Anneke Moresco

Anneke Moresco
Reproductive Health Surveillance Program

MS, DVM, PhD
Veterinary Medicine, Wildlife Reproduction, Conservation @amores_wildlife

About

93
Publications
12,932
Reads
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478
Citations
Citations since 2017
60 Research Items
279 Citations
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Introduction
My main interest are the veterinary and physiologic aspects of comparative reproduction, and learning about the different reproductive strategies, naturally occurring problems, contraception methods etc in each species. Other topics of interest are small carnivores, primates, and xenarthra.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - February 2020
Denver Zoo
Position
  • Project Manager
July 2011 - January 2017
Denver Zoo
Position
  • Consultant
July 2002 - present
Reproductive Health Surveillance Program
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
August 2003 - May 2009
University of California, Davis
Field of study
  • Comparative Pathology
August 1995 - May 1999
Colorado State University
Field of study
  • Veterinary medicine
August 1988 - May 1994
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Biology- Ethology and Reproductive Endocrinology

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
As evidenced by numerous case reports from zoos, neoplasia in felids is common, but most reports are limited to Panthera species in North America or Europe. In order to obtain a wider epidemiologic understanding of neoplasia distribution, necropsy records at seven facilities (USA, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil) were evaluated. In contrast to o...
Article
Full-text available
Mammary cancer occurs among all taxonomic groups, and comparing the disease in animals with breast cancer in women could greatly improve our understanding of the relevant risk factors and genetic profiles for this disease. Differences in cancer prevalence between carnivores and herbivores and between captive and wild carnivores are striking and sup...
Article
Full-text available
Zoological institutions aim to continually improve the lives of the animals under their stewardship. To this end, bull elephants are now increasingly maintained in all-male groups to mimic social conditions observed in the wild. While cortisol is the most frequently used “stress” biomarker, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) as a measure of health a...
Article
Full-text available
Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are threatened by anthropogenic pressures such as habitat fragmentation and deforestation, while conservation e􀀀orts are challenging to coordinate as natural geographic distribution ranges are the largest of any New World primate. On a One Health front, howler monkeys represent a great model to investigate the infecti...
Conference Paper
Thyroid disease has been observed in orangutans and other great apes in managed care. Documented cases include adult-onset hypothyroidism in a wild-caught female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes),5 a female Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla),3 and two female Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).1,6 More recently, two cases of congenital hypothyroi...
Conference Paper
Orangutans (Pongo spp.) have been maintained under human care since 1776,4 yet reproductive pathology is only rarely reported,3,5-7 and prevalence is difficult to assess as the disease-free population is generally not reported. A retrospective study of archived female cases (n=24) was conducted to determine the prevalence of reproductive pathology...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive tumors can impact conception, pregnancy, and birth in mammals. These impacts are well documented in humans, while data in other mammals are limited. An urgent need exists to understand the reproductive impact of these lesions in endangered species, because some endangered species have a documented high prevalence of reproductive tumors...
Article
This retrospective study aimed to identify and classify fractures in the appendicular and axial skeletons of birds from the Cariamidae and Falconidae families presented to a referral centre. Twelve of thirteen adult red-legged seriemas (Cariama cristata) had appendicular skeleton fractures and one an axial skeleton fracture. All appendicular skelet...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing need for animal care institutions to house multiple bull elephants as the population increases due to transfers from private ownership and the births of male offspring in managed care. Elephants in North American, European, and Latin American zoos exhibit stereotypies—repetitive, fixed behaviors. Previous research demonstrated th...
Article
Four female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from the same group as well as Wolf's guenon (Cercopithecus wolfi) and a Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from a second institution presented with vaginal foreign bodies in parallel with diseases of the urogenital tract or with endocrine disorders. These foreign bodies were associated...
Article
Full-text available
This multi-institutional collaborative study of neoplasia in snakes reviewed medical records of snakes at each facility to determine species prevalence, survival, and methods of treatment. Complete species numbers of snakes were also collected at each facility. In total, 65 species, 133 snakes, and 149 unique neoplasias were included in this study....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Primate reproductive disease investigations are an important source of comparative information for human and non-human primate health. Western lowland gorillas are one of two gorilla species and are commonly found in zoological institutions. Assessing the suite of reproductive lesions found in this species, and comparing them to the lesions found i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Handheld blood analyzers deliver rapid results for biochemical and hematologic parameters, and are very useful to monitor veterinary care. The parameters generated by the point-of-care analyzer iSTAT® Alinity V CHEM8+ cartridge were compared between anesthetized chimpanzees managed where the species naturally resides (range country) and where they...
Article
Clin Theriogenol 2021; 13(4): 402-407. Reproductive monitoring and intervention are challenging in nondomestic species where manual restraint is often not possible or potentially dangerous for animals and the clinician. As a result, performing even simple procedures (e.g. acquiring blood or vaginal smears or using ultrasonography) on such species...
Article
Clin Theriogenol 2021; 13(4): 394-401 Reproductive disorders of female greater one-horned rhinoceros (GOHR [Rhinoceros unicornis]) contribute to relatively lower (50%) conception success from artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed sperm, in comparison to rhino’s closest domestic relative, the mare. Determining the causes of subfertility or...
Article
Full-text available
The last few decades have seen an outpouring of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome studies across diverse host species. Studies have ranged from assessments of GI microbial richness and diversity to classification of novel microbial lineages. Assessments of the “normal” state of the GI microbiome composition across multiple host species has gained in...
Article
To evaluate elephant welfare, it is important to understand their use of time both during day and night. The length of social relationships can influence how much time they spend in different activities. We assessed daytime and nighttime activity budgets of male Asian elephants at Denver Zoo and examined how length of relationships influenced night...
Conference Paper
Literature on anesthetic methods in small carnivores is generally limited to case reports and field studies, and larger scale studies for species in professional care are lacking. This retrospective study reviewed anesthesia records for meerkats (Suricata suricatta, n=50), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo, n=21), and dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula,...
Conference Paper
The Exotic Species Cancer Research Alliance (ESCRA) has been in existence for 5 y. It is an archive of data from zoological, aquarium and academic institutions into one central location. Through partnerships with over 90 zoos and aquariums we have accumulated over 1,300 cases of cancer across non-domestic species. Although the accumulation of data...
Conference Paper
Pharmacological semen collection by urethral catheterization after anesthesia induction using α2-agonists has been a potential tool for semen conservation of endangered species, considered a less invasive alternative, with a capability to dismiss specialized equipment as an electroejaculator and resulting a more concentrated semen. So far, very lik...
Article
Giraffe present unique contraception challenges as males persistently pursue females during estrus. Year-round pursuit during frequent recurring estrus can pose significant risk under slippery conditions. Complete ovarian suppression is a useful tool in giraffe because it eliminates estrous behavior, interest from the male, and controls reproductio...
Article
One Health is a collaborative trans-disciplinary approach to health; integrating human, animal, and environmental health. The focus is often on infection disease transmission and disease risk mitigation. However, One Health also includes the multidisciplinary and comparative approach to disease investigation and health of humans, animals, and the e...
Article
Baseline data for wall thickness in healthy toucans can be used to diagnose disease in sick individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the use of ultrasonography for the examination of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy toco toucans (Ramphastos toco). Ten non‐anaesthetized healthy adult toco toucans were evaluated. Food was withheld for 3 h prior...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Summary of activities and projects of the Reproductive Health Surveillance Program
Article
In zoos, rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) are commonly maintained in groups and population control is necessary. Here we report on hydrometra prevalence in a group of rock hyraxes. Prevalence of hydrometra in this small group (4/8) far exceeds reproductive pathology prevalence previously reported for this species under managed care. Affected females...
Article
Full-text available
In a collection of 6 young binturongs (Arctictis binturong), 3 presented with anorexia, lethargy, and footpad swelling diagnosed by surgical biopsy as calcinosis circumscripta. Despite supportive care over the next 4 years, affected binturongs had progressive weight loss, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia and developed large radiodense deposits i...
Article
Male associations are a typical component of elephant society, allowing bulls to practice appropriate social behavior. To improve zoo elephant welfare, it is important to provide bulls with social opportunities. In fall 2018, Denver Zoo added two bull Asian elephants to its existing all-male group of three bulls, offering the opportunity to conduct...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gibbons and siamangs are known for their monogamous social system, with long-term pairs engaging in social grooming. When a female white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) at Denver Zoo was left without a partner, the soo paired her with a male red-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus gabrielle) so that these social primates would not be alone; similarly, a...
Article
Felid semen has historically been frozen using an egg yolk-based cryopreservation medium. However, the use of egg introduces several potential concerns, such as variability in composition, microbial contamination, and regulatory issues. In the present study, our aim was to compare a chemically-defined, soy-based medium (SOY) to a commercial egg yol...
Article
Spontaneous endometriosis is common in women, great apes and Old World monkeys, but rare in New World monkeys. We report on the clinical diagnosis and successful combination of surgical and medical treatment in a case of spontaneous endometriosis in a diabetic hooded capuchin. Addressing this painful condition had a positive welfare impact.
Research
Full-text available
AZA Connect magazine, AZA CGF grant update. Published in the January issue, available to AZA members at: https://assets.speakcdn.com/assets/2332/web_connect_january_2021.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Madagascar does not have native wild felid species; however, distinct populations of free-ranging “forest cats” of unknown species are known throughout the island, including at Ankarafantsika National Park, Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Makira Natural Park and the Masoala peninsula. Malagasy “forest cats” are commonly considered invasive lemur pre...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate normal features of the heart and lower respiratory tract in toco toucans by means of radiography and helical computed tomography (CT) scanner. Fifteen healthy adult toco toucans (Ramphastos toco), 10 females and 5 males, average body mass of 650 g were studied. CT examination as well as right lateral and ventrodorsal ra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Annual report of the Reproductive Health Surveillance Program. Summary of projects on reproductive pathology of zoo species. Keywords: non-domestics, reproduction, wildlife, gorilla, endometrial carcinoma
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The bushmeat and pet-trade result in unimaginable numbers of primates needing care at in-country sanctuaries.1 Natural social structure was ranked the most important attribute for welfare in chimpanzees under human care,2 but reproduction control is necessary to manage sanctuary populations.3 This study evaluated the reproductive health of sanctuar...
Conference Paper
Limited data is available summarizing Binturong (Arctictis binturong) morbidity and mortality. Medical records and necropsies were summarized from 16 institutions through either the completion of a survey or submission of complete medical records. Responses included 44 individuals from the years 1986-2011, 18 of which had necropsy data available. M...
Conference Paper
The Reproductive Health Surveillance Program (RHSP) has been archiving reproductive tissues from a large variety of species, ages, and contraceptive treatments since 1995 and currently holds over 3,000 cases. This archive allows for valuable retrospective research that has identified important trends in reproductive disease such as the long-term ca...
Conference Paper
Contraception in managed giraffe is challenging, because the goal is frequently dual: population control (contraception sensu stricto) and ovarian suppression (behavior). Males pursue females incessantly during estrus; therefore, frequently recurring estrus year round can be a problem, especially if there is ice on the ground. While effective for c...
Conference Paper
Endometrial biopsy and histology are required for diagnosis of conditions that can lead to infertility such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometritis, and neoplasia. A novel technique for ultrasound-guided endoscopic transcervical endometrial biopsy (TCEB) of the endometrium is described in four non-human primate species and a southern tamandua (Tam...
Article
A 2-year-old female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) presented to emergency for anorexia, lethargy and vulvar discharge. Tranquilization with midazolam, administration of oxygen therapy and facemask anesthesia with isoflurane were used for radiography study which showed increased radio-opacity and silhouette sign in the thoracic cavity...
Chapter
Wildlife conservation requires varying degrees of management of endangered species as well as management of their potential predators and competitors. Conservation also depends on ameliorating human-wildlife conflict, especially where there is a threat to the safety of people and of their pets and livestock. In addition, sustainability of wildlife...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A 7 yr old, nulliparous greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) was housed with a younger male without breeding success. Therefore, artificial insemination (AI) was chosen. Initially, a full immobilization (with 3.5mg etorphine, 100mg azaperone, and 15mg detomidine) was performed for full reproductive exam and hymen breakdown. Addition...
Conference Paper
A 7-year-old parous, female okapi was presumptively diagnosed with cystic ovarian disease (COD) based on persistent estrus behavior and a lack of conception, despite continued breeding. In non-domestics, routine diagnostics (serum hormones and transrectal ultrasonography) are challenging, even with intense behavioral training and may still require...
Article
Reproductive management in zoos requires contraception or physical separation of sexes to ensure captive population viability, but information is sparse on the effects of parity, age, and contraceptive use on lifetime reproductive health in captive Suidae and Tayassuidae species. This retrospective study evaluated reproductive tissues and histories...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Annual report of the Reproductive Health Surveillance Program. Summary of projects on reproductive pathology of zoo species. Keywords: non-domestics, reproduction, wildlife
Conference Paper
Felid semen has historically been frozen using an egg yolk-based cryopreservation medium (TEY). However, the use of egg introduces several potential concerns, such as variability in composition, microbial contamination, and regulatory issues. Our recent research has focused on developing an animal protein-free medium containing soy lecithin (SOY)....
Article
Servals and Canada lynx are managed by species survival plans in North American zoos, but current populations are not sustainable. Increased knowledge of their reproductive biology would benefit breeding management and development of assisted reproductive techniques. The aims of our study were to (1) evaluate effectiveness of urethral catheterizati...
Conference Paper
A recent surge of microbiome research has characterized gastrointestinal microbiome (GIM) composition and diversity among mammalian species with the aim to use GIM analyses as a clinical tool. However, a basic understanding of the “normal variation” for GIMs in non-human primates is lacking. All gorilla species are critically endangered; thus, gori...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An animal welfare program must be built upon the shared value that every animal deserves the best life possible; that fundamental belief must guide every decision in every circumstance. Comprehensive program elements such as veterinary care, husbandry, nutrition, training and enrichment, reproductive management, and research must be combined synerg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zoos, aquariums, and wildlife preserves are in a unique position to participate in clinical research, which can offer dramatic conservation solutions. Recent transformations in the capabilities of biomedical technologies offer scientists effective solutions to conservation problems. Such solutions could be implemented to prevent extinction. Clinica...
Conference Paper
We examined the effects of ambient water temperature on the behavior of the critically endangered Lake Titicaca Frog, Telmatobius culeus. This included changes in behavior, vocalizations, and mode of breathing as temperature increased. T. culeus is intriguing from a physiological and behavioral aspect as they can breathe either through their skin (...
Conference Paper
Jaguars are an endangered species and represent the only felid in the Americas from the genus Panthera. Wild jaguars continue to be threatened by habitat loss and other human impacts; therefore, maintaining a healthy breeding population in zoological institutions is critical to jaguar survival. Ovarian adenocarcinoma (OC) commonly occurs in adult j...
Article
From 2013 to 2015, 16 pregnancies were monitored by ultrasonography in nine tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) housed in three zoological facilities. Sonographic measurements were recorded to establish fetal growth curves using thoracic and skull landmarks described for giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). All pregnancies resulted in the uncomp...
Conference Paper
Historically, semen banking in felids has required sample collection via electroejaculation followed by sperm freezing in straws over LN2 vapor. Recent modifications include urethral catheterization of males treated with α-2 agonists for semen recovery and vitrification of cat sperm by suspension in a sucrose-based cryomedium and direct pelleting i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Otter populations worldwide have been declining due to environmental pressures and habitat loss. Gaps in knowledge of their reproductive physiology have slowed captive breeding efforts. The North American river otter (NARO), Lontra canadensis, and the Asian small-clawed otter (ASCO), Aonyx cinerea, have two distinct reproductive cycles. The NARO is...
Article
A juvenile to young adult, male, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus, GHOW) was presented to the wildlife rehabilitation hospital at Lindsay Wildlife Museum (WRHLWM) due to trauma to the right patagium from barbed wire entanglement. On presentation both corneas were irregular, dry, and no movement of the third eyelid was noted. A severe corneal enla...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the order Carnivora rely on urinary scent signaling, particularly for communicating about reproductive parameters. Here, we describe reproductive endocrine patterns in relation to urinary olfactory cues in a vulnerable and relatively unknown viverrid—the binturong (Arctictis binturong). Female binturongs are larger than and dominate male...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conservation in rhinoceros is becoming increasingly dependent on assisted reproductive techniques. Assisted reproductive techniques including hormone monitoring, semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination, have decreased the health risks associated with transport and introduction of animals, and in other taxa, have made it possible for anim...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High numbers of ovarian adenocarcinomas have been documented in captive jaguars, which are rare in other felids.1,4 Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues from 55 captive, female jaguars between 1988-2014 were collected. Twenty-three jaguars (40%) had ovarian carcinoma (five with bilateral tumors), 14 had mammary carcinoma, and of these, five ha...
Article
There are various methods of fertility control for ungulates, this review highlights the more common methods, their use, advantages and disadvantages. What the best method is varies with each situation depending on the species, the size of the population, the sex and whether it is free-ranging wildlife or a population managed in captivity. In parti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reproduction is a multifactorial event, and reproductive success depends on many aspects of that animal’s history, environment, and health. Therefore, investigating infertility needs a multilayered, multidiscipline approach. It is rare that a condition with a simple solution is responsible for reproductive failure. As veterinarians, we are inclined...
Article
Contraception is necessary to manage zoo animal populations and to be able to house animals in groups without producing additional unwanted offspring. In felids and canids, an association between exposure to progestins and the occurrence of endometrial and mammary gland pathology has been documented. Therefore, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums...
Article
The ability to safely and effectively manage reproduction is central to the success of AZA captive-breeding programs. Although the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center routinely monitors contraceptive safety, there have been no studies that compare the effects of contraceptive use to separation of males from females, the other option for preventing re...
Article
For over 25 years, the Reproductive Health Surveillance Program has collected, processed, evaluated, and archived reproductive tracts from nondomestic mammals submitted by zoos. The analysis of the data from this archive has been used to recognize lesions associated with exposure to certain contraceptives; but arguably more importantly, to also doc...
Article
Abstract Avian poxvirus (genus Avipoxvirus, family Poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. We characterized the infection in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna; n = 5 birds, n = 9 lesions) by conducting diagnostic tests on skin l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Otters are popular exhibit animals that present a reproduction management challenge; on one hand, otters are often kept in groups, necessitating contraception. However, specific individuals may be required to breed, but have low reproductive success. In other carnivore taxa such as canids and felids, subclinical histopathological lesions of the rep...
Conference Paper
With limited space for individual species among zoological institutions, reproduction must often be controlled and maintaining non-reproductive females is common. This is achieved either through separation from males, pharmacological contraception, or surgical sterilization; however, preventing pregnancy may have serious unintended consequences. In...
Article
Full-text available
Fledgling cliff swallows were cared for at a rehabilitation facility when clinical signs of ocular disease, characterized by conjunctivitis, epiphora, and hyperaemia of palpebrae and nictitans, were recognized. Treatment consisted of topical and oral antibiotic therapy and one topical steroid administration. However, one cliff swallow died and thre...
Article
Full-text available
Full text: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/mcd/article/view/79585/69866 Soft tissue injuries are rarely reported in wild primates as these heal fast, are not obvious, and are rapidly scavenged or decompose after death. An adult female ring - tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was found to have a chronic gastrointestinal fistula in Beza Mahafaly Special Rese...
Article
Full-text available
Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction respon...
Article
Hormonal control of reproduction is common in human and veterinary medicine. For example, hormonal manipulation is a key tool for zoo and wildlife veterinarians to manage animal populations. Yet in animal and human applications, contraception is not without risks. The Contraception Health Surveillance Program (CHSP), associated with the Wildlife Co...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate whether the administration of naloxone (NAL) had an impact on the speed or quality of recovery in servals anesthetized with ketamine, butorphanol, and medetomidine. Twenty-two clinically healthy, captive servals (Leptailurus serval) were anesthetized for routine physical examinations using ketamine (3 mg/kg), me...
Article
Full-text available
As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not b...
Chapter
Within the Viverridae family, there are now 4 subfamilies and 35 species listed. This chapter presents a list of Latin names, common names, weight ranges, and longevities in a table. In most cases, it is difficult to safely handle viverrids for examination and sample collection solely using physical restraint techniques. The chapter discusses physi...
Chapter
Within the Viverridae family, there are now 4 subfamilies and 35 species listed. This chapter presents a list of Latin names, common names, weight ranges, and longevities in a table. In most cases, it is difficult to safely handle viverrids for examination and sample collection solely using physical restraint techniques. The chapter discusses physi...