Anthony J Blazevich

Anthony J Blazevich
Edith Cowan University · School of Exercise and Health Sciences

PhD

About

267
Publications
148,190
Reads
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9,209
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2015 - present
Edith Cowan University
Position
  • Professor of Biomechanics
January 2008 - October 2015
Edith Cowan University
Position
  • Associate Professor, Biomechanics
June 2001 - December 2007
Brunel University London
Position
  • Lecturer/Research lecturer/Reader

Publications

Publications (267)
Article
Full-text available
Temporal biomechanical and physiological responses to physical activity vary between individual hamstrings components as well as between exercises, suggesting that hamstring muscles operate differently, and over different lengths, between tasks. Nevertheless, the force-length properties of these muscles have not been thoroughly investigated. The pr...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilised feedback from older adults during balance-challenging, elastic band resistance exercises to design a physical activity (PA) intervention. Methods: Twenty-three active participants, aged 51-81 years, volunteered to perform a mini balance evaluation test and falls efficacy scale, and completed a daily living questionnaire. Follo...
Preprint
Full-text available
A well-coordinated control of motor neuronal persistent inward currents (PICs) via diffuse neuromodulation and local inhibition is essential to ensure motor units discharge at required times and frequencies. Current best estimates indicate that PICs are reduced in older adults; however, it is not yet known whether PIC facilitation-inhibition contro...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of maximal isometric finger flexor force and blood acid-base balance during repeated simulated matches in world-class judokas. Methods: Seven 21- to 28-year-old world-class female judokas (including Olympic and World Championship medalists) repeated four 4-minute judo combats inte...
Article
Introduction: Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) fascicle length (Lf), fascicle angle (FA), and muscle thickness (MT) estimates obtained across two days from extended field-of-view (EFOV) sonographic images were compared to those measured from a Collage of single ultrasound images (to visualize entire fascicles) as well as a range of geometric equatio...
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of this narrative review was to outline the historical genesis of resistance training strategies that incorporate high-load, low-velocity exercises and low-load, high-velocity exercises in the same training session allowing for different "exercise sequences" to be simultaneously implemented. Discrepancies between scientific works an...
Conference Paper
Background and aim: Serotonin and noradrenaline release in the spinal cord are critical to motoneuron firing. Without the influence of these neuromodulators, we would not be able to produce more than 40% of our maximum motor output. An important part of this neuromodulation is the activation of persistent (long-lasting) inward currents (PICs) that...
Conference Paper
Background: Persistent inward currents (PICs) in motoneurons greatly influence their responsiveness to synaptic input. As PICs are enhanced by monoamines, we hypothesised that increased noradrenaline release induced by mental stress would increase PICs in humans. Methods: Surface electromyograms (EMG) collected using a 32-electrode matrix on gastr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Elastic strain energy is stored and released from long, distal tendons such as the Achilles during locomotion, reducing locomotor energy cost by minimising muscle shortening distance and speed, and thus activation. However, numerous additional, often unrecognised, advantages of long tendons may speculatively be of greater evolutionary advantage, in...
Article
Full-text available
Severe-intensity constant work rate (CWR) cycling tests simulate the high-intensity competition environment and are useful for monitoring training progression and adaptation, yet impose significant physiological and psychological strain, require substantial recovery, and may disrupt athlete training or competition preparation. A brief, minimally fa...
Article
The present study examined (i) the magnitude of rate of torque development (RTD), and (ii) the between-day reliability of RTD at the start of a cycling sprint when sprint resistance, sprint duration, and the pedal downstroke were altered. Nineteen well-trained cyclists completed one familiarisation and three testing sessions. Each session involved...
Preprint
The rate of initial acceleration during the first steps of a maximal-effort (sprint) run often determines success or failure in prey capture and predator evasion, and is a vital factor of success in many modern sports. However, accelerative events are commonly performed after having already run considerable distances, and the associated fatigue sho...
Article
Full-text available
Key points: Spinal motoneurons transmit signals to skeletal muscles to regulate their contraction. Motoneuron firing partly depends on their intrinsic properties, such as the strength of persistent (long-lasting) inward currents (PICs) that make motoneurons more responsive to excitatory input. In this study, we demonstrate that both reciprocal inh...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of eccentric (ECC) versus concentric (CON) strength training of the upper body performed twice a week for 10 weeks followed by detraining for five weeks on maximal force, muscle activation, muscle mass and serum hormone concentrations were investigated in young women (n = 11 and n = 12). One-repetition bench press (1RM), maximal isometric f...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We investigated the effects of three different unilateral isoinertial resistance training protocols with eccentric-overload on changes in lean mass and muscle function of trained (TL) and contralateral non-trained (NTL) legs. Methods Physically-active university students were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control g...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study tested the hypothesis that prepubertal boys, but not untrained men, would exhibit a similar post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation as well-trained adult male endurance athletes. Methods Twelve prepubertal boys (12.3 ± 1.6 years), 14 untrained men (21.8 ± 2.2 years) and 16 well-trained adult male endurance athletes (24.5 ± 4....
Article
Nervous system maladaptation is linked to the loss of maximal strength and motor control with aging. Motor unit discharge rates are a critical determinant of force production; thus, lower discharge rates could be a mechanism underpinning maximal strength and motor control losses during aging. This meta-analysis summarized the findings of studies co...
Article
The present study investigated the acute effects of a mixed-modality, long-duration adventure race on pulmonary function in adolescent athletes. Twenty male adolescents aged 14 to 17 years volunteered to participate in a wilderness adventure race of 68.5-km. Expiratory function was evaluated before, immediately after, and 24 h after race completion...
Article
Full-text available
Vibratory (Tvib) and sustained (Tsust) torque responses to concurrent Achilles tendon vibration and neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied over the muscle belly (vib+stim) are used as indicators of motoneuron facilitation and, theoretically, persistent inward current strength. However, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) applied to th...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance exercises eliciting eccentric overload (EO) are considered to strongly promote muscular hypertrophy and broad neuromuscular adaptations, but typically require specialized equipment. The aims of these experiments were to assess whether EO is achieved during common high‐speed stretch‐shortening cycle (SSC) exercises (rebound bench press th...
Article
While muscle stretching has been commonly used to alleviate pain, reports of its effectiveness are conflicting. The objective of this review is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of stretching on pain, including delayed onset muscle soreness. The few studies implementing acute stretching protocols have reported small to large magnitude de...
Article
Age-related deterioration within both motoneuron and monoaminergic systems should theoretically reduce neuromodulation by weakening motoneuronal persistent inward current (PIC) amplitude. However, this assumption remains untested. Surface electromyographic signals were collected using two 32-channel electrode matrices placed on soleus and tibialis...
Preprint
The ability to shift from walking and jogging to sprinting gaits, even when fatigued after prolonged effort, would have been as useful to our hunter-gatherer ancestors as it is to modern athletes. During prolonged jogging, joint moment and work decrease in the distal (ankle) joint but increase at proximal (hip/knee) joints as fatigue progresses, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe-intensity constant work rate (CWR) cycling tests are useful for monitoring training progression and adaptation as they impose significant physiological and psychological strain and thus simulate the high-intensity competition environment. However, fatiguing tests require substantial recovery and may disrupt athlete training or competition pr...
Article
Evidence for the effectiveness of acute and chronic stretching for improving range of motion is extensive. Improved flexibility can positively impact performances in activities of daily living and both physical and mental health. However, less is known about the effects of stretching on other aspects of health such as injury incidence and balance....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Recently it has been suggested that a cellular pathway composed of integrin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR), and Akt may facilitate long-term structural and functional adaptations associated with exercise, independent of the mTORC1 pathway. Therefore, we examined changes in integrin-ILK-RICT...
Article
The vertical jump test is one of the simplest and most prevalent physical tests used in practice and research. This study investigated the validity and reliability of a new mobile application (Jumpo) for measuring jump performance on Android devices. University-aged students (n = 10; 20 ± 3 years; 176 ± 6 cm; 68 ± 9 kg) reported to the laboratory o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Age-related deterioration within both motor neurones and monoaminergic systems should theoretically reduce neuromodulation by weakening motor neuronal persistent inward current (PIC) amplitude. However, this assumption remains untested. Surface electromyographic signals were collected using two 32-channel electrode matrices placed on soleus and tib...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of 6 weeks of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on maximum voluntary plantar flexor strength, muscle activity via surface electromyography (EMG), and muscle architecture measured at rest and during maximal contraction at different ankle joint angles in young healthy adults. Using a single-b...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of changes in indirect muscle damage markers would be greater after maximal elbow flexor eccentric exercise in the supinated (shorter biceps brachii) than neutral wrist (longer) position, and the difference in the magnitude would be associated with greater elongation over contractions for the supinated th...
Article
We studied the effect of pennate vs. fusiform muscle architecture on the rate of torque development (RTD) by examining the predominately fusiform elbow flexors (EF) and highly-pennate knee extensors (KE). Seventeen male volunteers (28.4±6.2 years) performed explosive isometric EF and KE contractions (MVCs). Biceps brachii and vastus lateralis fasci...
Article
Purpose: To characterize the acute effects of a long-duration adventure race on knee extensor (KE) fatigue and the knee functional ratio in adolescent athletes. Methods: Twenty trained male adolescents (aged 14-17 y) performed an adventure race of 68.5 km. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) KE and knee flexor torques were measured be...
Article
This study aimed to examine the effect of intense intermittent lower-body and trunk exercise (rowing) on punching performance in 28 highly-trained male amateur boxers. Straight- and bent-arm punch performances were assessed with a custom-built punch integrator using a 3-min maximal-effort punch test, completed in both non-fatigued (ROWpre) and fati...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We examined changes in plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, hydroxyproline and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations in relation to changes in maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following a session of volume-matched higher- (HI) versus lower-intensity (LI) eccentric cycling exercis...
Article
Prolonged static muscle stretching transiently reduces maximal muscle force, and this force loss has a strong neural component. In this review, we discuss the evidence suggesting that stretching reduces the motoneuron's ability to amplify excitatory drive. We propose a hypothetical model in which stretching causes physiological relaxation, reducing...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for rehabilitation is proportional to the evoked torque. The progressive increase in torque (extra torque) that may develop in response to low intensity wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF) NMES holds great promise for rehabilitation as it overcomes the main limitation of NMES, namely dis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The present study investigated the acute effects of a mixed-modality, long-duration adventure race on pulmonary function in adolescent athletes. Methods: Twenty male adolescents aged 14 to 17 years volunteered to participate in a simulated competitive wilderness adventure race of 68.5-km. Expiratory function was evaluated by spirometry w...
Article
To investigate changes in muscle spindle sensitivity with early and late soleus reflex responses via tendon taps and transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively, after an acute bout of prolonged static plantar flexor muscle stretching. Seventeen healthy males were tested before and after 5 min (5 ´ 60-s stretches) of passive static stretching o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Simultaneous application of tendon vibration and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) induces an involuntary sustained torque. We examined the effect of different NMES parameters (intensity, pattern of stimulation and pulse width) on the magnitude of the evoked involuntary torque. Methods: Plantar flexor torque was recorded during...
Article
Full-text available
Hamstring strain injury (HSI) remains the most common muscle injury in high-intensity running in humans. The majority of acute HSI occur specifically within the proximal region of the long head of biceps femoris and there is a sustained interest among researchers in understanding the factors that predispose to HSI. The present critical review descr...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas a variety of pre-exercise activities have been incorporated as part of a “warm-up” prior to work, combat, and athletic activities for millennia, the inclusion of static stretching (SS) within a warm-up has lost favor in the last 25 years. Research emphasized the possibility of SS-induced impairments in subsequent performance following prolo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nervous system maladaptation is linked to the loss of muscle force production and motor control with aging. However, the mechanisms specifically underpinning these muscle functional limitations remain unclear. Motoneuron discharge rates are a critical determinant of force production and strongly impact motor control; thus, lower discharge rates cou...
Article
Full-text available
Pacing profiles of 19 elite and sub-elite 200-m kayak athletes were examined through stroke-by-stroke analysis, using GPS/accelerometer methodology. Stroke rates and lengths were also quantified across multiple race segments. Whilst athletes reached peak velocity at between 40 and 60 m, it was not possible to determine specifically whether an all-o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: To test the hypothesis that estimates of persistent inward currents in the human plantar flexors would increase with the level of voluntary drive. Methods: Twenty-one participants volunteered for this study (29.2±2.6 years). High-density surface electromyograms were collected from soleus and gastrocnemius medialis during ramp-shaped isometric...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses induced by high-intensity resistance circuit-based (HRC) and traditional strength (TS) training protocols. Ten amateur soccer players reported to the laboratory on four occasions: (1) protocol familiarization and load determination; (2) maximal...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThis study examined whether additional external load during the eccentric phase of lower limb strength training exercises led to greater adaptations in knee extensor strength, muscle architecture, and patellar tendon properties than traditional concentric–eccentric training in already-trained men.Methods Twenty-eight men accustomed to streng...
Article
Background Nursing is a high-risk occupation for work-related musculoskeletal disorders and many nursing students have a history of musculoskeletal symptoms. Aims To quantify (1) changes in exercise and musculoskeletal symptoms from pre-registration to 12-month registered nurses, and (2) the best predictor of severity of musculoskeletal symptoms f...
Article
Prolonged (≥60 s) passive muscle stretching acutely reduces maximal force production at least partly through a suppression of efferent neural drive. The origin of this neural suppression has not been determined, however some evidence suggests that reductions in the amplitude of persistent inward currents (PICs) in the motoneurons may be important....
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to quantify explosive joint torque or the ability to develop joint torque rapidly, typically measured as the rate of torque development, in individuals with prodromal Huntington's disease and healthy controls and its associations with measures of disease burden and striatal pathology. Twenty prodromal Huntington's d...
Article
Temporal changes in ground reaction force magnitudes reflect movement strategy, and thus underlying muscle activation patterns, during movement tasks. Speculatively, these changes may be observed more readily when the force-time signal is differentiated, yielding the yank-time signal. However, the differentiation process, including the signal filte...
Article
Full-text available
Detailed examinations of both the movement and muscle activation patterns used by animals and humans to complete complex tasks are difficult to obtain in many environments. Therefore, the ability to infer movement and muscle activation patterns after capture of a single set of easily obtained data is highly sought after. One possible solution to th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prolonged (≥60 s) passive muscle stretching acutely reduces maximal force production at least partly through a suppression of efferent neural drive. The origin of this neural suppression has not been determined, however some evidence suggests that reductions in the amplitude of persistent inward currents (PICs) in the motoneurons may be important....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background and aim: The mechanisms by which jaw clenching can enhance muscular force production are unclear, although facilitation of persistent inward currents (PICs) from brainstem derived serotonin could be involved. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and previous research suggests that voluntary contraction of one muscle may...
Article
Full-text available
The reliability and validity of maximal mean speed (MMS), maximal mean metabolic power (MMPmet), critical speed (CS) and critical metabolic power (CPmet) were examined throughout the 2016-2017 soccer National Youth League competitions. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 20 sub-elite soccer players during a battery of maximal r...
Article
Full-text available
Isolated injury to the long head of biceps femoris is the most common type of acute hamstring strain injury (HSI). However, the precise hamstring injury mechanism (i.e., sprint-type) is still not well understood, and research is inconclusive as to which phase in the running cycle HSI risk is the greatest. Since detailed information relating to hams...