Anthony C. Hackney

Anthony C. Hackney
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | UNC · Department of Exercise and Sport Science

PhD, DSc (hc)
Endocrinology-physiology, biomarkers + reproductive focus. Google Scholar h-index=57, i10-index=202, citations=12,104

About

530
Publications
202,367
Reads
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8,255
Citations
Introduction
Hormone physiology researcher specializing in how stress exposure (e.g., physical exercise) interacts with the reproductive system (female and male).
Additional affiliations
December 1990 - present
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Joint appointment
December 1989 - present
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Position
  • Professor
May 1988 - July 1991
Naval Health Research Center
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
January 2008 - December 2008
DSc - Lithuanian Academy of Physical Culture (LSU) - Ministry of Education
Field of study
  • Sports Physiology
July 2003 - November 2004
GC-PH - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Field of study
  • Public Health
July 1981 - January 1987
PhD - Kent State University
Field of study
  • Exercise Physiology - Exercise Science Biomedical Science Program (Nutrition minor)

Publications

Publications (530)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this review is to present a different perspective of the relative energy deficiency syndrome, to improve understanding of associated endocrine alterations, and to highlight the need for further research in this area. The term “female athlete triad” was coined over 25 years ago to describe three interrelated components: disordered eat...
Article
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Until recently, there has been less demand for and interest in female-specific sport and exercise science data. As a result, the vast majority of high-quality sport and exercise science data have been derived from studies with men as participants, which reduces the application of these data due to the known physiological differences between the sex...
Article
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This article discusses the research supporting that the hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle phases affect a woman’s physiology during exercise, specifically addressing aspects of energy substrate metabolism and macro-nutrient utilization and oxidation. The overarching aim is to provide a perspective on what are the limitations of earlier re...
Article
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Purpose: To examine the influence of menstrual cycle (MC) and hormonal contraceptive (HC) cycle phases on physiological variables monitored during incremental treadmill testing in physically active women (eumenorrheic, EUM = 16 and monophasic HC-users, CHC = 12). Methods: Four running tests to exhaustion were performed at bleeding, mid follicular (...
Article
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Background Ageing is accompanied by decreases in physical capacity and physiological regulatory mechanisms including altered hormonal regulation compared with age-matched sedentary people. The potential benefits of exercise in restoring such altered hormone production and secretion compared to age-matched physically inactive individuals who are age...
Article
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The energy costs of athletic training can be substantial, and deficits arising from costs unmet by adequate energy intake, leading to a state of low energy availability, may adversely impact athlete health and performance. Life history theory is a branch of evolutionary theory that recognizes that the way the body uses energy-and responds to low en...
Article
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Objective To determine the effects of different intensities of interval resistance training (IRT) protocols on the levels of select myokines (decorin, follistatin, myostatin, activin A, transforming growth factor beta-1 [TGF-β1]), and cardiometabolic and anthropometric measures in males with obesity. Methods Forty-four obese males (age: 27.5 ± 9.4...
Article
This pilot study assessed the feasibility and combined effect of aerobic exercise (AE) and mindfulness meditation (MM), compared with MM alone and a control (CON) condition, on stress, anxiety, and depression in high-stress college-based young adults. Thirty-two participants (84.4% F, 20.5 ± 2.7 years, 23.9 ± 5.0 kg/m2) were randomized to a four-we...
Article
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The authors present opinions based on their applied experiences of working with female athletes in combination with the existing evidence-based literature. Most of the existing menstrual cycle research focuses on a few steady-state time points within the pre-defined menstrual cycle phases, yet this disregards the day-to-day hormonal changes that wo...
Article
Purpose: This study investigated the psychophysiological responses during self-selected exercise intensity over the course of the menstrual cycle (MC). Methods: Seventeen healthy women with regular MCs completed three randomized treadmill bouts of 30 min of self-selected exercise intensity during menstruation, mid-follicular, and late luteal phases...
Poster
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Purpose: To investigate the awareness and knowledge regarding various general sports endocrinology concepts and specific practices related to sport performance and health in the Russian track and field athletes. Methods: Professional Russian track-field athletes (n = 50, age = 23.1 y) were divided into 3 groups according to their level of sports p...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have not considered the potential influence of maturity status on the relationship between mental imagery and change of direction (CoD) speed in youth soccer. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study examined the association between mental imagery and CoD performance in young elite soccer players of different maturity status. Forty...
Article
Purpose: To determine the relationship between gastrointestinal hormones (leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1), ghrelin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, morphological characteristics, and physical performances in elite soccer players. Methods: Q2 Twenty-two elite male soccer players (age = 23.1 [2.7] y, height = 177.0 [0.1] cm, weight = 70.2 [2.9] kg,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Home-based training increases accessibility to exercise and mitigates the side effects of hormone therapy for prostate cancer (PC). However, it is unknown if men with more advanced disease are willing to partake in such interventions. Purpose To determine the feasibility of a home-based exercise intervention in men with metastatic castr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The standard method to treat physically active patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is ligament reconstruction surgery. The rehabilitation training program is very important to improve functional performance in recreational athletes following ACL reconstruction. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the ef...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To examine the effects of fatiguing power-loading on neuromuscular properties, force production, and metabolic capacities during four phases of the menstrual cycle (MC); menstruation (M), mid-follicular (mid FOL), ovulation (OV), and mid-luteal (mid LUT). Methods: Sixteen eumenorrheic women performed sessions of maximal explosive leg pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Change-of-direction (CoD) is a necessary physical ability of a field sport and may vary in youth players according to their maturation status. Objectives: The aim of this study is: to compare the effectiveness of a 6-week CoD training intervention on dynamic balance (CS-YBT), horizontal jump (5JT), speed (10 and 30-m linear sprint times...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate body composition, fat distribution, and metabolism at rest and during exercise in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study in 72 women ages 35 to 60 years evaluated body composition via a fourcompartment model, fat distribution using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-deri...
Article
Beta-alanine, caffeine, and nitrate are dietary supplements generally recognized by the sport and exercise science community as evidence-based ergogenic performance aids. Evidence supporting the efficacy of these supplements, however, is greatly skewed due to research being conducted primarily in men. The physiological differences between men and w...
Article
Full-text available
Background Osteoporosis causes bone fragility, increasing the risk of fractures. Evidence suggests a strong correlation between obesity and fracture risk. Physical training is known to enhance bone resistance and protect from fracture; however, its osteogenic effect in the presence of obesity remains unknown. Objective We sought to evaluate the in...
Article
Context: Individuals who undergo anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at higher risk of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Altered joint tissue loading caused by aberrant gait biomechanics leads to deleterious changes in joint health linked to PTOA onset. Knee braces have been used to modify joint tissue loading in individuals wi...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare three types of resistance training including traditional, circular and interval in non-athletic men with obesity in comparison to a control group for neuregulin 4, adiponectin and leptin responses. Material and method: The sample of the study included 44 non-athletic men with obesity, who were...
Article
Aberrant joint loading contributes to the development of posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR); yet little is known about the association between joint loading due to daily walking and cartilage health post‐ACLR. Accelerometer‐based measures of daily steps and cadence (i.e., rate of step...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening to preferred music during a warm up or exercise, on performance during a 6-min all-out exercise test (6-MT) in young adult males. Twenty-five healthy males volunteered to participate in this study. Following a within subject design, participants performed three test conditions (MDT:...
Article
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Purpose This study examined and compared select Triad–RED–S components/risk factors in high-level Kenyan male and female distance runners to corresponding control groups; focusing on examining energy intake (EI), bone indices, and hormonal markers. Methods A cross-sectional, observational design was used in which Kenyan male and female (n = 30 and...
Chapter
The present chapter deals with the effect of lifestyles and lifestyle intervention for male fertility. It addresses negative effects of excessive training load, unhealthy eating, and other detrimental lifestyles like smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use. Also highlighted and discussed is exposure to endocrine disruptors, substances that inte...
Chapter
The present chapter deals with the effect of exercise and nutrition intervention for female fertility. It addresses the evidence-based recommendations on exercise training and a physically active lifestyle approach to improving health and fertility. Furthermore, it addresses the critically important issue of the role of sound nutrition practices wi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The rapid and unprecedented outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), which spread rapidly around the world in late 2019, prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency, which soon became an international public health concern. The concerns are especially more serious in people with certain diseases, such as d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We assessed the effects of gender, in association with a four-week small-sided games (SSGs) training program, during Ramadan intermitting fasting (RIF) on changes in psychometric and physiological markers in professional male and female basketball players. Methods: Twenty-four professional basketball players from the first Tunisian (Tun...
Article
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It has been brought to our attention that the Ethics Committee and approval code were missing in the Materials and Methods Section of our published paper [...]
Article
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We review the effects of acute and long-term physical activity on adipokine levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Three electronic databases were searched. Studies made in animal models were excluded, while studies based on participants with and without T2D, and also studies with type 1 diabetes were included. Of the 2,450 citations, 63...
Article
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Background Knowledge of the long-term effects of soccer training on hematological, hormonal, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers and physical performance may help to better design strength and conditioning programs for performance development and injury prevention for the individual player and the team.Objectives The aim of this systematic revi...
Article
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Citation: Dridi, R.; Dridi, N.; Govindasamy, K.; Gmada, N.; Aouadi, R.; Guénard, H.; Laher, I.; Saeidi, A.; Suzuki, K.; Hackney, A.C.; et al. Effects of Endurance Training Intensity on Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity at Rest and after Maximal
Article
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of 3 resistance training methods (traditional, circular and interval) compared with no exercise on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in nonathletic men with obesity. Materials and methods: The study sample included 44 n...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the effects of varying aerobic training programs on pulmonary diffusing capacity (TLCO), pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (TLNO), lung capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar–capillary membrane diffusing capacity (DM) of gases at rest and just after maximal exercise in young athletes. Sixteen healthy young runners...
Article
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the acute and long-term effects of exercise training on PV, in both trained and untrained individuals and to examine associations between changes in %PVV and change in physical/physiological performance. Despite the status of participants and the exercise duration or intensity, all...
Article
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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic-resistance training (CARET) and broccoli supplementation on dectin-1 levels and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Methods: Forty-four males with T2D were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 11 each group): CARET + broccoli supplement...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the world. Evidence supports increased physical activity and exercise are efficacious in controlling obesity, in part due to altering select adipocytokine levels. The present study aimed to compare the effect of 12 weeks of three resistance training methods (traditional, circular and interval) on the levels of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PC) has detrimental effects on physical function and quality of life (QoL), but the addition of androgen receptor signalling inhibitors (ARSI) on these outcomes is unclear. Purpose To compare body composition, physical function, and QoL across progressive stages of PC and non-cance...
Article
Context: Higher knee function is linked to psychological readiness to return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Individuals with ACLR participate in less physical activity compared to matched uninjured controls, yet the association between knee function and physical activity following ACLR remains unclear. Objectiv...
Article
We investigated the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on selected circulating adipokines and other cardiovascular diseases risks factors in men with obesity. Thirty men with obesity (age: 24.96 ± 3.11 year, BMI: 30.92 ± 1.04 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to HIIT and control groups. The HIIT group participated in a 12-we...
Presentation
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This is a presentation prepared for Nottingham Trent University-Physical Activity and the Endocrine System Conference held in 20-21 July 2021
Article
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This study examined the effect of estradiol-β-17 across the menstrual cycle (MC) during aerobic exercise on energy substrate utilization and oxidation. Thirty-two eumenorrheic (age = 22.4 ± 3.8 y (mean ± SD)), physically active women participated in two steady-state running sessions at 65% of VO2max, one during the early follicular and one during t...
Article
Full-text available
Background The standard method to treat physically active patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is ligament reconstruction surgery. The rehabilitation training program is very important to improve functional performance in recreational athletes following ACL reconstruction. Objectives The aims of this study were to compare the eff...
Article
Objective : The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence on the link between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the rates and severity of non-contact injuries and exercise-induced muscle damage in athletes and individuals enrolled in exercise training programs. Methods : A computerized literature search was performed in the electronic...
Article
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Endocrinology is a branch of physiology medical science that many exercise scientists are embracing in their research pursuits, so much so that “exercise endocrinology” is now viewed by many as a viable subdiscipline in the field [...]
Article
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Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is predicated on the assumption that low energy availability (EA) induces deficiencies-dysfunction in multiple physiologic systems. However, research on RED-S and EA in male athletes is limited in comparison to women. The aim of this study is to investigate EA and the risk factors for RED-S, and their pot...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have not considered the potential influence of maturity status on the relationship between mental imagery and change of direction (CoD) speed in youth soccer. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study examined the association between mental imagery and CoD performance in young elite soccer players of different maturity status. Forty...
Article
Full-text available
Background We assessed the effects of gender, in association with a four-week small-sided games (SSGs) training program, during Ramadan intermitting fasting (RIF) on changes in psychometric and physiological markers in professional male and female basketball players. Methods Twenty-four professional basketball players from the first Tunisian (Tuni...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the presence of low Energy Availability (EA) and its impact on components of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in a population of female collegiate runners. Seven female NCAA Division I athletes (age: 22.3 ± 1.5 yrs; height: 169.7 ± 5.7 cm; weight: 58.3 ± 4.1 kg) were tracked from August unt...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the effects of two high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) programs of varying intensities (100% vs. 110% of maximal aerobic velocity [MAV]) on metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory markers in young men. Thirty-seven active male volunteers were randomly assigned into: HIIT experimental groups (100% MAV [EG100, n = 9] and 110% MAV [EG1...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Change-of-direction (CoD) is a necessary physical ability of a field sport and may vary in youth players according to their maturation status. Objectives: The aim of this study is: to compare the effectiveness of a 6-week CoD training intervention on dynamic balance (CS-YBT), horizontal jump (5JT), speed (10 and 30-m linear sprint times...
Article
Full-text available
Sex hormones are suggested to influence energy intake (EI) and metabolic hormones. This study investigated the influence of menstrual cycle (MC) and hormonal contraceptive (HC) cycle phases on EI, energy availability (EA), and metabolic hormones in recreational athletes (eumenorrheic, NHC = 15 and monophasic HC-users, CHC = 9). In addition, 72-h di...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of purslane supplementation on oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage biomarkers after completing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Methods: Nine healthy female runners completed a HIIE treadmill protocol comprising 1 min at 100% of the peak treadmill velocity attained i...
Article
Full-text available
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Regular exercise is important for a healthy pregnancy and can lower the risk of developing GDM. For women with GDM, exercise is safe and can affect the pregnancy outcomes beneficially. A single exercise bout increase...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus-disease 19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global public health issue, and there is a desperate need for strategies of prevention, reduction, and treatment to halt the epidemic. The coronavirus affects the immune system, and individuals with a compromised immune system, such as those with diabetes, hypertension, obesity, are more suscep...
Preprint
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Objectives: We investigated the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on selected circulating adipokines and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risks factors in males with obesity. Methods: Thirty males with obesity were randomly assigned to HIIT and control groups. The HIIT group participated in a prescribed exercise prog...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of present study is to investigate the effects of walk training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR and no-BFR) on lipid profiles, inflammatory and haematological factors in overweighed men. Participants were divided into BFR (n = 9) or no-BFR (n = 9) groups. Both groups were exposed to 8-week walk training on a treadmill: 3...
Article
Umlauff, L, Weil, P, Zimmer, P, Hackney, AC, Bloch, W, and Schumann, M. Oral contraceptives do not affect physiological responses to strength exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020. This study investigated the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on acute changes in steroid hormone concentrations and tryptophan (TRP) metabolites in res...