuipen. De aanbevolen hoeveelheden B6 voor hond en kat berusten op beperkte onderzoeksgegevens. Industriële, droge honden-en kattenvoeders bevatten toegevoegd pyrido...
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Melanoidins and kibbled petfood Foods prepared at high temperatures may contain brown-colored melanoidins (Mels), or complex, heterogeneous, nitrogen-containing polymers with high molecular weights. Bread crust apparently owes its typical color and aroma to Mels (cf. Notes 1, 2). Thus, bread-crust Mels do not absorb the brown-color part of visible...
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Pyridosine in petfood Pyridosine (Pyri, cf. Note 1) is generated during thermal processing of milk products. The two substrates for Pyri formation are a derivative of the milk sugar lactose, and the essential amino acid lysine in milk proteins. Thus, Pyri may be attached to the milk proteins whey protein and casein or, more generally, to all protei...
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Pyrraline in petfood Pyrraline (Pyr) may be seen as the product of heat-induced reactions between a sugar, such as glucose, and the amino acid lysine. Pyr may be formed during thermal processing of foods, including petfoods (cf. Note 1). Data on Pyr analyses in commercial dog and cat foods were not found. Using analysed Pyr contents in proxy ingred...
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Pentosidine in petfood Pentosidine (Pen) may be seen as the product of heat-induced reactions between a simple sugar, such as glucose, and two amino acids, namely lysine and arginine. Pen may thus be formed during thermal processing of foods, including commercial dog and cat foods (cf. Note 1). Data on Pen analyses in petfood were not found. Using...
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Diacetyl in petfood Commercial dog and cat foods likely contain diacetyl (DA, Note 1), but analyses are unavailable. DA may be derived from diverse ingredients and/or be formed during petfood production. DA is a volatile compound with an appealing butter-like aroma. Chemically synthesized DA is used as an additive in various human foodstuffs (Note...
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Foliumzuur voor de hond Foliumzuur (folaat, vitamine B9) heeft de status van essentiële voedingsstof, maar hiervoor is bij de hond geen solide bewijs (Noot 1). Er zijn wel sterke aanwijzingen dat het wateroplosbare vitamine, ruim boven de veronderstelde behoefte van de hond, effectief is: onder specifieke condities reduceerde folaatsuppletie van te...
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Methylglyoxal in petfood Methylglyoxal (MGO) may be formed from glucose during the cooking of foods. Thus, it is most probably that MGO occurs in kibbled and canned dog and cat foods. It is also likely that MGO is synthesized by the body of dogs and cats. Glyoxal, which may be seen as MGO without methyl group, is discussed in a separate text (1). B...
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Glyoxal in petfood Glyoxal (GO) may be formed from glucose during processing, cooking and storage of foods (Note 1). Thus, it is most probably that GO occurs in commercial dog and cat foods, but reports on GO analyses were not found. It is also likely that the body of dogs and cats makes GO, but there is no published evidence. A reaction between GO...
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3-Deoxyglucosone in petfood 3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) may be formed from the sugars glucose and fructose during processing, cooking and storage of various plant food ingredients. It is most probably that 3-DG occurs in commercially available dog and cat foods. It is also likely that 3-DG is synthesized by the animals' body. But on the other hand, it...
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Vitamine B12 voor de kat Vitamine B12 (cobalamine) is een essentiële voedingsstof voor de kat. Tekort leidt tot groeivertraging en daling van de B12-concentratie in het bloed. De aanbevolen hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in kattenvoeding is niet solide vanwege gebrek aan dosis-respons onderzoek bij het doeldier. Voor de huiskat zijn voedingsgerelateerde...
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CEL in petfood CEL (N-epsilon-carboxyethyllysine) is a derivative of the essential amino acid lysine. CEL can be formed during heat treatment of foods. Thus, it is most probably that CEL occurs in commercially available dog and cat foods. Small amounts of CEL may be synthesized by the animals' body (Note 1). Dietary CEL includes both free and prote...
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CML in petfood CML (N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine) is a derivative of the essential amino acid lysine. CML may be formed during heat treatment of foods. It occurs in commercially available dog and cat foods, while relatively small amounts may be synthesized by the animals' body (Note 1). Dietary CML includes both free and protein-bound CML, the lat...
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Fructose-lysine in petfood During heat treatment of foods, fructose-lysine (FL) may be formed as a side-group of protein chains. The protruding part of the protein constituent lysine, an essential amino acid, becomes linked with fructose, a simple sugar that arises during FL formation. Dog and cat foods hold protein-bound FL, having its origin in t...
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Lysinoalanine in petfood During food processing, cross-linking of proteins may occur. The protruding parts of some amino acids in protein molecules may form mutual chemical bonds, or links between or within protein chains. The cross-linking of proteins is promoted by high temperature, high alkalinity (high pH) and long exposure. One of the cross-li...
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Furan in petfood Furans are a class of derivative compounds that share furan as their parent compound. Those chemicals, including furan, are found in a wide variety of mildly and highly heated foods. Furans can contribute to the sensory properties of foods. Their chemical variety is sizeable. In canned beef, 12 furans have been identified (Note 1,...
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Furfural in petfood Furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde) belongs to the furans, a class of compounds that share furan as their parent compound (Note 1). Furans are found in a wide variety of mildly and highly heated foods. During cooking, simple sugars whose molecules contain five carbon atoms (pentoses) may be converted into furfural. Low concentration...
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Furosine in petfood Furosine may form during the Maillard/browning reactions between sugars and amino acids in foods that undergo heat treatment. Published data on furosine contents in dog and cat food were not found. Thus, the furosine amounts consumed are unknown and their long-term safety cannot be assessed. The analysed levels of chemically-pro...
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Diet and feline triaditis* *Based on article in Dutch (1) Main points Triaditis is a condition whereby inflammations of the pancreas, hepatobiliary system and small intestine occur simultaneously. Roughly 30 to 50% of the cats with pancreatitis or cholangitis/hepatitis also has triaditis (2, 3). The clinical symptoms are diverse, but anorexia, vomi...
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Naphthalene in petfood Naphthalene (NA) is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) chemicals. It is the simplest PAH when it comes to chemical structure. Technical-grade NA is generally derived from coal tar. NA evaporates easily and has a strong odor that repels cloth moths and therefore is the active component of old-fashi...
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Fluoranthene in petfood Fluoranthene (FA) belongs to the chemical family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Those chemicals are found in products of incomplete combustion of organic matter, ranging from coal tar and cigarette smoke to heat-treated foods, including petfood. The health risks of PAHs depend on type and amount. When it comes t...
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Pyrene in petfood Pyrene falls under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are formed during incomplete combustion of organic matter, including heat-treatment of various foods. Pyrene occurs in petfood also. Chronic intake of PAHs generally carries health concerns, including the development of cancer, but the safety risks imposed by thes...
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Phenanthrene in petfood Phenanthrene (PA) belongs to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of chemicals formed during incomplete combustion of organic matter, including heat-treatment of various foods. Chronic intake of PAHs entails health concerns, but type and amount of these compounds are decisive. In dry dog and cat foods from 7...
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Cyclopenta(c,d)pyrene in petfood Cyclopenta(c,d)pyrene (CPP) belongs to the polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons. The compound is formed at high temperatures during incomplete combustion of organic matter. It is found in various tars, fumes and smokes, and in some heated foods. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified CPP as probably carcino...
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Vitamine K voor hond en kat Vitamine K is een essentiële voedingsstof voor hond en kat. Een tekort leidt tot verminderde bloedstolling en interne bloedingen. De kwantitatieve vitaminebehoefte via de voeding is onbekend, mede omdat de darmflora ook vitamine K levert. Er zijn voedernormen gesteld, maar noodzaak, omvang en vorm aangaande vitamine K-su...
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Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene in petfood Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) belongs to the polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons that are formed at high temperatures during incomplete combustion of organic matter. DBP may be found in various tars, fumes and smokes, and in some heated foods. The World Health Organization has classified DBP as probably carcinogenic to human...
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Benzo(a)pyrene in petfood Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) falls under the polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons, a large group of widespread compounds that are formed at high temperatures during incomplete combustion of organic matter. BaP can be found in coal tar, residual wood burning, automobile exhaust fumes, smoke from burned organic material, including toba...
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IFP in petfood IFP is a tricyclic compound that falls in the class of heterocyclic, aromatic amines, compounds that are present in heat-treated meats and suspected to contribute to human cancers (Note 1). It is likely that IFP occurs in dog and cat foods, but analytical data are unavailable. IFP consists of three fused ring structures-imidazole, fu...
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DMIP and TMIP in petfood DMIP and TMIP (di-and trimethyl-imidazo-pyridine) are heterocyclic, aromatic amines (Note 1). They occur in heat-treated meats and most likely are present in dog and cat foods also. DMIP and TMIP are mutagenic: they induce changes in the DNA of bacteria. However, it is unknown whether long-term exposure to the compounds lea...
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AαC and MeAαC in petfood AαC (2-amino-alpha-carboline) and MeAαC (2-amino-3-methyl-alpha-carboline) belong to both the heterocyclic aromatic amines (Note 1) and the alpha-carbolines (Note 2). In 1978, the two compounds were first isolated from pyrolysate of a soybean-protein fraction. Subsequently, it was shown that AαC and MeAαC also arise during...
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Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 are so-called heterocyclic, aromatic amines (Note 1) that occur in pyrolysate of the essential amino acid tryptophan. More generally, they arise during heat treatment of proteins and proteinaceous foods and are often detectable in cooked meat and fish. The structures of Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 are identical, except that the former h...
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Glu-P-1 and Glu-P-2 in petfood Glu-P-1 and Glu-P-2 are so-called heterocyclic, aromatic amines (Note 1) that occur in pyrolysate of the amino acid glutamate, which explains the names of the two compounds. More generally, they arise during heat treatment of proteins and proteinaceous foods, and are also found in cooked meat and fish. The structures...
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Diet and canine gastritis
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Harman and norharman in petfood Harman and norharman (Note 1) belong to a group of natural and synthetic chemicals known as beta-carbolines, also being considered as heterocyclic, aromatic amines. The structures of harman and norharman are identical, except that the former has a methyl group. The two compounds are possibly synthesized by the animal...
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PhIP in petfood PhIP is often portrayed as a cooked-meat, rodent carcinogen thought to contribute to diet-related cancers in humans. The compound, with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine as chemical name, is a heterocyclic amine. At high dietary levels, PhIP is a multisite carcinogen in rodents, mainly inducing mammary, colon and lymph...
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Diet and canine lymphangiectasia* *Based on article in Dutch (1) Main points Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) involves dilatation of lymphatic capillaries in the intestinal villi. The dilatation impedes the closing mechanism in response to increased pressure within the capillairies. The consequence is less drainage of extracellular, protein-contain...
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Glycidol in petfood Glycidol (2,3-epoxy-1-propanol) may occur in processed foods; not in free form, but attached to a fatty acid through an ester bond. Glycidol fatty-acid esters are considered process-induced food contaminants (1-3). Refined vegetable oils are relatively high in glycidol, while foodstuffs not containing such oils generally have lo...
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MeIQx in petfood MeIQx falls under the heterocyclic amines, a group of chemicals thought to contribute to diet-related, human cancers. The chemical name of MeIQx is 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline. MeIOx and four structurally similar compounds can be formed during heat treatment of meat and fish, but compared with its compeers, MeIQx...
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De kat en vitamine E. Vitamine E is een essentiële voedingsstof voor de kat. De basale behoefte wordt verhoogd door verrijking van de voeding met meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren, in het bijzonder die van visolie. Een tekort aan vitamine E leidt tot steatitis: een ontsteking van onderhuids vetweefsel, gepaard gaande met verkleuring en verharding. I...
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3-MCPD in petfood 3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) may occur in processed foods in free form and/or bound to one or two fatty acids. Refined vegetable oils are relatively high in 3-MCPD, but fat-containing foods may also contain detectable amounts. 3-MCPD is considered to be a toxic, food-process contaminant (1-3). High 3-MCPD intakes are dama...
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4-Mei in petfood 4-Mei (4-methylimidazole) is formed during heat treatment of various foods. The compound is present in petfoods, brought along by ingredients and generated during processing, but there is considerable between-product variation in the amount. Some petfoods contain added caramel colors, certain preparations being high in 4-Mei (Note...
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Acrolein in petfood Industrially-produced acrolein is used as an aquatic herbicide to control floating weeds and algae. Acrolein also acts as a co-substrate in the synthesis of D,L-methionine, an amino acid that is applied as feed supplement. In addition, it is a substrate in the production of acrylic acid, a chemical utilized in the manufacture of...
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Acrylamide in petfood Industrial acrylamide is a building block for polyacrylamide, a gel-forming water absorbent used as flocculant in water purification and mineral processing, and as strength improver in paper making. Acrylamide can be formed during heat-treatment of various foods. Thus, it occurs in petfood, being brought along by certain ingre...
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Platinum in petfood Platinum is a member of the eponymous family of six elements (Note 1). Platinum is present in the food chain, but the amounts in foodstuffs are very low and quite often below the limit of detection. The element was undetectable in industrially-produced dry dog and cat foods (1). It is likely that home-made dog and cat foods are...
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HMF in petfood HMF (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural) is often portrayed as a heat-induced food toxicant. Needless to say that the intake level of HMF determines its toxicity. During heat treatments in food production, HMF precursors may be formed by the so-called Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino groups of amino acids or proteins....
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Diet and enostosis in dogs
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Palladium in petfood Palladium is classified as one of the six platinum-group elements (Note 1). Palladium is present in the food chain, but the amounts in foods are low and sometimes below the limit of detection. There appears to be no information in the public domain about the amount of palladium in petfood and the element's chronic, oral toxicit...
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Rhodium in petfood Rhodium is classified as one of the six platinum-group elements (Note 1). Rhodium is present in the food chain, but the amounts in foods are small and often below the limit of detection. There appears to be no information in the public domain about the amount of rhodium in petfood and the element's chronic, oral toxicity in dogs...
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Polydextrose for dogs
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Osmium in petfood Osmium is classified as one of the six platinum-group elements (Note 1). It has been typified as the world's rarest and densest metal (Note 2). Tiny quantities of osmium are present in the food chain. A recent study (1) found that osmium amounts in dry dog and cat foods are below the limit of detection. Osmium is not an essential...
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Dextrins for dogs
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Bonny Canteen 2021; 2: 244-253. This text is part of a series on (non-)nutritive elements in petfood (17, 34-59) Anton C. Beynen Lanthanum in petfood Lanthanum (Note 1) is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. The pure element is reactive, tarnishing in air and crystalizing in water (Note 2). Lanthanum-bearing minerals are widely spread in the Eart...
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De kat en vitamine A Vitamine A is een essentiële voedingsstof voor de kat. Zowel een tekort als overmaat, gedurende langere tijd, veroorzaakt ernstige aandoeningen. Als zuivere stof is vitamine A zeer oxidatiegevoelig. Derhalve worden bij de productie van kattenvoeders gestabiliseerde preparaten gebruikt. In 1957, 35 jaar na de ontdekking van vita...
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Iridium in petfood Iridium is classified as one of the six platinum-group elements (Note 1). Iridium is present in the food chain, but the amounts in foodstuffs are very low and often below the limit of detection. Data on the amount of iridium in petfood as well as on the element's toxicity in dogs and cats were untraceable. Based on scarce and cir...
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Resistant starch for dogs Main points Starches are different carbohydrate macromolecules, but they all are glucose polymers, or based on repeating glucose units. Natural starches act as energy reserve in reproductive plant parts, such as grains, legumes and tubers, which are common ingredients of commercial, dry dog foods. Starch is not an essentia...
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Cerium in petfood Cerium (not to be confused with cesium, Note 1), is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal (Note 2) that tarnishes when exposed to air. In nature, cerium is found in an array of mineral classes in soils and rocks. Industrial cerium is commonly derived from the phosphate mineral monazite (Note 3). Ceria (cerium dioxide) is used in ch...
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Bonny Canteen 2021; 2: 211-220. This text is part of a series on (non-)nutritive elements in petfood (15, 30-53) Anton C. Beynen Cesium in petfood Cesium, also spelled caesium, is a very soft, silvery-white metal, which is liquid at or near room temperature (Note 1). The pure metal can react explosively with water. In nature, cesium is not found in...
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Ruthenium in petfood When it comes to practical dog and cat feeding, the title of this communication should read "Negligible amounts of ruthenium in petfood" (but see Note 1). Ruthenium was undetectable in industrially-produced dry dog and cat foods (1). It is expected that ruthenium contents of home-made dog and cat foods are very low also. Moreov...
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Chloride in cat food Chloride in cat food (Note 1) is derived from the animal-and plant-based ingredients, and obviously from the components with chloride in their name, such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and choline chloride. Chloride is an essential nutrient. Chloride deficiency in young cats causes anorexia, retarded growth and metaboli...
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Rubidium in petfood Rubidium (Note 1) is a soft, ductile, silvery white, metallic element. Rubidium contents are relatively high in alluvial and granitic soils. Alluvial soils are deposited by surface water and granitic soils are rich in weathered granite. Rubidium is relatively abundant in the earth's crust, but forms no minerals in which it is th...
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Beryllium in dog food As free element, beryllium is a steel-gray, lightweight metal. Various beryllium minerals, in diverse amounts, are found in soils and rocks. Bertrandite and beryl are mined commercially for the recovery of beryllium. The two ores contain beryllium associated with silicon and oxygen, without or with aluminum as extra component....
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Choline in cat food It has been traditional to include choline with the B vitamins when it concerns cat nutrition (1). Choline is considered to be a conditionally required nutrient. Cats can synthesize choline, but the rate is thought to fall short under some, but undefined conditions (1). The cat's body needs choline, which is a component of phosp...
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Renal diet for dogs This text is an adapted and updated version of an article in Dutch (1). A similar communication addresses the renal diet for cats (2). From its content, various passages have been taken over in their entirety for incorporation into this text. Main points In dogs attending veterinary practices in the United Kingdom, the prevalenc...
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Renal diet for cats This text is an adapted and updated version of an article in Dutch (1) Main points Chronic kidney disease (CKD) develops in about 30% of the cats older than 10 years. Treatment can only retard progression of the disease and aims at supporting the quality of life and extending life span. A so-called renal diet is commonly used to...
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Ruwe celstof en voedingsvezel Voor petfood is declaratie van het percentage ruwe celstof wettelijk verplicht (1). Voedingsmiddelen voor humane consumptie zijn wettelijk gerechtigd om het gehalte (voedings)vezel op de verpakking te vermelden (2). Voedingsvezel, waarvan ruwe celstof deel uitmaakt, wordt niet gezien als onmisbare voedingsstof voor hon...
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Lithium in petfood Lithium (in the form of lithium carbonate) is a pervasively prescribed drug in psychiatry for treating human depressive disorders. The chemical element is not ordinarily applied to nutritional or pharmacological control of canine and feline health. Lithium does not have a known metabolic function and is generally not perceived as...
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Choline in dog food In 1933, some 70 years after the identification of choline (Note 1), Best and co-workers asserted that addition of choline to the diet prevented and cured accumulation of fat in the liver of insulin-treated dogs with experimentally-induced diabetes. The observation indicates that dietary choline can affect lipid metabolism, but...
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Silicon in petfood After oxygen, silicon is the second, most abundant element in the earth's crust. Silicon occurs in association with oxygen, rather than in its elemental form. Most predominant are silicates. Their base unit is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4): a central silicon atom bound to and surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Base units bo...
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Tungsten in petfood Tungsten, also called wolfram, occurs in rocks and soils in association with oxygen and other elements such as calcium and iron. Metallic tungsten is grayish white and lustrous. It has the highest melting point of all elements. Wolframite is a tungsten-bearing mineral that is mined commercially. Crushed ores are roasted and extr...
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Vanadium in petfood Metallic vanadium is soft, ductile and silver-grey. Vanadium is widely distributed in the earth's crust. It does not occur unbound, but as component of many minerals. Within those different minerals, vanadium may have different degrees of oxidation. The element is mainly mined as the iron-rich vanadiferous titanomagnetite, from...
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Boron in petfood Boron is a non-metallic element that is generally present in soil and water as borates, compounds with other elements also. Concentrated deposits of borates, for instance borax (11% boron, 12% sodium, 71% oxygen) or colemanite (16% boron, 20% calcium, 62% oxygen) are exploited for the mining of boron. Borax is a well-known househol...
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Chronic enteritis in the dog manifests itself as small-bowel diarrhea during at least two weeks. The feces is watery and voluminous with normal to slightly increased defecation frequency. The diarrhea is associated with flatulence and borborygmi, and sometimes also with vomiting and weight loss. Definitive diagnosis requires the demonstration of in...
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Molybdenum in petfood Molybdenum is a silver-white metal. It occurs in various soil and rock minerals, but is mined as molybdenite, or molybdenum sulfide that co-exists with other metals. Molybdenite-containing rocks are crushed and powdered. Subsequently, molybdenite is isolated from the ground ore and roasted so that industrial molybdenum trioxid...
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Chromium in petfood Chromium is an element naturally occurring in soil and rocks, mainly in the trivalent chromium(III) form. The metal form, chromium(0), and hexavalent chromium(VI) are typically produced industrially. Chromium(III) is mined as chromite ore, composed of iron, oxygen and chromium. Chromite is used as brick lining for high-temperatu...
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Tin in petfood As a pure metal, tin is soft and silvery white. Inorganic tin, among which tin combined with oxygen or carbonate, is found in small amounts in the earth's crust. Tin is mined as ore high in tin oxide (cassiterite) that is roasted to extract the pure metal. Tin metal is mainly used to produce tinplate, steel sheet metal coated with a...
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Diet and canine colitis
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Nickel in petfood Nickel, which occurs naturally in the earth's crust, is found in all soil in combination with other elements, mainly as oxides and sulfides. In pure form, nickel is a hard, silvery-white metal. It is used for the formation of alloys, or mixtures with other metals. The alloys are used in producing items including metal coins, jewel...
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Aluminum in petfood Aluminum, also spelled as aluminium, is a metal light in weight and silvery-white in appearance. The earth's crust contains a reckonable amount of aluminum. It is found in soil, rocks and clays, but in chemical forms together with other elements such as oxygen, silicon and fluorine. Metallic aluminum is obtained from aluminum-ri...
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De hond en nicotinezuur.
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Cadmium in petfood As a pure, heavy metal, cadmium is soft and silver white. Cadmium is found in various types of ores and is produced as a by-product of mining. Major uses of cadmium are batteries and pigments for plastics, ceramics and enamels. Cadmium in the environment comes from volcanoes, weathering of rocks and human activities. Cadmium, in...
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Copper in dog food Copper is a co-factor of enzymes that catalyse reactions involved in energy production, free-radical detoxification and the synthesis of neurotransmitters and structural proteins. Superoxide dismutase, the enzyme that converts potentially harmful superoxide into harmless oxygen, holds copper in its cuprous (reduced) state, which...
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Main points Several regular and veterinary cat foods are labelled hypoallergenic in order to stand out. The term hypoallergenic is unregulated. It means lower risk of allergic reactions and refers to treatment and control of food allergy. The word "sensitive" is often used as a synonym of hypoallergenic. Food allergy is generally caused by proteins...
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Zinc in dog food Zinc is an element in nature and foods, and also an essential nutrient for man and animals. More than 300 enzymes, and more than 1000 transcription factors setting the stage for body-protein synthesis, all require zinc for their activities. Clearly, sufficient dietary, available zinc is essential for normal body metabolism and prev...
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Thiamine voor de hond Thiamine (vitamine B1) is het eerst geïsoleerde vitamine. Het is ook voor de hond een essentiële voedingsstof. De chemische structuur van thiamine is labiel. Niettemin moet een volledig hondenvoeder binnen zijn houdbaarheidstermijn voldoende werkzaam thiamine bevatten (Noot 1). Bij de allereerste attendering op een deficiënte,...
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Diet and canine cancer In over 350,000 insured, Swedish dogs, cancer was the major cause of death, accounting for 18% of the bereavements (1). In the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry (2), the most frequent tumor diagnosis was adenoma/adenocarcinoma, or benign/cancerous tumors of covering, epithelial tissues. The most affected body parts were the mammar...
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Protein supply to adult dogs Commercially available dog foods can differ markedly in protein content. The analysis panels of 10 complete, regular dry foods for adult dogs declare (crude) protein amounts ranging from 18.5 to 28.0% (Note 1). Food intake for weight maintenance is determined by dog's energy requirement and food's energy concentration....
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At least six brands of complete dog foods have the word "longevity" in their names (Note 1). The food names can be interpreted as longevity claims and evidence of the products' intended use. In this way, the foods appeal to dog owners that wish to endow their pets with a long, healthy and vital life. Implied longevity claims via product names are a...
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Carob is the fruit, in the form of a pod, of an evergreen tree that is cultivated mainly in the Mediterranean area (Note 1). The ingredient panels of several canine nutritional products list carob, mostly with suffix, such as pods, meal, powder, chips or gum. Carob treats for dogs are generally positioned as chocolate replacers (Note 2). Two supple...
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Plasma is the fluid component of blood that remains after removal of blood cells. In slaughter facilities, blood is collected and maintained in liquid state, followed by plasma isolation. Subsequently, the animal plasma is dried, resulting in a creamish-colored powder with protein content of about 80%. The protein fraction includes albumin and immu...

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