Anthony Fardet

Anthony Fardet
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE) | INRAE · Human Nutrition

PhD in Human Nutrition, engineer in Agro-Food industry
As scientist I work on the link between food processing, matrix and health potential within context of sustainability.

About

284
Publications
183,832
Reads
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3,782
Citations
Introduction
My main research interests are about the impacts of processing on food health potential within the worldwide context of diet sustainability at horizon 2050. I am particularly involved in promoting a more holistic view of preventive nutrition to prevent from diet-related chronic diseases, and to increase the Healthy Life Years. Human nutrition should not be explored via pharmacological approach: food compounds are not drugs. Notably, I am particlularly focused on the role of food matrix on health, and on the characterization of ultra-processed foods through technological indices.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - May 2021
Université Clermont Auvergne
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • " Potentiel santé des produits laitiers " " Transformation des produits laitiers, digestibilité et effet matrice " " Potentiels satiétogène et antioxydant des produits laitiers" « Aliments ultra transformés: de quoi parle-t-on? Alimentation préventive, durable et holistique »
September 2014 - May 2021
VetAgro Sup
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • « Les transitions nutritionnelles » « Les grands enjeux de la recherche en nutrition humaine » « Les glucides dans l’alimentation : rôles et impacts sur la santé »
November 2011 - May 2021
Université d’Auvergne, Faculté de Médecine
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • « Les transitions nutritionnelles » « Stress oxydant et nutrition préventive » « L’éthique dans l’assiette » « Choix alimentaires : Nutrition Préventive & Holistique. Les 3 Règles d’Or pour une alimentation préventive saine, durable et éthique »
Education
September 1994 - January 1998
Aix-Marseille Université
Field of study
  • Human Nutrition
September 1992 - June 1993
Aix-Marseille Université
Field of study
  • Physico-chemistry of Food digestion
September 1989 - August 1992
AgroParisTech
Field of study
  • Human Nutrition and Food science

Publications

Publications (284)
Article
Full-text available
Global food systems are no longer sustainable for health, the environment, animal biodiversity and wellbeing, culinary traditions, socioeconomics, or small farmers. The increasing massive consumption of animal foods has been identified as a major determinant of unsustainability. However, today, the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is als...
Article
In France, hypermarkets are the main shopping sites for food products. Therefore, the food-purchasing profiles of their regular customers may be a relevant indicator of the sustainability and health potentials of consumed diets. Knowing this information can be a step to address the issue of global health. The main objective of this study was to ass...
Article
Scientific research generally follows two main methods: empirico-inductive (EI), gathering scattered, real-world qualitative/quantitative data to elaborate holistic theories, and the hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, testing the validity of hypothesized theory in specific conditions, generally according to reductionist methodologies or designs,...
Book
Full-text available
Comment manger pour rester en bonne santé ? Aujourd'hui, on a l'impression qu'il faut être médecin ou docteur ès sciences pour répondre à cette question ! Pourtant " bien manger " ne devrait pas être un casse-tête. En réduisant la qualité d'un aliment à celle de ses constituants – protéines, glucides, graisses, fibres ou vitamines –, les nutritionni...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose For decades, it has been customary to relate human health to the nutritional composition of foods, and from there was born food composition databases, composition labelling scores and the recommendation to eat varied foods. However, individuals can fully address their nutritional needs and become chronically ill. The nutrient balance of a f...
Presentation
Full-text available
Explosion of chronic disease prevalence worldwide is quite a recent phenomenon. Today, one in five early deaths is linked to malnutrition, and 71% of deaths worldwide result from chronic diseases, mainly involving malnutrition, increased sedentary lifestyle, and environmental pollution. Chronic diseases as leading causes of mortality have progressi...
Article
Background and objectives: The impact of food structure on postprandial physiological responses has received sustained attention in recent years. Changes in the glycemic response and satiety score to commonly consumed starchy foods may have a positive impact on health. However, no data on Ethiopian staple foods has been reported. This study aimed a...
Article
Full-text available
Une éducation à l’alimentation à l’école peut aider à lutter contre les maladies chroniques, dont la prévalence progresse, et qui touchent davantage les populations défavorisées. Son exercice est encore facultatif, et bien que des initiatives soient prises, les éducateurs manquent de ressources pour la dispenser. Une éducation à l’alimentation holi...
Presentation
Full-text available
Before being consumed, cereal grains must be processed in a way or another. Therefore, the real scientific issue is rather: « To what extent they should be processed without negatively affecting global health? », including humans and food system sustainability. Beyond the impact of processing on nutritional composition, such as cereal refining that...
Article
Full-text available
L’humanité a connu quatre grandes transitions alimentaires 1. La première il y a plus d’un million d’années concerne la domestication du feu qui a permis de cuire les aliments. Certains anthropologues l’associent au développement cérébrales chez l’homme, la cuisson des aliments ayant rendu plus biodisponibles notamment les glucides pour le cerveau...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of food intake is critical and underreporting is frequent. The aim was to develop an indirect statistical method of the total energy intake estimation based on gender, weight and the number of portions. Energy intake prediction was developed and evaluated for validity us-ing energy expenditure. Volunteers with various BMIs were recru...
Presentation
Full-text available
Unfortunately, organic foods are not immune to ultra-processing. They may represent up to 27% of sales in organic stores. When highly consumed, ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are associated with significant increased risks of chronic diseases, but also with degradation of food system sustainability. To adress this capital issue, we developped the Gol...
Article
Full-text available
Food provides humans with more than just energy and nutrients addressing both vital needs and pleasure. Food habits are determined by a wide range of factors, from sensorial stimuli to beliefs, and once commanded by local and seasonal availability, are nowadays driven by mar-keting campaigns promoting unhealthy and non-sustainable foodstuffs. Top-d...
Article
Objective: To extend analyses of nutrition transition in developed countries to China within the framework of the 3Vs rule considering degree of processing starting with industrially processed foods (IPFs, Rule 1), plant/animal calorie ratio (Rule 2), and food diversity through nutrient intakes (Rule 3). Design: Total and main food group (n = 13) c...
Article
In France, around 70% of conventional industrial foods are ultra-processed, with no data for organic foods. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the percentage of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) in industrially packaged organic (n = 8,554) and conventional (n = 45,791) foods, and to describe their marker of ultra-processing (MUP) profiles. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Face aux enjeux environnementaux, il n'est plus suffisant de manger sain pour soi, mais aussi pour protéger la santé globale (humaine et planétaire). Dans cette étude nous nous sommes focalisés sur la durabilité potentielle du régime alimentaire de la population française âgée de plus de 65 ans, et dont environ les deux-tiers sont atteints de malad...
Article
Full-text available
In France, the evolution of dietary pattern relative to sustainability and global health remains insufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess dietary changes during 1998-2015 through three generic metrics potentially related to sustainability. Food consumption data were collected from three French National Individual Study of F...
Article
Dans la mesure où les produits ultra-transformés sont associés à des risques significativement accrus de maladies chroniques, veiller à une alimentation saine est un vecteur essentiel de protection de la santé. La prévalence des maladies chroniques est aussi associée à un accroissement des inégalités sociales de santé, les populations les plus défa...
Article
Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are characterized by the presence of markers of ultra-processing (MUP), either additives (A-MUP) or non-additive ingredients (NA-MUP). The present study aims to characterize the MUP profile of approximately 22,000 UPFs, representative of assortments in French supermarkets. UPFs were ranked according to Siga classificati...
Article
Full-text available
Notre santé et nos systèmes alimentaires ne sont plus durables. En cause notamment un excès de consommation de calories d’origine animales et ultra-transformées. La règle générique des 3VBLS a été élaborée pour répondre à cet enjeu : Végétal (15% max de calories de produits d’origine animales/jour, soit environ 2-3 portions de viandes, produits lai...
Presentation
Full-text available
By moving towards the 3V Rule we stimulate plant and animal biodiversity When we consume ultra-processed animal products we decrease animal biodiversity on the planet, and increase animal suffering By eating a variety of foods, we increase the number of protective compounds that protect our body by acting in synergy. The polyculture-extensive li...
Article
Exclusive reductionism in nutritional science consists of viewing foods as only the sum of nutrients. This position paper argues that the extreme application of this paradigm since 1950 has greatly contributed to confusion about a healthy diet among consumers and to the development of chronic diseases worldwide. First, history of nutritional scienc...
Poster
Full-text available
Caractériser l’offre alimentaire en supermarché et analyser le profil des marqueurs d’ultra-transformation présents dans les AUTs afin d’identifier les voies d’amélioration de la qualité des aliments au regard du degré de transformation .
Presentation
Full-text available
Global food systems are no longer sustainable for health, the environment, animal biodiversity and wellbeing, culinary traditions, socioeconomics, or small farmers. The increasing massive consumption of animal foods has been identified as a major determinant of unsustainability. However, today, the increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods (U...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Global food systems are no longer sustainable for health, the environment, animal biodiversity and wellbeing, culinary traditions, socioeconomics, or small farmers. The increasing massive consumption of animal foods has been identified as a major determinant of unsustainability. However, today, the increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods (U...
Presentation
Full-text available
Humanity faced four main nutrition transitions: 1) from crude to cooked foods (> 1 M years); 2) from hunter-gatherers to farmer-breeders with higher consumption of farmed meat, dairy products and cereals (-12,000 years); 3) from traditional to industrially processed foods with the invention of canning (19th century); and 4) from industrially proces...
Presentation
Full-text available
Fruits are protective for health. However, is this true whatever the degree of processing? Indeed, some studies suggest that the protective effect of foods notably depends on the degree of processing. Our objective was therefore to examine: 1) meta-analyses linking fruit consumption and risks of chronic diseases/metabolic deregulations according to...
Poster
Full-text available
Between 2010 and 2019, more than 50 epidemiologic studies found positive associations between consumption of ultra-processed foods and the development of chronic diseases. The qualitative NOVA classification of foods according to their degree of processing is widely used worldwide by researchers, and also recognized by several international institu...
Presentation
Full-text available
La Fast Food : une approche réductionniste de l’alimentation (« casser » du lien) La Slow Food : une approche holistique de l’alimentation (« recréer » du lien)
Article
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Les enfants sont très exposés aux additifs, en raison d’une consommation élevée de confiseries, desserts lactés, snacks, biscuits et/ou pâtisseries industrielles. L’objectif a été d’analyser les aliments donnés à consommer aux enfants des écoles primaires de Gentilly pour évaluer le nombre d’additifs alimentaires ainsi que leurs risques associés. L...
Article
Objective: To define a generic diet to protect human health and food system sustainability based on three dimensions: animal/plant ratio, degree of food processing, and food diversity. Design/Setting: The percentages of maximum animal and ultra-processed calories were evaluated from scientific papers (Web of Science database) and reports (websites...
Article
Si grâce aux mesures d’hygiène, aux vaccins et aux antibiotiques, la mortalité liée aux infections n’a cessé de diminuer ces dernières années, les maladies chroniques non transmissibles, elles, ont vu leur incidence augmenter. Or parmi les principaux accusés, est pointée du doigt la « malbouffe » qui génère surpoids, obésité et pathologies associée...
Article
C’est aujourd’hui un fait bien établi. Diverses pathologies chroniques sont associées à une mauvaise alimentation, notamment via force produits ultra-transformés, ou encore à un dysfonctionnement de la communauté de microorganismes installée dans notre tube digestif – c’est-à-dire notre microbiote intestinal : l’obésité, le diabète de type 2, les m...
Article
Full-text available
Les fruits sont protecteurs pour la santé. Mais est-ce vrai quel que soit leur degré de transformation? En effet, certaines études suggèrent que l'effet protecteur des aliments dépend du degré de transformation. Cet article présente donc les résultats d’une revue exhaustive de données de la littérature scientifique afin d’identifier les procédés te...
Article
« Pratiquer une activité physique régulière », « Manger au moins cinq fruits et légumes par jour »… Tout le monde connaît ces messages de prévention. Élaborés à partir des résultats de la recherche en nutrition préventive, ils visent à faire prendre conscience que les choix de vie ont des effets sur la santé. Leur objectif ? Faire en sorte que ceux...
Article
The qualitative NOVA classification of foods according to their degree of processing is widely used worldwide by researchers. NOVA defines ultra-processed foods (UPFs) by the presence of processed industrial and cosmetic ingredients and additives to modify the sensory properties (aroma, taste, colour and texture) of the reconstituted food. Some dra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More and more studies have shown associations between the degree of food processing and the risk of chronic disease. For cereals, studies generally show that, while whole-grain cereals provide protection, refined cereals are either neutral or deleterious to health. In addition to refining, cereal-based foods are subjected to various treatments: fra...
Chapter
Full-text available
Why, despite all our efforts in terms of nutritional prevention, the prevalence of chronic diseases continue to increase in the world? If we deepen the question going back to philosophy we realize that we have not been able to make evolving our nutritional "software" when moving from single-factor infectious and deficiency (microorganism, vitamins...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We are in search of global indicators and daily levers to improve food system sustainability. Based on recent scientific advances we proposed that drastically decreasing ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption could be one of main levers. Indeed, in the 80’s we faced an ‘ignored’ food transition, from processed foods to UPFs. UPFs were first defined...
Article
Epidemiological studies suggest that the protective effects of fruits against chronic diseases may vary according to their extent of processing. We therefore reviewed what the scientific literature states about the potential mechanisms underlying this “processing” effect by focusing on the most significant nutritional properties, namely, the nutrit...
Article
Background: The concept of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is new, and it was proposed for the first time in 2009 as group 4 of the NOVA classification to address the degree of food processing. UPFs include not only “junk foods” but also foods marketed as healthy, such as light, vegan, organic, or gluten-free products. UPFs are characterized by the pr...
Presentation
Full-text available
Nous transformons et consommons des aliments depuis « la nuit des temps » mais ce n’est que depuis seulement quelques années que la science de la Nutrition s’interroge sur l’impact santé de la transformation des aliments, à partir d’observations différenciant les paramètres physiologiques et physiopathologiques selon que l’aliment concerné soit « b...
Article
The concept of ultra-processed food (UPF) is now 10 years old. It is part of an overhaul of the classifi cation of foods according to their degree of processing rather than their nutrient content. The 20 or so studies in humans show a positive association between UPF consumption and increased risk of several chronic pathologies and metabolic deregu...
Article
Depuis les débuts de la recherche en nutrition en 1850, les chercheurs occidentaux qui se sont intéressés à l’alimentation et la nutrition humaine ont adopté une démarche réductionniste. Autrement dit, ils ont considéré chaque aliment comme une somme de nutriments sans interaction les uns avec les autres. Les aliments ont été décortiqués selon leu...
Article
Depuis la domestication du feu, survenue voici plus d’un million d’années, qui a permis la cuisson des aliments, l’humanité a vécu trois autres transitions nutritionnelles majeures. La première s’est produite voici environ 12 000 ans, quand nos ancêtres chasseurs-cueilleurs sont devenus agriculteurs-éleveurs, marquant le passage du Paléolithique a...
Article
Full-text available
La mala alimentación es la responsable del 16% de todas las muertes en España. Alimentos ultraprocesados y una educación nutricional insuficiente serían algunos de los culpables de esta situación. El experto en Anthony Fardet explica sus causas y le da claves para mejorar su salud.
Presentation
Full-text available
More and more epidemiological studies emphasized associations between the degree of food processing and risks of chronic diseases. Notably a high consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with increased risks of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, total cancers, and irritable bowel syndrome. Concerning cereals, studies globall...
Article
Context: The degree of fruit processing is rarely considered in epidemiological studies of fruit consumption. Objective: Pooled analyses and meta-analyses of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that linked fruit consumption with the risk of chronic disease and metabolic deregulation were reviewed systematically to examine the effects...
Article
Full-text available
It is not usual to classify foods according to their degree of processing. Yet the link with chronic diseases lies more in the degree of procesisng than in the composition of food. The Brazilian classification NOVA was the first to propose 4 technological groups. Wishing to further develop NOVA the project and score Siga offers 9 technology groups,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sur la base des données scientifiques acquises aujourd’hui, le potentiel santé des aliments ne peut plus être réduit à sa seule composition nutritionnelle (Fardet, 2014; Fardet, 2015c; Fardet et al., 2015b) ou densité énergétique (Monteiro and Cannon, 2015). En d’autres termes, un aliment est plus que la seule somme de ses composants. Cela signifie...
Chapter
Full-text available
Un aliment n’est pas la seule addition de ses nutriments, ni uniquement une somme de calories, ce qui signifie, qu’à composition nutritionnelle et densité énergétique strictement identiques, mais avec des matrices différentes, deux aliments auront des effets sur l’organisme très différents (Fardet, 2015a). Cela n’est plus à démontrer. L’aliment est...
Presentation
Full-text available
Un grain entier ne peut être considéré comme germé que si son radicule est clairement visible L’existence d’une définition et d’une réglementation mondialement reconnues de la « germination » faciliterait la recherche sur ce sujet et appuierait la production de produits à base de céréales germées Les perceptions positives de plus en plus récentes...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing recognition of the link between the degree of processing of foods and their health potential, hence the need to rethink the classification of food to issue nutritional guidelines. In food technology, the impact of processes on this potential can be addressed through a holistic or reductionist approach, by focusing on the whole o...
Presentation
Full-text available
Introduction et But de l’étude Jusqu’à aujourd’hui l des aliments a été évaluée sur la base de la seule composition nutritionnelle (approche réductionniste). Or l’aliment est beaucoup plus qu’une seule somme de nutriments (approche holistique). D’autres alternatives existent pour classer les aliments, comme la classification NOVA selon le degré de...
Article
Full-text available
Avant toute chose je pense qu’il est important de rappeler la définition du potentiel santé d’un aliment. Il ne peut plus être réduit à la seule composition nutritionnelle. Sur la base des résultats scientifiques les plus récents j’ai donc redéfini ce potentiel comme la combinaison des effets « matrice » et « composition » (Figure 1) (1). Cependant...
Article
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Los alimentas ultraprocesados nos enferman, afirma Anthony Fardet, cientîfico que reivindica el valor del alimenta completo, sin transformar
Article
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Les aliments ultra-transformés ont envahi notre alimentation depuis 40 ans. Et ils nous rendent malades ! C’est ce que nous révèle Anthony Fardet, chercheur en alimentation préventive & holistique et auteur de « Halte aux aliments ultra-transformés ! Mangeons vrais ! ». Ces faux aliments sont les principaux responsables de nos problèmes de santé. I...
Article
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L'objectif de cet article est de décrire, sans être exhaustif, la diversité des agricultures en mobilisant des exemples au niveau du système technique et des pratiques culturales, pour la France métropolitaine et pour trois filières : les céréales, les oléagineux et les légumineuses à graines. L'analyse de la diversité des agricultures montre que d...
Presentation
Full-text available
La transformation des aliments a depuis toujours accompagné l’évolution de l’homme, permettant d’après certains le développement cérébral (1ère transition du cru au cuit suite à la domestication du feu : -500 000 à -1 million d’années), l’essor des grandes civilisations (2ème transition des chasseurs-cueilleurs aux agriculteurs-éleveurs : -12 000 a...
Chapter
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Nous n'avons pas un rapport froid à la nourriture, on ne fait pas que de s'alimenter, il y a quelque chose de bien plus profond, complexe et sacré qui se construit chaque jour. Les contributeurs , philosophes, chercheurs et conférenciers, se sont donné la liberté de travailler sur la perception ou l'interprétation, le désir ou la conscience aliment...
Article
Full-text available
La transformation des aliments a depuis toujours accompagné l’évolution de l’homme, permettant d’après certains le développement cérébral (1ère transition du cru au cuit suite à la domestication du feu : -500 000 à -1 million d’années), l’essor des grandes civilisations (2ème transition des chasseurs-cueilleurs aux agriculteurs-éleveurs : -12 000 a...
Article
Full-text available
Today, it seems that nutrition is in a state of great confusion, especially for the general public. For decades, some nutrients (e.g., cholesterol, saturated fats, sugars, gluten, salt) and food groups (e.g., dairy, cereals, meats) are regularly denigrated. In this position paper, we hypothesized that such a state of confusion is mainly the result...
Presentation
Full-text available
Les maladies chroniques d’industrialisation ont notamment pour fondement l’approche réductionniste : en se coupant de la réalité et en la fractionnant, on a participé à générer une mauvaise alimentation. Pour lutter contre les maladies chroniques, il ne faut plus mettre l’accent sur la composition nutritionnelle mais sur la structure des aliments...
Chapter
Up today technological processes are intended to produce safe and palatable food products. Yet, it is also expected that processing produces healthy and sustainable foods. However, due to the dramatic increase of chronic diseases prevalence worldwide, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers, ultraprocessing has bee...
Article
Full-text available
Un produit laitier est généralement la résultante de plusieurs traitements technologiques (mécanique, thermique, enzymatique et/ou fermentaire…). Ces procédés jouent un rôle sur la composition nutritionnelle des produits et sur leur structure (leur matrice). La disponibilité des nutriments comme différents paramètres métaboliques et santé (digestio...
Presentation
Full-text available
Food should make us healthy and full of energy. Now, today, it makes us sicker and sicker. Thus, scientific evidence shows a positive association between the degree of food processing and the risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia, risk factors for more serious chronic diseases such as some cancers and card...
Article
Full-text available
Food should make us healthy and full of energy. Now, today, it makes us sicker and sicker. Thus, scientific evidence shows a positive association between the degree of food processing and the risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia, risk factors for more serious chronic diseases such as some cancers and card...
Presentation
Full-text available
The antioxidant potential (AP) is an important nutritional property of foods, as increased oxidative stress is involved in most diet-related chronic diseases. In dairy products, the protein fraction contains antioxidant activity, especially casein. Other antioxidants include antioxidant enzymes; lactoferrin; conjugated linoleic acid; coenzyme Q10;...
Presentation
Full-text available
The triple burden of malnutrition: nutritional deficiencies, over-nutrition and under-nutrition Over-nutrition, chronic diseasesand nutrition: obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, metabolic syndrome, mental diseases… Specific populations: elderly, unhealth ypopulations (diabetes, obesity, cardiovasculardiseases, cancers), chi...
Article
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L’évidence scientifique montre une association positive entre le degré de transformation des aliments et le risque de développer obésité, diabète de type 2, syndrome métabolique et dyslipidémies, facteurs de risques pour des maladies chroniques plus graves. En outre, plus l’aliment est transformé plus il est hyperglycémiant, moins il est satiétogèn...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological and interventional studies have clearly demonstrated the beneficial impact of consuming oat and oat-based products on serum cholesterol and other markers of cardiovascular diseases. The cholesterol-lowering effect of oat is thought to be associated with the β-glucan it contains. However, not all food products containing β-glucan see...
Article
Beyond nutrient composition matrix plays an important role on food health potential, notably acting on the kinetics of nutrient release, and finally on their bioavailability. This is particularly true for dairy products that present both solid (cheeses), semi-solid (yogurts) and liquid (milks) matrices. The main objective of this narrative review h...
Article
Full-text available
Processing has major impacts on both the structure and composition of food and hence on nutritional value. In particular, high consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is associated with increased risks of obesity and diabetes. Unfortunately, existing food indices only focus on food nutritional content while failing to consider either food struc...
Article
Full-text available
Ce numéro « Diversité des agricultures » est constitué d’articles issus des réflexions des groupes filières de l’Inra. Il brosse un panorama de la diversité agricole à l’œuvre dans les filières, en analyse les drivers et les déterminants, s’interroge sur la diversité comme source de résilience et en tire des enseignements en matière de besoins de r...
Article
Full-text available
Aujourd’hui il est usuel de caractériser les aliments par des scores nutritionnels réductionnistes ne prenant en compte que quelques nutriments (généralement ceux à encourager et ceux à limiter), comme par exemple le NutriScore. Or deux aliments de même composition mais avec des matrices ou des degrés de transformation différents n’ont pas le même...
Article
Full-text available
To prevent chronic diseases linked to industrialisation, the ‘matrix’ effect of a food relates more to its action on health than its nutritional composition. It influences notably the kinetics of nutrient release in the digestive tract, the bioavailability of the nutrients and thereby their metabolic effects, as well as a feeling of fullness. It co...
Presentation
Full-text available
Since several years dairy products are subjected to negative criticisms regarding their health potential. Yet, when studying the association between dairy intake and risks of major chronic diseases recent literature and expertise reports shows that milks, yogurts, fermented milks and cheeses are either protective or neutral against obesity, type 2...