Anthony Beech

Anthony Beech
University of Birmingham · School of Psychology

DPhil

About

314
Publications
456,816
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
Anthony Beech's particular areas of research interests are: risk assessment; the neurobiological bases of offending; reducing online exploitation of children; and increasing psychotherapeutic effectiveness of the treatment given to offenders. He has now professor emeritus at the University Of Birmingham
Additional affiliations
June 2003 - July 2003
Victoria University of Wellington
Position
  • Researcher
September 1998 - present
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Professor in Criminological Psychology
January 1998 - present
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Professor in Criminological Psychology
Description
  • Centre for Forensic and Criminological Psychology

Publications

Publications (314)
Article
The aim of this paper is to identify some of the urgent issues currently confronting criminal justice policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. To this end a diverse group of researchers and clinicians have collaborated to identify pressing concerns in the field and to make some suggestions about how to proceed in the future. The authors repre...
Article
Socio-affective dysfunction is a risk-factor for sexual offense recidivism. However, it remains unknown whether men who have sexually offended with and without child victims show differences in eye scan paths and autonomic responsivity while viewing facial expressions of emotion. We examined differences in accuracy of emotion recognition, eye movem...
Chapter
Sexual interest and sexual fantasy are intricately linked. The target of someone’s sexual interest (whether a person, object, or behaviour) is typically represented within the content of their sexual fantasies (Noorishad, Levaque, Byers, & Shaughnessy, 2019). As such, sexual fantasies provide a source of sexual arousal (Gee, Ward, & Eccleston, 2003...
Article
A key issue facing cybercrime investigations is connecting online identities to real world identities. This paper shows that by combining the Fringe‐P3 method with a concealed information test, we can detect a participant’s familiarity with their own email address, thus connecting their real world identity to their online one. Participants were sho...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a preprint version of a paper published in The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Taylor & Francis Online. The peer reviewed version has slight changes to the results. However, the main findings remain similar. The intervention is feasible to deliver in prisons. Possible effects of the intervention include reductions in scores f...
Article
Substance abuse can be associated with difficulties in emotion regulation. It has been proposed that advantageous emotion regulation is positively associated with heart rate variability , and that slow-paced breathing can increase values of heart rate variability. We explored the feasibility of delivering a six-week, slow-paced breathing interventi...
Article
Background There is little research exploring the impact of technology assisted child sexual abuse (TA-CSA) and how this is similar to/differs from offline. Objectives This novel study aimed to understand the impact following TA-CSA from the perspective of young people, including identifying additional elements or complexities arising from the dig...
Article
Background Despite the rise in ‘online’/technology-assisted child sexual abuse (TA-CSA), little research has been conducted on professionals’ perceptions beyond reporting on young people’s experiences. Objectives This novel study aimed to understand how professionals who work with victims perceive online CSA (i.e., dynamics and impact), and organi...
Article
Craig and Rettenberger proposed an etiological approach to sexual offender assessment integrating the key developmental, offending behavior, and risk‐assessment theory into one model, referred as the CAse Formulation Incorporating Risk Assessment (CAFIRA) model. This chapter seeks to update the model by incorporating neurobiological and neuropsycho...
Chapter
Case formulation (CF) creates a framework for testing hypotheses and making important changes to treatment along the way. Over the years, various theories of sexual offending behavior have been advanced alongside the development of actuarial mechanism and risk assessment frameworks upon which estimations of risk can be made. It is only in the past...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathy is characteristically associated with impairments in recognizing others' facial expressions of emotion, and there is some evidence that these difficulties are specific to the callousness features of the disorder. However, it remains unclear whether these difficulties are accompanied by reductions in autonomic reactivity when viewing oth...
Article
Although they remain a relatively small proportion of all identified sex offenders, there is increasing concern about individuals with offenses relating to indecent images of children (IIOC) online. This study examined the reoffending rates of a sample of IIOC-only (N = 584, 84.6%) and mixed IIOC-contact (N = 106, 15.4%) offenders who participated...
Article
Background: Emotion dysregulation has been linked to sexual offending and reoffending across a number of different theories. Interventions focused on improving emotion regulation in sexual offenders have been recommended. Objectives: The current study explored the feasibility and impact of biofeedback in improving an emotion regulation strategy lin...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this review was to examine whether there is a link between psychopathy and self-harm. A systematic search identified 14 papers which examine this link. A quality appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the quality of each study. The application of the quality appraisal checklist showed that the majority of the studies had good internal...
Article
The Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management scales (HCR-20) and the Female Additional Manual (FAM) are violence risk assessment tools. This study aimed to examine whether scores on the HCR-20 and FAM are related to frequency of self-harm. HCR-20 Version 3 and FAM scores and frequency of self-harm across the following year were examined for 89 fem...
Chapter
This chapter discusses from biographical, academic, and psychotherapeutic perspectives the psychological challenges that inform creative work in some performing musicians. We integrate views from academic, forensic, and clinical psychology, and the unique perspective of an “expert by experience” professional popular musician who is also a trained a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives of men who were convicted of committing a sexual offense that included online sexual grooming. It explores their experiences of illegal interactions with young people via Internet communication platforms, which progressed to physical meetings. Semistructured interviews we...
Article
Degree of injury, as measured by the Homicide Injury Scale (HIS), was examined to advance understanding of the dynamics of sexual killing. A total of 350 nonserial, male sexual killers were included, and the different ways that the sexual element of their offenses and the act of killing were connected was accounted for by determining that cases wer...
Book
Explores how the explosion of neuroscience-based evidence in recent years has led to a fundamental change in how forensic psychology can inform working with criminal populations. This book communicates knowledge and research findings in the neurobiological field to those who work with offenders and those who design policy for offender rehabilitatio...
Article
Cognitive distortions are considered an important factor in the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending behavior in males. A predominant view within the literature is that cognitive distortions are cognitive products that arise from deeper cognitive structures, although it has also been proposed that goals and situational factors can play a ro...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the potential applications of mindfulness and heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback techniques for improving emotion regulation among antisocial populations. It highlights the problems in affective functioning and emotion regulation in relation to antisocial behavior, as well as findings of structural and functional abnorm...
Chapter
Brain development and organization is an extremely long and complex process, given that it contains approximately 86 billion neurons, and has around 100 trillion synaptic connections. Brain development through the formation of neurons (brain cells) begins shortly after conception, continues throughout a person's life, and is subject to specific dev...
Chapter
This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent ch1apters of this book. The book presents an overview and history of the burgeoning field of neuroscience. It expresses that the interest in understanding why individuals commit crime, from a neurobiological perspective, dates as far back as the early 19th century wi...
Article
Background and Objectives: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental...
Article
The aim of this paper is to outline some of the parts of the brain to increase understanding of the aetiology of criminal behaviours. It goes without saying that any complete answer will encompass: evolutionary, genetic, biochemical, neuropsychological, and cognitive factors as well as social factors (familial and societal). Antisocial and social b...
Chapter
Of particular focus in this study (currently in print) was the exploration of the meaning participants made of their religious and spiritual experiences during periods of incarceration. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was adopted, allowing an in-depth examination of participants’ experiences during these particular contexts. Nine in-...
Research
Full-text available
- Impact of child sexual abuse - Impact of online sexual abuse - also known as technology-assisted sexual abuse - Young people's views of professional responses to abuse - Young people's views on how sexual abuse could be better prevented and responded to - Dynamics of online sexual abuse
Article
Full-text available
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending co...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of the Journal of Criminal Psychology aims to share with its readers the latest research and thinking in relation to strengths-based approaches when working with people convicted of sexual offending. It is our privilege to present a selection of novel and thought-provoking papers from significant scholars whose work is dedicated...
Article
Full-text available
The principal researcher would like to express her gratitude and appreciation to the police forces involved for their assistance, time and effort in providing access to their case material. Abstract The aim of the present study was to provide an inclusive and realistic account of the offense processes of naturally-occurring, sexually exploitative i...
Article
Purpose This paper considered the different ways the sexual element and the act of killing could be connected in sexual homicide cases by assigning each case as belonging to either directly or indirectly related groups. Methods A total of 350 non-serial male sexual killers of females aged 14 years or over, who had been convicted and served a custod...
Chapter
This chapter considers a number of approaches to assessing risk in sexual offenders and measures used to assess levels of deviancy in sexual offenders and how this relates to treatment. It discusses assessment considerations for Internet, juvenile, and female sexual offenders, and sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities, special subgroups t...
Article
Aim The review examines studies on rape myth acceptance (RMA) within populations of convicted sexual offenders, changes in RMA due to interventions, comparisons between sexual offenders and community controls, comparisons within the offending population, and relationships between RMA and other psychological constructs linked to criminogenic need....
Article
Many researchers have studied the prevalence and content of men's aggressive sexual fantasies, including their link with rape-supportive cognition. However, little to no research has examined the link between imaginal ability and the use of such fantasies. Based on existing research and theory, we propose that men who hold hostile beliefs towards w...
Article
Full-text available
Transcripts of chat logs of sexually exploitative interactions between offenders and victims that took place via Internet communication platforms were analysed to develop our understanding of this phenomenon from the perspective of the victim. The aim of the study was to examine victims’ behaviour and responses to approaches by offenders, as well a...
Article
The present study investigated whether a latency-based Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT) could be used as an indirect measure of sexual interest in children. A sample of 29 individuals with a history of exclusive extrafamilial offenses against a child and 15 individuals with either a history of exclusive intrafamilial or mixed offenses (i.e., agains...
Book
The Wiley Handbook on the Theories, Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offending is a three–volume collection of up–to–date readings contributed by international experts relating to the assessment, intervention, and theoretical foundations of sexual offending. Offers cutting–edge theories of sexual offending, including the latest multifactorial an...
Chapter
Deviant sexual fantasies have long been regarded as an important factor in sexual offending, with research showing that they serve multiple functions (e.g., inducing arousal, planning behavior) and interrelate with numerous other factors (e.g., emotional states, personality). However, within this chapter, an evaluation of the existing theoretical a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Emotions refer to mental states that are spontaneously generated, can be positive or negative, fleeting or more prolonged, and can be experienced at varying levels of intensity. Emotions are also under cognitive control, whereby strategies for emotion regulation mean that they may be experienced more or less intensely. A failure to regulate emotion...
Chapter
This chapter identifies four current urgent theoretical tasks for sexual offending researchers. First, a critical task is to build multilevel and interfield theories that are directly responsive to the complex nature of human functioning and psychological architecture. Second, we must take seriously the level of human agency and mental state psycho...
Article
This study examines the unique experience of participants who during their reintegration back into the community, following a conviction for sexual offending, re-engaged with religious and spiritual communities. To explore meaning Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was adopted. Four in-depth interviews of men convicted for sexual crimes...
Chapter
In this chapter, the aim is to link together conceptually factors implicated in the occurrence of sexual abuse into a theoretical framework, what was originally called the Integrated Theory of Sexual Offending (ITSO). The ITSO is a broad aetiological framework that has the capacity to inform the construction of more specific theories of particular...
Article
Full-text available
This review summarizes and critically examines the changes in how the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) characterizes paraphilias. Attention is paid to the diagnostic options that were included in DSM-5, the decision not to include criterion sets for two additional disorders (paraphilic coercive disorder and hypersexual be...
Article
Full-text available
Online sexual offenders represent an increasingly large proportion of all sexual offenders. Many of these offenders receive noncustodial sentences, and there is a growing need for community-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate a psycho-educational program for community dwelling users of child sexual exploitation material (CSEM...
Article
This systematic review considers what is known about the characteristics of sexual killers and sexual aggressors. The aim was to identify which characteristics have consistently been shown to be similar (homogeneous) and which are different (heterogeneous) across these two groups. Ten studies, including approximately 300 sexual killers, were analys...
Article
The purpose of this article was to develop an Spanish psychometric typology of sexual offenders taking into account dynamic risk factors. The sample comprised 94 sex offenders imprisoned in Spain (52 rapists and 42 child molesters). The analysis yielded two different offender categories based on the subjects' criminogenic needs level (high and low)...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which risk is addressed in the risk management planning process of those convicted of sexual offending. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a risk assessment and management system called the Offender Assessment System (OASys), used by the National Offender Management...
Article
Full-text available
Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processi...
Article
Full-text available
Having valid and reliable tools to measure ‘dynamic’ risk factors and minimising assessor bias is said to be critical in helping to make decisions regarding how individuals convicted of committing crime should be managed and treated, and how resources within the Justice System should be prioritised. This article outlines the problems and issues ass...
Article
Full-text available
Transcripts of chat logs of naturally occurring, sexually exploitative interactions between offenders and victims that took place via Internet communication platforms were analyzed. The aim of the study was to examine the modus operandi of offenders in such interactions, with particular focus on the specific strategies they use to engage victims, i...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential biases in research designs used to assess the efficacy of sex offender treatment. Design/methodology/approach – In all, 50 treatment studies (n=13,886) were examined using a random effects meta-analysis model. Findings – Results indicated a positive effect of treatment for both sexual...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotion recognition, and reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. However, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary...
Article
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of faith-based communities and activities in helping those convicted of sexual offending to desist from crime and reintegrate back into their communities. It was found that much of the current research is limited to non-offending juvenile populations. Where research has been carried out on adult offender...
Article
Full-text available
Using thematic analysis, this study explores the motivation to commit sexual homicide from the perspective of the perpetrator. In the process, it revisits motivational models and offender typologies that have been put forward to explain such offenses. From the homicide narratives of eight sexual homicide offenders detained in a high security hospit...
Article
Full-text available
Researchwithviolentoffendershasconsistentlyshownimpairedrecognitionofother’sfacialexpressionsofemotion.However,theextenttowhichsimilarproblemscanbeobservedamongsexualoffendersremainsunknown.Usingacomputerizedtask,wepresentedsexualandviolentoffenders,andnon-offenders,withmaleandfemaleexpressionsofanger,disgust,fear,happiness,sadness,andsurprise,morp...
Article
Full-text available
This study involved interviews with three female victims of on-line grooming and contact sexual abuse and the three adult males who groomed and abused them. Results indicate that victim and offender dyads most commonly disagreed in their accounts of the sexual elements of the relationship, including initiation; stage when sexualization took place;...
Article
Full-text available
Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this chapter is to examine the role of sexual fantasy in offend¬ing through the presentation of a case study. The authors have drawn on the rich fantasy life of Mr. P and the current literature on case study as a method, alongside assessment and treatment of sexual interest to measure risk and manage current sexual interest.
Article
Full-text available
While the quality of empirical research on risk predication, assessment and management in the sexual offending field has been of a high standard, relatively little attention has been paid to theoretical issues related to risk and its conceptualisation. In this paper, we develop alternative ways of understanding dynamic risk factors and their utilit...
Article
Full-text available
The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This st...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to highlight key themes within the process of online grooming from the victim’s perspective. Eight adolescents who experienced online grooming were interviewed and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. It was found that participants, who had been both sexually abused online and/or offline, were subjected to a range of...
Article
Full-text available
This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a deta...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to review the evidence for the effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders and to present an overview of the neurobiological substrates of emotion regulation. It is suggested here that sexual offenders may present with functional abnormalities in the neuroanatomies structures that underpin successful emotion control. In...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about why some children and young people are vulnerable to being groomed online, yet this has important implications for policy, practice and prevention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to a young person's vulnerability towards online grooming. Thematic Analysis was conducted on eight interviews...
Chapter
Full-text available
The area of Offender Profiling generates a lot of interest in both the academic field and the everyday world as a result of a few highly prolific cases (e.g., Jack the Ripper, Boston Strangler). Historically, profiling has been based on intuition and experience, but as the field has matured, the need to be more scientific in approach has led to the...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors discuss a proposed progression to the scientific status of offenders' risk assessment — the polygraph machine. They recognize that there is some debate about the usefulness of the polygraph for assessing risk. First, they describe current methods of risk assessment used to allocate supervision resources, identify treatm...
Article
Purpose. Supporting Offenders through Restoration Inside (SORI) is a programme that aims to: increase victim empathy in offenders; motivate offenders to change their offending behaviour; and to take personal responsibility for the harm that he has caused. A 5-day course based on the SORI principles has been piloted across seven prison sites in the...