Anthony F Bogaert

Anthony F Bogaert
Brock University · Department of Health Sciences

About

96
Publications
248,743
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,329
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2009 - January 2016
Brock University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Human asexuality has been defined as a lack of sexual attraction to others, although its nature is not well understood. Asexual men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were compared to sexual men's to better understand asexual men's sexual response patterns. Using a penile plethysmograph to measure genital arousal, 20 asexual, 27 heter...
Article
Full-text available
The fraternal birth order (FBO) effect related to men’s sexual orientation refers to the finding that the number of older brothers that a man has increases his chance of being androphilic. The FBO effect has generally been well replicated in diverse samples; one instance of non-replication was by Francis (2008) using Waves I and III of the Add Heal...
Article
Full-text available
We review research supporting biological mechanisms in the development of sexual orientation. This research includes studies on neural correlates, prenatal hormones and related physical/behavioral correlates, genetics, and the fraternal birth order effect (FBOE). These studies, taken together, have provided substantial support for biological influe...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a direct test of an immunological explanation of the finding that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This explanation posits that some mothers develop antibodies against a Y-linked protein important in male brain development, and that this effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestatio...
Article
Contemporary models of sexual identity emphasize variability in " coming out ". To date, little research has examined the potential role of personality and individual differences. In a Canadian community sample of same-sex attracted men (N = 257), greater openness to experience (i.e., openness) and lower religiosity were associated with an earlier...
Article
Previous research has examined self-identified sexual orientation in relation to self-reports on the Big Five personality factors. Here we extend this research by including asexuality as a fourth sexual orientation and by assessing the HEXACO personality factors, using self-report data from a large anonymous online sample (N ≈ 100,000). A large ove...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have indicated that gay men tend to be shorter, on average, than heterosexual men. Less evidence exists that lesbian women are taller, on average, than heterosexual women. The most popular explanation of the association between sexual orientation and height involves prenatal factors, such that, for example, gay men may have been...
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings suggest that there may be a maternal immune response underpinning the etiology of sexual orientation of gay male only-children. This maternal immune response appears to be distinct from that which is purported to explain the classic fraternal birth order effect found in studies of male sexual orientation. We tested two predictions r...
Article
Full-text available
en Are advertisements that tell consumers they deserve a product effective? Given evidence showing people are motivated to get what they deserve, we argue that for certain consumers this is the case. In two experiments, we manipulated the type of ad participants viewed for a luxury product and then assessed ad effectiveness. We also measured partic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some evidence suggests that prenatal androgens influence both handedness and sexual orientation. This study sought to clarify how androgens, handedness, and sexual orientation are interrelated. Methods: Data were obtained from large samples of students enrolled at universities in Malaysia and the US, including self-reported informati...
Article
**I have uploaded a corrected version of the article on March 16, 2016. A correction was made with the labels "androphilic" and "gynephilic in the abstract and methods. Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether a...
Chapter
Research into the various influences on sexual orientation development has increased over the past 15–30 years. In this article, the key findings of the research into the biological influences on sexual orientation development are discussed. Specifically, biological influences are discussed in relation to prenatal hormones, genetics, the brain, the...
Article
Full-text available
Several individual difference domains include variables that show substantial sex differences and may be considered indicators of masculinity/femininity (M/F). We examined the structure of gender-related characteristics from three domains (vocational interests, personality characteristics, and sociosexually relevant sexual fantasies) to determine w...
Article
Full-text available
In this review article, human asexuality, a relatively understudied phenomenon, is discussed. Specifically, definitions and conceptualizations of asexuality (e.g., is it a unique category of sexual orientation?), biological and historical contexts, identity issues, discrimination against asexual people relative to other minorities, origins, and var...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence th...
Article
Full-text available
Biological models have typically framed sexual orientation in terms of effects of variation in fetal androgen signaling on sexual differentiation, although other biological models exist. Despite marked sex differences in facial structure, the relationship between sexual orientation and facial structure is understudied. A total of 52 lesbian women,...
Article
Full-text available
Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 201315. Conley , T. D. , Ziegler , A. , Moors , A. C. , Matsick , J. L. , & Valentine , B. ( 2013 ). A critical examination of popular a...
Article
Objective In two studies, we explored the relations between psychopathic traits and sexual fantasy content. METHOD: In Study 1, we rated content themes in the fantasy narratives of 195 men and women recruited at a Canadian university. In Study 2, we administered a sexual fantasy questionnaire to sample of 355 Canadian undergraduate students.Results...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the relationship between physical size and sexual orientation was examined. Participants were men and women comprising the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey (N > 3,500), which employed a national probability sample from China. This survey is important because no research has examined these issues in a representative, non-W...
Chapter
Full-text available
Asexuality has begun to receive both academic (e.g., Bogaert 2004, 2006a, 2008; Prause and Graham 2007; Brotto et al. 2010; Poston and Baumle 2010) and public (e.g., New Scientist; Pagán Westfall 2004) attention. Why does the study of asexuality matter, aside from the scientific and public curiosity about a sexual minority that has been overlooked...
Article
Research suggests that self-reports of personal attributes, including physical characteristics, are often distorted. The present study examined discrepancies between self- and observer or actual reports of attractiveness, height, and weight, and investigated the role of esteem and gender role scales in the prediction of such discrepancies. Results...
Article
Full-text available
I present evidence that target-oriented paraphilias may occur in some who report no sexual attraction for others or those who identify as asexual. One target-oriented paraphilia in some asexual people is a disconnection between their identity and a sexual target/object. I name this phenomenon autochorissexualism or "identity-less" sexuality.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examined whether aspects of the masculine gender role predict the distortion of self-reported height in men. The sample of men (N = 220) were from a mid-sized university in Ontario, Canada and ranged in age from 17.92 through 29.25years. The men reported their height and completed scales measuring masculine, gender-related charact...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present research was to test the mediating roles of body shame and appearance anxiety in the relation between self-surveillance and self-esteem; and to investigate whether gender (male, female) and stereotypical gender roles (masculinity, femininity) moderated the proposed mediation model. Canadian undergraduate university men an...
Article
We examined the relations of psychopathy with physical attractiveness, several aspects of sexual behavior, and appearance-related self-esteem. In a mixed-sex sample of 198 undergraduate students, we found substantial sex differences in the correlates of psychopathy. Consistent with previous research, psychopathy was associated with early and promis...
Chapter
Birth order has often been viewed as an important determinant of personality. In the early 1900s, the psychoanalyst Alfred Adler argued that birth order influences parental care directed toward, and the dynamics among, siblings. According to Adler, firstborns receive a favoured position from parents. However, in multiple sibling households, firstbo...
Article
Several studies have examined men’s attractiveness in relation to the index-to-ring-finger (2D:4D) ratio, which may be linked to prenatal androgen levels. These studies have yielded conflicting results and have not controlled for related characteristics (i.e., body size and masculine personality/sex role). The present study again examined this rela...
Article
Full-text available
In a questionnaire study, we examined the age of “coming out” (i.e., acknowledging one's sexual identity) in gay and bisexual men as predicted by belief in a just world (BJW), personal efficacy (PE), physical attractiveness, childhood gender identity/role, and demographics. As hypothesized, men with a higher BJW, greater physical attractiveness, gr...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, three physical development characteristics-weight, height, and age of menarche-were examined for their relation to sexual orientation. Participants were men and women comprising the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles-2000 (N > 11,000). Participants completed self-report measures of sexual orientation, height, w...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between women's timing of menarche and father absence was examined in a national probability sample of Great Britain (NATSAL 2000; N>5000). Current body mass index (as a proxy for childhood weight) was examined as a potential mediator of this relationship, along with the potential moderating role that siblings (e.g. number of older bro...
Article
On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk involv...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence indicates that 2 of the most consistently observed correlates of men's sexual orientation--handedness and older brothers--may be linked interactively in their prediction of men's sexual orientation. In this article, the authors studied the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and men's sexual orientation in the large and h...
Article
Full-text available
Two of the most consistent correlates of sexual orientation in men are handedness and fraternal birth order (i.e., number of older brothers). In the present study, the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation was studied in 4 samples of heterosexual and gay or bisexual men (N = 944). Unlike previous studies, which have...
Article
Full-text available
Birth order is correlated with male sexual orientation, but the reason(s) for this relationship is unclear. In the present study, data from a Canadian sample of homosexual and heterosexual men (N=604) were used to present evidence of two independent birth order interactions--one with height and the other with parental age--predicting sexual orienta...
Article
Full-text available
Asexuality has been the subject of recent academic (A. F. Bogaert, 2004) and public (e.g., New Scientist; CNN) discourse. This has raised questions about the conceptualization and definition of asexuality. Here the author reviews some of these issues, discusses asexuality from a sexual orientation point of view (i.e., as a lack of sexual attractio...
Article
This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to “successful development” (Baltes, P. B., Am. Psychol. 32:366–380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA; n=124)...
Article
Full-text available
The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total...
Article
Research has shown that, under certain conditions, people with a strong belief in a just world (BJW) perceive themselves to be less at risk for serious negative events (e.g., contracting AIDS). We extended this work by investigating the relation between BJW and high-risk sexual behavior Gay and bisexual men (N= 102) responded to a questionnaire tha...
Article
The present study investigated evidence for an interaction between two of the best established etiologic factors, or markers of etiologic factors, in the literature on male homosexuality: fraternal birth order and hand preference. By combining five samples, the authors produced study groups of 1774 right-handed heterosexuals, 287 non-right-handed h...
Chapter
Research examining homosexual men’s sibling sex ratio, the ratio of brothers to sisters collectively reported by a group of individuals, is reviewed. This review includes summaries of two recent studies (with three samples) by the author examining issues not addressed in the extant literature. These two studies either indicate that homosexual men d...
Article
Full-text available
The relations between intactness of the parental unit (e.g., father absent at age 14) and pubertal timing in both men and women were examined in a US national probability sample. In both men and women, an absent father at age 14 predicted an earlier age of puberty (e.g., early menarche or voice change). There was little evidence that an absent moth...
Article
Previous research has suggested that homosexual men's sibling sex ratio-the ratio of brothers to sisters collectively reported by a group of individuals-is elevated but only in samples of extremely feminine (e.g., transsexual) homosexual men. I conducted an additional test of a sibling sex ratio effect in a general sample of homosexual men (N = 237...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether sexual orientation differences in gambling exist that parallel those for sex—a question motivated by the idea that male homosexuality arises from prenatal brain feminization and that female homosexuality arises from prenatal brain masculinization. For gambling frequency, we hypothesized that male h...
Article
One line of research on the etiology of sexual orientation has examined sibling sex ratio, the ratio of brothers to sisters collectively reported by a group of individuals, but this research has only used clinical and/or convenience samples. In the present study, homosexual men and women's sibling sex ratio was examined in two national probability...
Article
The prevalence of male homosexuality probably varies over time and across societies. One reason for this variation may be the joint effect of two factors: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect, the finding that the odds of male homosexuality increases with each additional older brother. Because of...
Article
Full-text available
I used data from a national probability sample (N > 18,000) of British residents to investigate asexuality, defined as having no sexual attraction to a partner of either sex. Approximately 1% (n = 195) of the sample indicated they were asexual. A number of factors were related to asexuality, including gender (i.e., more women than men), short statu...
Article
Homosexuality in men correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, greater numbers of older brothers being associated with a greater probability of homosexuality. There are reasons to believe that this relationship is causal rather than merely statistical, that is, that older brothers produce the increase in the probability of homosexua...
Article
A birth order and sexual orientation relationship has been demonstrated numerous times in men, but a related variable, parental age (i.e. age of parents when the participant was born), has been less studied and has demonstrated contradictory results. In this research, the relations among birth order, parental age and sexual orientation were examine...
Article
Full-text available
A late fraternal birth order has been demonstrated numerous times in homosexual men. Body size has been less studied with regard to the development of sexual orientation and has demonstrated contradictory results. In this research, the relations among fraternal birth order, body size, and sexual orientation were examined in a Canadian sample of hom...
Article
Numerous studies indicate that homosexual men have, on average, more older brothers than do heterosexual men. One explanation of the "older brother" effect comes from D. J. Bem (1996), who argued that an increased number of older brothers in homosexual men can result if older brothers enhance a feminine boy's sense of being different from (and henc...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which number of older brothers or "fraternal birth order" predicted the 2 main components that researchers have traditionally used to conceptualize sexual orientation-that is, psychological attraction and sexual behavior-was examined in 2 recent national probability samples. In both studies, fraternal birth order predicted same-sex at...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which number of older brothers or "fraternal birth order" predicted the 2 main components that researchers have traditionally used to conceptualize sexual orientation--that is, psychological attraction and sexual behavior--was examined in 2 recent national probability samples. In both studies, fraternal birth order predicted same-sex...
Article
The relations between adult attachment processes and sexuality were examined in a community sample of 792 young adults (327 men and 465 women) from the Niagara region of Canada. Participants completed questionnaires that included Simpson’s (1990) measure of adult attachment, self-reported physical attractiveness, erotophilia, and a variety of sexua...
Article
Research using non-representative samples indicates that certain sex-dimorphic physical, developmental and behavioral variables predict sexual orientation. In this study, three sex-dimorphic physical development variables-height, weight, and age of puberty/sexual maturation-and sexual orientation were examined in a British national probability samp...
Article
Full-text available
In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived general...
Article
Full-text available
The relations between sexual orientation and age of puberty in both men and women were examined in a national probability sample of the United States. The sample was the National Health and Social Life Survey (E. O. Laumann, J. H. Gagnon, R. T. Michael, & S. Michaels, 1994), which contains 3432 cases. Gay/bisexual men reported an earlier age of pub...
Article
Number of older brothers (or "fraternal" birth order) predicts a homosexual orientation in men but not in women. In this paper, I review recent research on the fraternal birth order effect. For example, I present a recent study using two national probability samples that indicates that number of older brothers increases homosexual attraction but no...
Article
A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offen...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which personality and individual differences predict preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media was examined. Personality (e.g., intelligence, aggression) and individual difference factors (e.g., prior sexual experience) were assessed in 160 undergraduate men. These men also indicated their preferences for and choice...
Article
Full-text available
Whether homosexual pedophiles have more older brothers (a higher fraternal birth order) than do heterosexual pedophiles was investigated. Subjects were 260 sex offenders (against children age 14 or younger) and 260 matched volunteer controls. The subject's relative attraction to male and female children was assessed by phallometric testing in one a...
Article
The relations between birth order and sexual orientation in both men and women were examined in a national probability sample of the United States (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994). In addition, a possible mechanism that may underlie a birth order/sexual orientation relationship—sibling sexual activity/influence—was examined in these dat...
Article
Full-text available
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67846/2/10.1177_109019818901600104.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Two studies examined the relation between intelligence and men's sexual attitudes and interpersonal behavior with a woman after viewing pornography. Undergraduate men were assessed for IQ, viewed one of several films, then were assessed on various dependent measures, including interpersonal behavior with a female confederate. Lower IQ men were more...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between sexual orientation and penile dimensions in a large sample of men was studied. Subjects were 5122 men interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. They were dichotomously classified as either homosexual (n = 935) or heterosexual (n = 4187). Penile dimensions were assessed...
Article
Homosexual men erotically attracted to physically mature partners typically have more older brothers than comparable heterosexual men. We investigated whether late fraternal birth positions also occur in homosexuals attracted to children or pubescents. Probands were 710 sex offenders from Gebhard et al.'s (1965) study of sexual offending. Homosexua...
Article
Researchers interested in the development of sexual orientation have investigated predominantly or exclusively White samples. To address this imbalance, the relations between sexual orientation and two biodemographic variables, birth order and sibling sex ratio, were examined in a sample of non-White men. The men (N = 823) were interviewed by inves...
Article
This research examined the relations between sexual orientation and certain physical development variables, i.e. weight, height, and age of puberty, in women. Subjects were 5476 nondelinquent women who were interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. Subjects were dichotomously classified as...
Article
Full-text available
One of the world's largest databases on human sexuality was used to investigate whether lesbians, like homosexual men, have a later birth order relative to heterosexual comparisons. The women (N > 5,000) were interviewed by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. The women were dichotomously classified as l...
Article
Full-text available
This study extended research on birth order and erotic preferences by examining birth order in a sample of pedophiles. Charts of 338 pedophiles, assessed from 1980-1994 in the Behavioural Sexology Department of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, were reviewed for family-demographic information. In total, 170 (57 heterosexual pedophiles,...
Article
The study investigated whether homosexual men are, on average, born a shorter time after their next-older siblings than are heterosexual men. Because of mixed evidence that birth intervals are longer after a male child, the sex of the next-older sibling was included as a control variable. The probands were 220 heterosexual and 183 homosexual men wi...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined genital asymmetry in a large sample of men. The probands were 6544 non-delinquent men who were interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. The measures were four indicators of penile and scrotal asymmetry, along with self-reported handedness, from Kinsey's interview protoco...
Article
Research has shown that male homosexuality tends to cluster in families and that homosexual males have, on average, a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual males. This study investigated whether the former, between-families effect and the latter, within-families effect are additive. The subjects were 717 full siblings over age 40 re...
Article
Full-text available
Relations between sexual orientation and several biodemographic variables previously reported to differentiate between homosexual and heterosexual men were examined. Subjects were 4948 white, postpubertal males, who were never reared in foster homes, orphanages, or other institutions, and were never arrested or convicted on criminal charges. These...
Article
The relationship between sexual orientation and handedness in a large sample of men was examined. Subjects were 6544 nondelinquent men interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. Subjects were classified as either homosexual (n=1004) or heterosexual (n=4579). Results failed to demonstrate a d...
Article
This study examined the relations between sexual orientation and certain physical development variables in men. The participants were 318 homosexual and 318 heterosexual men closely matched on age. The participants completed an anonymous, 10-minute, self-report questionnaire that included items on their sexual orientation, height, weight and age of...
Article
The extent to which personality, social behavior, and sexuality differed in undergraduate males under two different types of recruitment, volunteer and nonvolunteer, was investigated. Nonvolunteers (N = 160) were ostensibly recruited for a study on personality, and volunteers (N = 204) were overtly recruited for a study on human sexuality. Both sam...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether homosexual men have a higher mean birth order than heterosexual men primarily because they have more older brothers or because they have more older siblings of both sexes. For the main analyses, 302 heterosexual men were individually matched on year of birth with an equal number of heterosexual men. Each completed a...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the role of personality (e.g., hypermasculinity, sensation seeking) and physical individual differences (testosterone, physical attractiveness) in predicting university men's (N = 215) number of sexual partners. Significant zero‐order correlations occurred between number of sexual partners and sensation seeking, hypermasculinity, physic...
Article
Three samples of male and female students from a Canadian university (total N = 669), including 73 Oriental students, were used to investigate the relationships among personality, delinquency and sexuality. Correlational and regression analyses generally revealed significant relationships among these measures, with zero-order correlations reaching...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the magazine Playboy was subjected to a content analysis. Centrefold models in 430 issues from 1953 through 1990 were coded for explicitness, objectification (e.g., face not visible), and age. Curvilinear trends were observed for both explicitness and objectification, such that explicitness was found to increase over time until level...
Article
Across species, r/K reproductive strategies have been postulated to underlie a tradeoff that exists between mating effort and parental effort, also hypothesized to mediate encephalization, longevity, rate of maturation, and altruism. Recent analyses have extrapolated this framework to human differences. Here a test is provided with data gathered fr...