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Antoinette Van Schaik

Antoinette Van Schaik
Material Recycling and Sustainability (MARAS) B.V., The Netherlands

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About

112
Publications
53,586
Reads
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1,971
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
717 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Full-text available
The limitations to materials flows from recycling in the circular economy are discussed using as a case a simula- tion-based analysis of the recyclability of the Fairphone 2. Three different recycling routes are analysed using simula- tion models that link the bill of materials and full material declarations to the final metal recovery via physical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Follow the following two weblinks: https://www.fairphone.com/en/2017/02/27/recyclable-fairphone-2/ https://www.fairphone.com/en/2017/08/07/examining-the-environmental-footprint-of-electronics-recycling/
Presentation
Full-text available
Element Flower A. van Schaik, M.A. Reuter (2016): RECYCLING INDICES VISUALIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY, World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL, 69(4), 201-216.
Presentation
Full-text available
Recycling Index A. van Schaik, M.A. Reuter (2016): RECYCLING INDICES VISUALIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY, World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL, 69(4), 201-216.
Method
Full-text available
1) A. van Schaik, M.A. Reuter (2016): RECYCLING INDICES VISUALIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY, World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL, 69(4), 201-216. 2) M.A. Reuter, A. van Schaik (2016): Strategic metal recycling: adaptive metallurgical processing infrastructure and technology are essential for a Circular Economy, RESPONSABILITÉ & ENVIRONN...
Chapter
Metals are an essential and critical component of today's society: a moment's reflection on their ubiquitous presence in virtually all energy and material production processes is sufficient to confirm this. Metals play a key role in enabling sustainability through various high-tech applications in society. However, the resources of our planet are l...
Article
Full-text available
The EU has adopted an ambitious Circular Economy (CE) package. This action plan aims to "close" the loop of product lifecycles through improved product design, improved collection, recycling, remanufacture and re-use. Through this the EU envisages to bring benefits both environmentally as well as economically. Recycling forms the heart of the CE sy...
Article
Full-text available
Recycling forms the heart of the Circular Economy (CE) system. Ultimately all products will have to be recycled at their End-of-Life (EoL). Maximizing the recovery of materials and also especially strategic elements from EoL products requires a deep understanding of the fundamental limits and the dynamics of the evolving system, thus an adaptive pr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A Recycling Label & Index (© MARAS B.V.) have been developed by Antoinette van Schaik and Markus A. Reuter*. This Recycling Label provides a strong tool to communicate the recycling and environmental performance of a product or process in a quick and easy to understand manner to the consumer, recycler, designer and/or politicians. Recycling rates...
Article
Full-text available
In their own right, both lead and zinc are crucial everyday metals playing their well-known roles in our society. Increasingly, they are linked in concert with the other base metals, copper, nickel and cobalt, which together form the crucial carrier metals for a sustainable society - the Web of Metals (WoM). This paper examines the special and cruc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper will illustrate how a product-centric simulation approach to recycling is core to Design for Recycling (DfR) & Design for Resource Efficiency. This approach is underpinned by rigorous recycling rate calculations, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of classical minerals, and metallurgical processing. Process simulation...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper illustrates how a product-centric approach to recycling, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of the mineral-centric classical minerals and metallurgical processing, should be core to Design for Resource Efficiency (DfRE). Methods Process simulation (HSC Sim 1974-2014, Outotec's design tool) and environmental so...
Chapter
The recycling link between End-of-Life (EoL) product composition and metallurgical recovery is discussed in this chapter with reference to a materials centric view (aluminium, copper) and product centric by referring to products such as End-of-Life Vehicles, WEEE, E-waste, Lighting, TV/Displays and Catalysts, Batteries etc. For each of the EoL meta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GreenElec aims to significantly improve on the resource efficiency of electronics and electronic products. This is accomplished by close cooperation between manufacturers and recyclers. Design guidelines for improved recycling have been formulated and products (lamps and displays) have been redesigned according to these guidelines. Interestingly, d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper will illustrate how a Product Centric approach to recycling, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of classical minerals and metallurgical processing, is core to Design for Recycling & Resource Efficiency underpinned by rigorous recycling rate calculations. It will be discussed how physics based recycling process simulat...
Conference Paper
In this paper the link between process metallurgy, classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals and metallurgical process...
Chapter
In this paper the link between process metallurgy, classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals and metallurgical process...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper the link between classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals processing. Fast innovation in urban mining c...
Book
Full-text available
Metal recycling is a complex business that is becoming increasingly difficult! Recycling started long ago, when people realized that it was more resource- and cost-efficient than just throwing away the resources and starting all over again. Until recently, such relatively straightforward recycling concentrated on specific materials, including metal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metals and materials play a pivotal role in Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE) as their properties impart unique functionality to consumer products. Through mindful product design, closely linked to recycling technology, Design for Recycling (DfR) can contribute to the recovery of metals and materials following a Product Centric Approach. MARA...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metals are an essential and critical component of today's society: a moment's reflection on their ubiquitous presence in virtually all energy and material production processes, products, infrastructure, confirms this. Metals play a key role in Enabling Sustainability through societies various high-tech applications. However, the resources of our pl...
Chapter
Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency-Energy, Recyclates, Materials,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Material...
Chapter
Metals and other materials play a pivotal role in electrical and electronic equipment (eee) as their properties impart unique functionality to consumer products. Metals are theoretically infinitely recyclable; however, the functionality and design of eee complicate recycling due to their ever more complex structures producing un-liberated low grade...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring the continued availability of materials for manufactured products requires comprehensive systems to recapture resources from end-of-life and wastewater products. To design such systems, it is critical to account for the complexities of extracting desired materials from multicomponent products and waste streams. Toward that end, we have con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metals are an essential and critical component of today's society: a moment's reflection on their ubiquitous presence in virtually all energy and material production processes is enough to confirm this. Metals play a key role in Enabling Sustainability through societies various high-tech applications. However, the resources of our planet are limite...
Article
E-waste covers a wide range of products as well as dismantled and/or sorted components originating from these. Being able to predict the flow of materials and recycling performance for different E-waste types requires a fundamental and flexible basis in which E-waste design properties are linked to liberation and separation performance of recycling...
Article
The European Water Framework Directive (EWFD) demands a detailed analysis to determine which changes and measures within the surface water system are required, which actors require detailed scrutiny, and which technology has to be developed in order to guarantee that the quality of the surface water is complying with this Directive.This paper will...
Article
Full-text available
A key to the prudent use of nonrenewable resources is to optimize recovery and recy-cling activities. The former is largely a function of political and societal initiatives, and these are vital. The latter is primarily technological and depends to a largely unappreci-ated degree on the scientifi c principles of the separation and recycling process...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
E-waste covers a wide range of products as well as dismantled and/or sorted components originat-ing from these. Being able to predict the flow of materials and recycling performance for different E-waste types requires a fundamental and flexible basis in which E-waste design properties are linked to liberation and separation performance of recyclin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product design selects materials from primary metal and material cycles and combines them into multi-material designs. The recycling/recovery rate of these products is largely affected by the quality of recyclates. This is determined by the liberation of materials during shredding, which is directly affected by the various materials (metals and non...
Article
Full-text available
U m den Materialfluss und den Recyclingprozess für Elektro-und Elektronikschrott vorhersagen zu kön-nen, benötigt man eine grundlegende und flexible Basis. Bei E-Schrott handelt es sich nicht nur um ein breites Spektrum an Produkten, sondern auch um demontierte und/ oder sortierte Komponenten, die aus diesen hervorgehen. Dieser Bericht behandelt ve...
Article
Full-text available
http://hlpdata.net/blad.php?blad_id=478&onderdeel=7&titel=Meten van �Duurzaamheid� in het �Web of Water� De implementatie van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) vereist een gedetailleerde aanpak voor het vaststellen van de noodzakelijke veranderingen en maatregelen om de hierin neergelegde doelstellingen voor het oppervlaktewatersysteem te beha...
Article
M A Reuter and A van Schaik. Material and Metal Ecology. In Sven Erik Jørgensen and Brian D. Fath (Editor-in-Chief), Global Ecology. Vol. [3] of Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 vols. pp. [2247-2260] Oxford: Elsevier.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product design engineers select from a wide range of materials and combine them into multi-material product designs. These include various materials (metals and non-metals) which are complexly integrated (e.g. welded, glued, alloyed, layered). The recycling/recovery rate of consumer products are determined by the different materials and alloys used...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, exergy is applied as a parameter to measure the “sustainability” of a recycling system in addition to the fundamental prediction of material recycling and energy recovery, summarizing a development of over 20 years by the principal author supported by various co-workers, Ph.D., and M.Sc. students. In order to achieve this, recyclat...
Article
In order to investigate the feasibility of achieving the high material and energy recovery targets imposed by EU legislation for post-consumer goods, a fundamental material and energy recovery optimisation model has been developed. This model is used to analyze the total recycling system with the end-of-life treatment system for the car used as exa...
Article
Full-text available
Product design selects materials from primary metal and material cycles and combines them into multi-material designs. The recycling/recovery rate of these products is largely affected by the quality of the recyclates. Antoinette van Schaik and Markus A. Reuter, two experts in sustainability, created a model to predict the recycling rate of product...
Article
Product design selects materials from primary metal and material cycles and combines them into multi-material designs, in which the various materials (metals and non-metals) are complexly integrated (e.g. welded, glued, alloyed, layered). Since the quality of recyclates and the recycling rate of a product is largely affected by the design of the pr...
Article
Recycling contributes significantly to the natural resources preservation. However since recycling technology at the same time requires primary materials and energy input, both contributing to the natural resources depletion, it is important to evaluate the resource efficiency of the whole recycling chain to determine the actual benefit of recyclin...
Article
Full-text available
Beim Produktdesign werden verschieden Materialien zum Einsatz gebracht, die teilweise zu Komponenten aus mehreren Materialien zusammengefügt werden. Die Recyclingquote dieser Produkte ist in großem Maße beeinflusst von der Qualität der Rezyklate. Diese Qualität ist wiederum abhängig vom Freisetzen der Materialien durch das Shreddern. Dies wird beei...
Article
Recycling contributes significantly to the natural resources preservation. However since recycling technology at the same time requires primary materials and energy input, both contributing to the natural resources depletion, it is important to evaluate the resource efficiency of the whole recycling chain to determine the actual benefit of recyclin...
Article
Full-text available
Steel is one of the fabrics of present society rendering its social value high. Steel companies are often part of the complete steel cycle i.e. mining, steel production, recycling of end-of-life (EoL) consumer goods and consumer product design (for recycling). Visualizing this cycle for the consumer and general public and hence highlighting steel's...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Steel is one of the fabrics of present society rendering its social value high. Steel companies are often part of the complete steel cycle i.e. mining, steel pro-duction, recycling of end-of-life (EoL) consumer goods and consumer product de-sign (for recycling). Visualizing this cycle for the consumer and general public and hence highlighting steel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Product design selects materials from primary metal and material cycles and combines them into multi-material designs, in which the various materials (metals and non-metals) are complexly integrated (e.g. welded, glued, alloyed, layered). The recycling/recovery rate of these products is largely affected by the quality of recyclates, being determine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The intrinsic property determining the recyclability of a product is the quality of (intermediate) recycling streams, which is not just determined by the different materials and alloys used in the design, but primarily by the mineral or joint classes (combination of materials due to design), particle size distribution and degree of liberation (mult...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The intrinsic property determining the recyclability of a product is the quality of (intermediate) recycling streams, which is not just determined by the different materials and alloys used in the design, but primarily by the mineral or joint classes (combination of materials due to design), particle size distribution and degree of liberation (mult...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmental legislation for the process and manufacturing industries is frequently formulated without considering the fundamental limits of physics, chemistry and thermodynamics within process technology. Recycling of end-of-life goods is used in this paper to show how the limits can be evaluated on the basis of the theory of minerals processing...
Article
Full-text available
Dieser Aufsatz thematisiert die Grenzen des Recyclings auf einer elementaren Grundla-ge. So geht dieser Ansatz davon aus, dass die hohen Recycling/Recoveryquoten für Altfahrzeuge der EU-Gesetzgebung falsch sein könnten, da sie auf schwach fundierten Prinzipien beruhen. Wenn diese Annahme richtig ist, könnte es falsch sein, Recycling/Recoveryquoten...
Article
This paper explores the limits of recycling on a fundamental basis. This fundamental basis suggests that the high recycling quotas for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) as required by EU legislation could be totally erroneous since it is based on poor first principles argumentation. If this conjecture is true then the monitoring of recycling quotas by le...
Chapter
Full-text available
Materials are used in a wide range of products and applications ranging from consumer products (cars, electronics, white and brown goods - such as fridges and TV’s) to constructions (buildings, roads) and agriculture (fertilisers) etc. The social and ecological value of the materials in these applications is not only determined by the ‘in-use value...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
By the analysis of data from an industrial furnace it will be shown that an Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) shaft furnace operates in many different operating states; the major three being (i) a state in which thermodynamic controls the furnace operation, (ii) another in which mass and heat transfer controls and therefore flow phenomena, and (iii)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is presently no tool available that can monitor recycling systems and hence predict recycling rates in a sufficiently fundamental and reproducible manner. In view of European Union legislation imposing high targets on the recycling of passenger vehicles it is imperative that such monitoring tools become available to clarify this unsatisfactor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is presently no tool available that can monitor recycling systems and hence predict recycling rates in a sufficiently fundamental and reproducible manner. In view of European Union legislation imposing high targets on the recycling of passenger vehicles it is imperative that such monitoring tools become available to clarify this unsatisfactor...
Article
Full-text available
No. 3 113 Derick Moolman et al.: Rapid Process Troubleshooting in Metal Production by CSense 1 Introduction CSense Troubleshooter enables you to become a valuable production troubleshooter in your company. It fits on top of regular commercial SCADA and DCS systems evaluat-ing real-time data performing troubleshooting, real-time control loop checkin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of notebooks has been strongly and steadily increasing for years in Europe. A corresponding increase in the amount of end-of-life notebooks available for recycling is expected in the coming years. Notebooks are equipped with liquid crystal displays mainly using mercury-containing backlights. The European Directive on Waste Electrical and El...
Article
End-of-Life (EOL) products can be considered to be industrial ores, since the minerals (materials can be considered as minerals) contained are recovered, processed and reintroduced in the material production systems as industrial ores. Therefore, the principles used in classical minerals processing can be applied to describe the comminution and lib...