Annu Haapakangas

Annu Haapakangas
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | FIOH · Healthy Workspaces

Ph.D.

About

40
Publications
19,747
Reads
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1,026
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2018 - September 2018
University of Gävle
Position
  • Researcher
January 2016 - August 2020
Turku University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Researcher
January 2007 - December 2015
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Position
  • Medical Professional

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
Activity-based workplaces (ABWs) are becoming popular in Western countries and were implemented at four office sites of a large Swedish government agency. A fifth office was used as a control group. The study aim was to examine the effects of relocation to ABW on perceived productivity among employees and to determine if perceived change-oriented l...
Article
Activity-based offices are increasingly popular. However, productivity and well-being in these work environments have been little researched. The aims of this study were to quantitatively determine perception and use of the activity-based office environment in relation to self-rated productivity and well-being at work, and to identify important pre...
Article
Previous research suggests that, in open-plan offices, noise complaints may be related to the high intelligibility of speech. Distraction distance, which is based on the Speech Transmission Index, can be used to objectively describe the acoustic quality of open-plan offices. However, the relation between distraction distance and perceived noise dis...
Article
Full-text available
When organizations adopt activity-based workplaces (ABWs), improved interaction is a common goal. Yet, few controlled longitudinal studies have been conducted on the effects of ABWs on interaction, social relations and work demands. The aim of this natural intervention study was to investigate the effects of moving into an ABW on satisfaction with...
Article
Irrelevant background speech causes dissatisfaction and impairs cognitive performance in open‐plan offices. The model of Hongisto (2005, Indoor Air, 15, 458‐468) predicts the relation between cognitive performance and the intelligibility of speech described with an objectively‐measured quantity, the Speech Transmission Index (STI). The model has im...
Article
Little is known about the factors that explain the differences in the ways that individuals use activity-based offices (ABOs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether person-related and situational factors are associated with self-reported use of workspaces and the perceived person-environment (P-E) fit in ABOs, independently of job profil...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this case study is to investigate how the personnel in an organization experienced the process of change when moving from private offices to an activity-based office (ABO) and how their perceptions of change were associated with changes in their satisfaction with the work environment a year after relocation. Design/methodolo...
Article
Auditory and visual information interact in the perception of an environment and its sounds. While these phenomena may have implications for noise abatement, there has been little research on the role of the degree of sound source visibility when using vegetation as a visual and auditory shield. This laboratory experiment manipulated the level of v...
Conference Paper
The aim was to study the effects of low ventilation rate with elevated level of bioeffluents on perceived indoor air quality, health symptoms and work performance. The experiment was con-ducted in an office laboratory with low material emissions. CO2 concentration level was used as an indicator of bioeffluents. In Condition A, outdoor air flow rate...
Conference Paper
The aim was to study the effect of cooling jets from the ceiling on thermal comfort, symptoms and perception in warm office environment in two separate human subject experiments. The room air temperature in the laboratory was 29.5 °C. The experiment I had two thermal conditions: (1) no cooling jet and (2) a cooling jet with constant velocity. Therm...
Article
The problems of open-plan offices are widely known. However, the factors explaining these effects have received less attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of office distractions in the emergence of other problems, and to examine the benefits of quiet workspaces in open-plan offices. Two organizations moved from private office...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim was to study how the cooling jet from the ceiling, with individual control over the airflow, is perceived and how it affects the thermal comfort in warm office environment. 32 undergraduate university students participated in the experiment. Two thermal conditions were tested: (1) no cooling jet and (2) adjustable cooling jet from the ceili...
Conference Paper
Anojanssi -projektin yhtenä osatavoitteena on selvittää, miten häiritsevänä tieliikennemelu koetaan eri äänitasoilla eri tietyyppien varrella kerros- ja pientaloissa. Toisena tavoitteena on määrittää, miten erilaiset ei-akustiset taustatekijät selittävät melun häiritsevyyttä. Tuloksia tullaan myöhemmin vertaamaan muiden ympäristömelulajien, kuten t...
Article
Purpose Environmental and appliance sounds involving tonal components can be more annoying than broad-band noise. Mandatory penalty values exist in many countries for tonal sound. The purpose of our study was to determine how tonal sounds are perceived compared to non-tonal sounds at overall levels close to typical regulated levels inside residenti...
Article
Full-text available
A certain level of masking sound is necessary to control the disturbance caused by speech sounds in open-plan offices. The sound is usually provided with evenly distributed loudspeakers. Pseudo-random noise is often used as a source of artificial sound masking (PRMS). A recent laboratory experiment suggested that water-based masking sound (WBMS) co...
Article
The aim of this laboratory experiment was to study the effects of ventilation rate, and related changes in air quality, predominantly bioeffluents, on work performance, perceived indoor air quality and health symptoms in a typical conditions of modern open-plan office with low material and equipment emissions. In Condition A, outdoor air flow rate...
Conference Paper
Tavoitteena oli tutkia katosta tuodun isotermisen ilmasuihkun, jonka voimakkuutta koehenkilö sai itse säätää, vaikutusta käyttäjän kokemukseen ja lämpöviihtyvyyteen huoneen lämpötilan ollessa korkea (29 °C). Tutkimus toteutettiin toimistolaboratoriossa. Kaikkiaan 32 koehenkilöä osallistui tutkimukseen. Lämpöviihtyvyyttä, oireita sekä kokemusta puha...
Article
The aim of our study was to determine the effect of a cooling jet on performance and comfort in warm office environment. We compared cognitive performance, subjective workload, cognitive fatigue, thermal comfort, symptoms, perceived working conditions and perception of airflow in warm temperature (29.5 °C) in two conditions: with and without the je...
Article
The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that there is a relationship between the quality of the physical environment and employee satisfaction.A quasi-field experiment was conducted in an open-plan office of 135 employees. The office was refurbished in various ways to achieve e.g. better thermal conditions, visual and acoustic privacy, er...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate how irrelevant speech, temperature and ventilation rate together affect cognitive performance and environmental satisfaction in open-plan offices. In Condition A, neutral temperature (23.5 °C), low intelligibility of speech (high absorption and low masking sound level) and high fresh air supply rate (30 l/s...
Article
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29 °C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A co...
Article
Agreements concerning energy conservation and overgrown property expenses drive organizations to search for cost savings through efficient utilization of space. New multi-space office solutions have been developed to achieve these goals. Organizations expect relocation from traditional cell-offices to a multi-space office to promote a new positive...
Article
Unattended background speech is a known source of cognitive and subjective distraction in open-plan offices. This study investigated whether the deleterious effects of background speech can be affected by room acoustic design that decreases speech intelligibility, as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI). The experiment was conducted in a...
Conference Paper
The effect of a cooling jet from ceiling on thermal comfort, perception and subjective performance in warm office environment (29.5 °C) was studied. Altogether, 29 participants (13 male and 16 female) participated. All participants were tested in both thermal conditions and the order of the thermal conditions was counterbalanced between the partici...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Workplaces of universities are changing. The study analyzed and identified work, workplace needs and experiences of university staff at the beginning of a broad building renovation. The university staff was profiled with different tasks, work specific needs and space requirements. The facilities supported well independent, individual tasks, but les...
Conference Paper
According to several review articles, room temperature affects comfort and work performance. However, there is currently no consistent view of the effect of temperature on cognitively different tasks. The aim of the study was to assess how the temperature 29°C (compared to 23°C) affects cognitive performance and comfort during office work. Altoget...
Article
The aim of the study was to determine how the holistic improvement of the indoor environment, especially acoustic environment, affected acoustic satisfaction and the wellbeing of workers in an open-plan office. The study was carried out in an open-plan office of 45 workers which was completely renovated. Special efforts were made to reduce noise an...
Article
The aim of the study was to show that the improvement of lighting conditions to meet EN 12464- 1 standard is beneficial for work performance and well-being. The improved lighting conditions were designed to meet the recommendations of EN 12464-1. Lighting measurements and questionnaire survey were conducted before and after a lighting renovation. T...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare different sounds which can be used in open-plan offices to mask distracting speech. Fifty-four subjects were tested in seven sound conditions: speech, silence and five masked speech conditions. The five masking sounds were filtered pink noise, ventilation noise, instrumental music, vocal music and the sound of s...
Article
The aim of the study was to show that the room acoustic design of an open-plan office that contains speech sounds has an effect on cognitive work performance, acoustic satisfaction and perceived workload. The study was carried out in an openplan office (90 m2). Four acoustic conditions, with different speech privacy levels, were built. The conditio...
Article
The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of masking sound is most optimal to be used to mask distracting speech in open-plan offices. Fifty-four subjects were tested in seven sound conditions: speech, silence and five masked speech conditions. The five masking sounds were filtered pink noise, ventilation noise, instrumental music, vocal...
Article
The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of features should be preferred and avoided when using speech masking sound in open-plan offices. Fifty-four subjects were tested in seven sound conditions: speech, silence and five masked speech conditions. The five masking sounds were filtered pink noise, ventilation noise, instrumental music, v...
Article
Abstract This study examined how the intelligibility of irrelevant speech, determined with the Speech Transmission Index (STI), affects demanding cognitive task performance. Experiment was carried out in a laboratory that resembled an open-plan office. Three speech conditions were tested corresponding to a private office (STI = 0.10), an acoustical...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the acoustic conditions of two typical Finnish wards. The methods included long-term noise measurements, building acoustical measurements and questionnaires for patients (N=33) and nurses (N=27). The average sound pressure levels were within 49 and 58 dBA in the corridors, office and patient rooms. Personal no...
Article
Appropriate masking sound is necessary for reaching acceptable speech privacy in open offices. However, the electronic masking systems have not become very popular although the importance of masking is emphasized in design guidelines worldwide. One reason may be that very few scientific field experiments have been published in this area. The aim of...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to investigate workers' perceptions of the acoustic environment of offices and study its relations to work performance and well-being. Questionnaire results from 11 companies and 689 respondents were analyzed. Occupants in private rooms and open offices were compared. Noise was the main indoor environmental problem in open...
Article
Full-text available
According to several independent field surveys, noise is the most adverse factor of indoor environment in open offices. Speech has been rated as the most distracting sound source. Laboratory experiments have shown that speech impairs the perform-ance of cognitively demanding tasks, e.g. verbal and memory recall tasks. Speech intelligibility determi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of speech varying in intelligibility on cognitive performance and subjective perceptions of sound environment disturbance. 37 subjects performed a series of tasks in three conditions in which speech transmission indexes were 0.10, 0.35 and 0.65. These correspond to cellular office, well-designed open...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
In this project, we investigate the relations between remote working, office conditions, short sick leaves, and well-being at work with a particular focus on activity-based offices. We also examine the possible changes in these associations from pre-pandemic to post-Covid19 time (appr. 2019-2023).
Project
The purpose is to identify and/or develop metrics to predict noise annoyance properly in residential environments.