Anthony Murkar

Anthony Murkar
Privy Council Office

Doctor of Philosophy

About

24
Publications
6,011
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162
Citations
Introduction
Neuropharmacology researcher focusing on the effects of plant-derived compounds on fear and anxiety. Secondary area of research in the neuroscience of sleep and dreaming.

Publications

Publications (24)
Article
Background: Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) may play a role in fear learning. The GRP Receptor is expressed in the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus, and central administration of GRP mediates fear learning. The effects of GRP on reconsolidation, however, have been minimally explored. Reconsolidation, the process by which formed memories are re...
Article
Research suggests sleep plays a role in the consolidation of recently acquired memories for long-term storage. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been shown to play a complex role in emotional-memory processing, and may be involved in subsequent waking-day emotional reactivity and amygdala responsivity. Interaction of the hippocampus and basolatera...
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Background: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, a CB1 receptor agonist) and Cannabidiol (CBD, a non-competitive antagonist of endogenous CB1 and CB2 ligands) are two primary components of Cannabis species, and may modulate fear learning in mammals. The CB1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the cortex and some limbic regions typically associated w...
Article
The first aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth description of the cannabinoids and their known effects at various neuronal receptors. It reveals that cannabinoids are highly diverse, and recent work has highlighted that their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) are surprisingly more complex than previously recognized. Cannabi...
Article
Background: The present study investigated whether sleep deprivation affects attention capture in young and older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods: Eleven young adults (20-30 y) and nine older adults (60-70 y) were tested following both normal sleep (NS) and total sleep deprivation (TSD). ERPs were recorded during an auditor...
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Summary This study aimed to evaluate changes in sleep during the COVID‐19 outbreak, and used data‐driven approaches to identify distinct profiles of changes in sleep‐related behaviours. Demographic, behavioural and psychological factors associated with sleep changes were also investigated. An online population survey assessing sleep and mental heal...
Article
Rhodiola rosea is a plant with adaptogenic qualities used by Inuit populations of Nunavik, Quebec (Canada) for general mental and physical rejuvenation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Canadian populations of R. rosea significantly attenuate the expression of learned fear and anxiety-like behaviors in rodent models. In order to further...
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The main goal of the current study was to determine the reliability of Garfield’s (1996) dream themes of the deceased in a larger sample of dream data. A total of 76 dreams were collected and scored by two judges to determine inter-rater reliability. It was found that Garfield’s (1996) dream themes as a whole where not reliable. However, based on h...
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Recent research has suggested that some of the inter-individual variation in sleep spindle activity is due to innate learning ability. Sleep spindles have also been observed to vary following learning in both young and older adults. We examined the effect of procedural task acquisition on sleep stages and on sleep spindles in an adolescent sample....
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This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative statistical methods to examine dreams in 22 University students and the effects of meditation on waking day depression levels (BDI), trait anxiety levels (BAI-T) and dream imagery. Results are consistent with previous research in that mood levels changed over the course of the meditation period,...
Article
p>Although animal models have been useful for uncovering nuclei responsible for the mediation of different sleep states, these techniques are rarely viable methods for studying mentation during sleep (both because of ethical considerations, and because animals cannot report the content of their dreams). Relevant animal models of sleep disorders and...
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Study Objective: To investigate a woman’s two and a half year dream journal throughout her grief process which related to the loss of her father. Method: There were a total of 16 dreams written down immediately upon awakening and dated. Nine of the dreams had the deceased loved one present in the imagery. The dreams that had the deceased present in...
Article
Abstract Participants in the current study were 75 males, including 25 Canadian soldiers, 25 heavy gamers who play military based video games such as "Call of Duty," and a control group comprised of 25 males. One dream per participant was analyzed using Hall and Van de Castle content analysis guidelines, including aggression, threat, and previously...
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Previous research has found evidence of relationships among sleep states and memory consolidation. However, no dominant models of sleep mentation (dreaming) account for the relationship between sleep and memory, despite the fact that the underlying neural processes of offline memory consolidation and sleep mentation happen simultaneously (and are t...
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Previous research has found evidence of relationships among sleep states and memory sources. However, the use of text-analysis of dream reports limits the validity of measures of emotion. In order to determine whether dreams reflect emotionally significant memories, a new technique for measuring the emotional significance of dream imagery to the dr...
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Previous research in the field of sleep mentation (dreaming) has focused on the use of subjective reports of experience for measuring emotion in dream content. However, emotions are seldom explicitly mentioned in dream reports, and a more substantial method for empirically assessing the emotionality of sleep mentation imagery to the individual is n...
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p>This study extends previous research on the relationship among dream content, waking day mood and waking day anxiety while examining these variables between Italian and Canadian participants. One-hundred Canadian females from Trent University, Canada (M = 23.4, SD = 1.8) and 100 Italian females from Tor Vergata University, Rome (M = 25.6, SD = 1....
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Previous research has demonstrated that dream recall rates differ between REM and NREM sleep. However, the neurological mechanisms responsible for this difference are not fully understood. Here recent research is discussed regarding the characteristics of neural reactivation during REM and NREM in response to pre-sleep memory acquisition. It is pro...
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The continuity hypothesis of dreaming suggests that waking day experiences are reflected in dream imagery; research suggests that some waking day experiences have a higher probability of being reflected in dreams than others (Schredl, 2006; Schredl & Hoffmann, 2003). In order to assess the degree to which religious or spiritual beliefs are incorpor...
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The Storytelling Method of dream interpretation has been found to be valid and reliable while yielding a meaningful interpretation for dreamers more than 80% of the time. A cognitive model explaining the psychophysiological system responsible for the effectiveness of the method is proposed. The model describes a dream in terms of an input–output re...

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