Anthony Biglan

Anthony Biglan
Oregon Research Institute | ORI

Ph.D.

About

212
Publications
120,748
Reads
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15,725
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 1993 - December 1998
Kaiser Permanente
January 1985 - December 2012

Publications

Publications (212)
Article
The threats of climate change to human well-being are well-documented and are growing in number and intensity. Despite the international community investing heavily in technological innovation and policy initiatives to solve the problem, emissions continue to rise. Experts are recognizing that eliminating emissions cannot be achieved without modify...
Article
Full-text available
Background This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a behavioral assessment instrument primarily intended for use with workgroups in any type of organization. The instrument was developed based on the Nurturing Environments framework which describes four domains important for health, well-being, and productivity; minimizi...
Article
There is no question that climate change threatens the very existence of the human species. Indeed, there is mounting evidence that the sixth mass extinction event is well and truly underway. Mitigating the threats imposed by a warming climate requires a dynamic and coordinated approach, including a strong international coalition embodied by the Pa...
Article
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This paper describes the culture and components of the PAX Good Behavior Game and offers it as one model for how to enhance the well-being of populations through the diffusion of nurturing practices into several venues of society. The PAX components, also known as evidence-based kernels, are proposed to be useful in classrooms, families, organizati...
Preprint
Background This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a behavioral assessment instrument primarily intended for use with workgroups in any type of organization. The instrument was developed based on the Nurturing Environments framework which describes four domains important for health, well-being, and productivity; minimizi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of the relevant literature, and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. The results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide int...
Article
This paper argues that diverse disciplines within the human sciences have converged in identifying the conditions that human beings need to thrive and the programs, policies, and practices that are needed to foster well-being. In the interest of promoting this view, we suggest that this convergence might usefully be labeled “The Nurture Consilience...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. The results indicate that little experimental evaluation exists on community interventions to reduce greenhous...
Article
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Despite significant progress in research on the treatment and prevention of psychological, behavioral, and health problems, the translation of this knowledge into population-wide benefit remains limited. This paper reviews the state of America’s children and families, highlighting the influence of stressful contextual and social conditions on child...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant stress and anxiety for many parents around the world. Psychological flexibility and self-care are fundamental aspects of psychological health. For parents, shaping these processes may help promote family nurturance, support children’s prosocial behavior, and provide effective and consistent use of...
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Parents managing their home environments during government-ordered stay-at-home periods are likely to need new skills for occupying their children’s time with activities that promote health and emotional well-being. Moreover, parents and children know they need help managing these circumstances. Perhaps for the first time, behavior analysts hold th...
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In this study, we tested the effects of cooperative learning on students’ prosocial behavior. Cooperative learning is a small-group instructional technique that establishes positive interdependence among students and, unlike most current school-based programs, does not mandate a formal curriculum. Given the emphasis in cooperative learning on peer...
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This paper examines the misalignment between modern human society and certain male phenotypes, a misalignment that has been highlighted and explored in great detail in the work of Tom Dishion. We begin by briefly enumerating the ongoing developmental difficulties of many boys and young men and how these difficulties affect them and those around the...
Article
This article reviews the evidence regarding behavioral science approaches to the prevention of substance use disorders. Prevention science grew out of research on family and school-based interventions that were designed to treat common behavioral problems of children and adolescents. That research showed that the amelioration of problems such as ag...
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While the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use has raised concerns about potential influences on marijuana use and beliefs among youth, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. We examined the association between medical marijuana patients and licensed growers per 1000 population in 32 Oregon counties from 2006 to 2015...
Article
Substantial evidence in the behavioral and social sciences has accrued in support of numerous intervention programs and policies bearing on improving the lives of children and families. To this end, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review features a special journal issue on “Evolving Toward a More Nurturing Society.” The field has achieved nume...
Article
Type II translational research tends to emphasize getting evidence-based programs implemented in real world settings. To fully realize the aspirations of prevention scientists, we need a broader strategy for translating knowledge about human wellbeing into population-wide improvements in wellbeing. Far-reaching changes must occur in policies and cu...
Article
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The success of translational research can ultimately be judged by the degree to which it reduces the incidence and prevalence of psychological, behavioral, and physical disorders and the major factors influencing them. In our view, we currently place insufficient emphasis on assessing our impact on the social determinants of disorders. As a result,...
Chapter
This chapter describes some of the developments that may emerge if the findings and methods of the contextual behavioral science (CBS) movement continue to make significant progress and influence the human sciences in general over the next half century. It then considers how research and practice of the contextual behavioral science community might...
Article
This chapter describes contextual behavioral science (CBS), its nature, origins, status, and future. It deals in succession with its foundational assumptions and strategies, basic work in language and cognition, contextual approaches to clinical interventions and assessment, and extensions of CBS across settings and populations. The chapter explore...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the ways that capitalism has both enhanced and detracted from well being. It offers an evolutionary account of capitalism and sketches its implications for evolving an economic and political system that more effectively contributes to human well being. Three of the most important and well-documented harms of the capitalist syst...
Chapter
This chapter describes functional contextualism, the philosophical foundation of the contextual behavioral science approach. It first discusses the historical context for the development of functional contextualism, beginning with the general philosophy of pragmatism or contextualism and B. F. Skinner's use of the framework in the development of be...
Book
The Wiley Handbook of Contextual Behavioral Science describes the philosophical and empirical foundation of the contextual behavioral science movement; it explores the history and goals of CBS, explains its core analytic assumptions, and describes Relational Frame Theory as a research and practice program. This is the first thorough examination of...
Article
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Major advances in population health will not occur unless we translate existing knowledge into effective multicomponent interventions, implement and maintain these in communities, and develop rigorous translational research and evaluation methods to ensure continual improvement and sustainability. We discuss challenges and offer approaches to evalu...
Article
We comment on the 2015 Society for Prevention Research standards of evidence document, summarizing major changes from the previous 2005 Standards, and point to ways in which the Standards could be further improved. We endorse important new standards, such as those on testing the causal theory and mechanisms of the intervention, improved trial repor...
Article
Despite extensive knowledge of how to prevent or ameliorate serious diseases, natural disasters, environmental degradation, and a wide range of other problems, we often fail to take action that that would prevent or mitigate these problematic outcomes. In short, although we may have sound scientific knowledge about threats to future wellbeing, we a...
Article
Teachers’ psychological well-being is important for teachers and students, but teaching is highly stressful, particularly in special education. We examined the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in the well-being of 529 middle and elementary school teachers. EA involves the tendency to avoid thoughts, feelings, and other internal experiences, even...
Article
Experiential avoidance (EA) consists of efforts to control or avoid unwanted emotions, upsetting memories, troubling thoughts, or physical pain and the contexts that occasion them, even when doing so creates problems over the long run. While substantial evidence finds EA to be a risk factor for diverse psychological problems, most of that evidence...
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Behavior analysis has produced a robust theoretical analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. Yet, thus far, the empirical yield of this work remains quite limited. With this paper, I attempt to provide specific examples of the ways to advance an experimental analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. I begin...
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Humans possess great capacity for behavioral and cultural change, but our ability to manage change is still limited. This article has two major objectives: first, to sketch a basic science of intentional change centered on evolution; second, to provide examples of intentional behavioral and cultural change from the applied behavioral sciences, whic...
Article
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We present a framework for a pragmatic science of cultural evolution. It is now possible for behavioral science to systematically influence the further evolution of cultural practices. As this science develops, it may become possible to prevent many of the problems affecting human wellbeing. By cultural practices, we refer to everything that humans...
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We thank the commentators for an extraordinarily diverse and constructive set of comments. Nearly all applaud our goal of sketching a unified science of change, even while raising substantive points that we look forward to addressing in our reply, which we group into the following categories: (1) What counts as evolutionary; (2) Ethical considerati...
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The current cross-sectional study examined psychological inflexibility, a process in which behavior is rigidly guided by psychological reactions rather than direct contingencies or personal values, as a transdiagnostic process relevant to a range of depressive, anxiety, substance use and eating disorders. A sample of 972 first-year college students...
Article
What is the purpose of a taxonomic system for prevention? From a functional contextualist perspective (Biglan & Hayes, 1996; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2012), one would hope that the system contributes to the prediction and influence of behavior with precision, scope, and depth (Biglan & Hayes, 1996; Hayes et al., 2012). We precisely predict and in...
Article
Full-text available
We present a framework for a pragmatic science of cultural evolution. It is now possible for behavioral science to systematically influence the further evolution of cultural practices. As this science develops, it may become possible to prevent many of the problems affecting human wellbeing. By cultural practices, we refer to everything that humans...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an evolutionary perspective on human development and wellbeing and contrasts it with the model of self-interest that is prominent in economics. The two approaches have considerably different implications for how human wellbeing might be improved. Research in psychology, prevention science, and neuroscience is converging on an e...
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High stress and burnout are common for early childhood special educators, contributing to high rates of attrition, diminished educational effectiveness, and high turnover. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of problems. Using a randomized wait-list control design, this...
Article
This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in their first year in college be...
Article
Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategie...
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The recent Institute of Medicine report on prevention (NationalResearch Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009) noted the substantial interrelationship among mental, emotional,and behavioral disorders and pointed out that, to a great extent, these problems stem from a set of common conditions. However, despite the evidence, current research and prac...
Article
Full-text available
The recent Institute of Medicine report on prevention (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009) noted the substantial interrelationship among mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and pointed out that, to a great extent, these problems stem from a set of common conditions. However, despite the evidence, current research and pr...
Article
Replication research is essential for the advancement of any scientific field. In this paper, we argue that prevention science will be better positioned to help improve public health if (a) more replications are conducted; (b) those replications are systematic, thoughtful, and conducted with full knowledge of the trials that have preceded them; and...
Article
Full-text available
Replication research is essential for the advancement of any scientific field. In this paper, we argue that prevention science will be better positioned to help improve public health if (a) more replications are conducted; (b) those replications are systematic, thoughtful, and conducted with full knowledge of the trials that have preceded them; and...
Article
This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were reliable...
Article
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Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Res...
Chapter
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This volume presents the most recent findings regarding underlying mechanisms in inhibitory control, documents its central role in the onset and continuation of drug abuse, and discusses the approaches that apply basic science knowledge to practice. The current evidence fits well with the nascent movement to improve the conditions that harm child d...
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The full benefit of prevention science will not be realized until we learn how to influence organizational practices. The marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and food and corporate advocacy for economic policies that maintain family poverty are examples of practices we must influence. This paper analyzes the evolution of such practices in terms of their...
Article
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An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury, but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the unsustai...
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Increasing the prevalence of caring in society could contribute to theevolution of a society that ensures the wellbeing of every member. Recent research onpsychological flexibility suggests that helping people to accept, but not believe, theirunpleasant thoughts and feelings contributes to people becoming more caring. This paperreviews evidence of...
Article
Comprehensive tobacco control programs have included school-based prevention programs as a key strategy to reach adolescents. Unfortunately, these programs have undergone extensive budget reductions in recent years. In 2003, funding for the Oregon Tobacco Prevention and Education Program was reduced by about 70%, and the school component was entire...
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In this review, we examine randomized controlled trials of community interventions to affect health. The evidence supports the efficacy of community interventions for preventing tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; several recent trials have shown the benefits of community interventions for preventing multiple problems of young people, including a...
Article
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Reducing youth access to tobacco is one of the key elements of the Centers for Disease Control Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control (1999). The present study is a dissemination-effectiveness trial evaluating the impact of Reward & Reminder (using commercially available materials, training services, data management, technical assistance,...
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This paper reports relationships between methamphetamine use and behaviors and social influences using data from a population-based survey of 8th- and 11th-grade students in Oregon for the 2001-2003 school years. We analyze methamphetamine use within a general problem behavior framework to identify malleable correlates of behavior for future preven...
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Recent research in behavior analysis and clinical psychology points to the importance of language processes having to do with the control of negative cognition and emotion and the commitment to valued action. Efforts to control unwanted thoughts and feelings, also referred to as experiential avoidance (EA), appear to be associated with a diverse ar...
Article
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This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior-influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of i...
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Full-text available
This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses one facet of the effort to translate growing behavioral science knowledge into concrete benefits - the evidence-based practices movement. We describe recent developments in this effort and present as a case study the experience of Norway in implementing evidence-based practices.
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In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the effect on tobacco use onset among middle school students of Family Communications (FC) activities designed to mobilize parental influences against tobacco use and Youth Anti-tobacco Activities (YAT) designed to market anti-tobacco norms to adolescents. We conducted a simple, two-condition experimen...
Article
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The present article briefly describes ACT, its underlying model, and the evidence in support of its efficacy. In order to provide an example of how to extend ACT to new problems, the paper then extends ACT thinking to the prevention of suicide and suicidality. ACT, both its model and applied techniques, appears to be supported by the evidence, sugg...
Article
The objective of this analysis was to identify variables that predict the initiation of smoking among adolescents, and the development of susceptibility to smoking, over a 2-year period. We assessed variables that might predict later smoking among nonsmoking students in grades 7 and 9 and assessed their smoking status 2 years later, when they were...
Article
This study assessed the risk of smoking uptake over 2 years in adolescent boys (in grades 7 and 9) who had used smokeless tobacco (ST). We used logistic regression to determine whether the odds of adolescent boys taking up regular smoking over a period of 2 years were greater among initial nonsmokers who used ST, compared with nonusers of ST, after...
Article
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Reducing youth access to commercial sources of alcohol is recognized as a necessary component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce underage drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, research on policy-relevant factors that may influence the commercial availability of alcohol to youth is limited. The present study examines characteristics of...
Article
This paper examines variability in adolescent self-reported behavior at the individual, cohort, and school levels for 8th and 11th graders. We examine four adolescent behaviors: substance use, antisocial behavior, depression, and academic performance. Research staff collected the data as part of the Oregon Healthy Teens survey of a population-based...
Article
A behavior-analytic account of the smoking acquisition process is presented and contrasted with other formulations. Assessment implications of the approach are described and briefly illustrated. Data from studies on the onset of experimental smoking and the transition to regular smoking are presented and evaluated with respect to the proposed frame...
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The authors calculated binary indicators of seven positive and 23 negative behaviours for 22,898 8th and 15,828 11th grade students who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey across two school years. Relationships among these variables, using both the Jaccard measure of co-occurrence and the relative risk for each member of each variable p...
Article
Concurrent and predictive relationships between peer harassment and problem behavior were examined for middle and high school students as well as gender differences in these relationships. Students recruited in fifth through seventh grades (n = 223) and their parents provided quarterly questionnaire data and were followed up into high school. As hy...
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Ever increasing demands for accountability, together with the proliferation of lists of evidence-based prevention programs and policies, led the Society for Prevention Research to charge a committee with establishing standards for identifying effective prevention programs and policies. Recognizing that interventions that are effective and ready for...
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This paper reports the effects of a two-year supplemental reading program for kindergarten through third grade students that focused on the development of decoding skills and reading fluency. Two hundred ninety-nine students were identified for participation and were randomly assigned to the supplemental instruction or to a no-treatment control gro...