Anne Shaffer

Anne Shaffer
Coastal Watershed Institute

PhD University of Victoria

About

43
Publications
5,907
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319
Citations
Introduction
I lead a small and extremely talented team of staff and collaborators to identify and implement large, complex research, and science based conservation and restoration initiatives of the nearshore. Primary areas of focus are coastal response to large scale dam removals and kelp forest ecosystem function for forage fish. Our goal is to address key data gaps and then work with communities to integrate coastal science into coastal management systems to conserve and restore coastal ecosystems

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Full-text available
Coastal zones are important components of marine ecosystems that link upland and marine areas, and are often maintained by landslides, though these habitat forming processes are poorly understood. They are also often sites of commercial development, including mining, and restoration. In this ecosystem restoration project, we rapidly removed a large...
Article
Full-text available
Herring (Cupea pallasi), cornerstone of northeast Pacific coastal ecosystems, and an important source of food for salmon and steelhead, have been in steady stock decline for over the last twenty years. Reasons are unclear. In this field study we assess young of the year (yoy) herring for two diseases: ectoparasites and Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV)....
Article
Full-text available
Kelp forests are an important ecological component of temperate coastal systems that are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and are in decline in many locations globally. In the northeastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Washington, USA, bull kelp Nereocystis luetkeana forests are seasonally used by juvenile salmonids and forage fishes; howeve...
Article
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We summarize 22 years of observations of juvenile forage fish and sea lice from north coastal Washington state. Only juvenile herring were observed over multiple years with sea lice beginning in 2004, after which the prevalence varied but trended to increased annually. Larger schools of juvenile herring were observed to have proportionally more lic...
Article
Full-text available
Estuaries are used by anadromous fishes, either as the definitive marine habitat or as transition habitat as they move to fully marine waters, and extent of estuary use may vary with habitat conditions and fish attributes. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are commonly fluvial or adfluvial, though anadromous populations also exist. However, littl...
Article
Full-text available
Large dam removals are emerging as an important ecosystem restoration tool, and they often have direct influence on the marine nearshore zone, but dam removal plans give little consideration to nearshore restoration. We provide an overview of the relationship between large-scale dam removals and nearshore restoration, using the Elwha dam removal pr...
Article
Full-text available
The nearshore is a critical zone for northeast Pacific Ocean fish communities, including ecologically and culturally important salmon species. The largest dam removal in the world was recently completed on the Elwha River, with the goal of restoring fisheries and ecosystems to the watershed. The nearshore Elwha fish community was monitored monthly...
Article
Full-text available
Large Woody Debris (LWD) is a critical component of Pacific Northwest marine ecosystems and of growing interest for restoration. This study adds important empirical data to the limited pool of information on the dynamics of LWD at the interface of freshwater, human, and marine ecosystems. In Washington State, the Elwha River nearshore is significan...
Article
Full-text available
The estuary of the Elwha River, on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula, has been degraded and simplified over the past century from sediment retention behind two large dams, levee construction, and channelization. With the removal of Elwha Dam and initiation of Glines Canyon Dam’s removal in fall 2011, sediment deposits will change the estuary and affec...
Article
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In addition to the downstream migration of smolts in spring, Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch also enter estuaries throughout the year but especially in the spring as fry and in the fall as parr. The removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, has increased the area accessible to salmon and is affecting many aspects of the system. For...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Our natural environment provides things we need to survive — breathable air, drinkable water, food, security from flood and storm, and stable atmospheric conditions. Natural systems also provide things essential for every economy to survive, such as oxygen, water and raw materials. Ecosystem services provide substantial economic value that, when ma...
Article
Full-text available
The role of geomorphic habitat type, drift cell scale, and geographic scale in defining fish use of nearshore habitats is poorly known, particularly for Pacific salmon and their prey. In this study, key areas of nearshore habitat in central and western Strait of Juan de Fuca were categorized by geomorphic habitat type and assessed for fish use with...
Conference Paper
In this study we address the role of geomorphic habitat type and drift cell in defining fish use of nearshore habitats, as well as the role environmental degradation may play in habitat function at the drift cell scale. Key areas of nearshore central and western Strait of Juan de Fuca were categorized by geomorphic habitat type and then assessed fo...
Article
The Elwha River estuary has been significantly influenced by anthropogenic changes to the river, including two large dams upriver and rock dikes installed in the estuary. Together these have disrupted hydrodynamic processes and subsequent sediment delivery throughout the watershed. This article defines the functional response of fish distribution w...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes a pilot study conducted in spring 2005 that documents, for the first time, eulachon, Thaleichthys pacificus, in the Elwha River. General morophometrics of the Elwha eulachon are comparable to those found in other northwest systems. Eulachon abundance in the Elwha appears much lower than in other northwest rivers with documente...
Article
Full-text available
Removal of two dams from the Elwha River is a unique restoration opportunity. In place for over 95 years, the dams have contributed to changes in the river, its estuary, and marine areas off shore from the river mouth, largely through reductions in sediment supply and salmon populations. Impending removals of both dams will only restore part of the...
Article
Full-text available
The removal of two dams on the Elwha River of Washington State is expected to release 1.38 x107 m3 of gravel, sand and silt into the Elwha River and nearshore marine environment of the Strait of Juan de Fuca (Randle et al., 1996). Waves and tides are expected to distribute these sediments widely upon beaches within the Elwha littoral cell with impl...
Conference Paper
The goal of this project was to gather pre-dam removal nearshore habitat data along the Elwha drift cell (west end of Freshwater Bay to the tip of Ediz Hook) and an adjacent drift cell (mouth of Morse Creek to the tip of Dungeness Spit) by mapping the location of eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds and estimating parameters describing each bed (areal ex...
Article
Full-text available
Kelp habitats in Washington state, including the Strait of Juan de Fuca, are classified as a critical habitat for a number of federally listed, proposed listed, and declining stocks, including Chinook, coho and chum salmon, and quilback, copper, and brown rockfish, surfsmelt, sandlance, and northern abalone. The Strait of Juan de Fuca supports the...
Article
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The community composition and trophic use of the drift vegetation habitat by pre-settlement juvenile splitnose rockfish Sebastes diploproa was documented in June, August, and October 1992 in the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, USA. Fucus spp., Zostera spp. and Nereocystis luetkeana were the dominant vegetation for the months sampled. Juvenile S....
Article
Full-text available
A medium scale landslide (2153 m3) deposited sediment on to a intertidal beach on the north side of Point Williams, Seattle, Washington on 4 April 1991. Within 23 days of the slide, high tides and rain carried 77% of the sediment to nearshore waters and north through a seasonal kelp bed immediately adjacent to the slide area. Transects were placed...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to quantify, for the first time, some basic parameters of juvenile salmon and forage fish use of kelp bed habitats. Findings include: (1) Juvenile salmon and surf smelt appear to preferentially use kelp bed habitats over unvegetated habitats. (2) Juvenile salmon appear to prefer the middle of the kelp surface canopy while s...
Article
The nearshore fish assemblage of the east and west Twins rivers and shoreline was assessed via beach seining of the lower river and shoreline for over a year period. The key findings include: 1.Documentation of a strong seasonal variation in fish use of the Twins nearshore that was similar to other study areas of the central and western Strait; 2....
Article
Kelp bed function in the Elwha drift cell is little understood but an important component to the upcoming nearshore restoration associated with the Elwha dam removals. This study provides information on fish use of overstory kelp beds in Elwha and comparative drift cells. A total of 14 snorkeling surveys were conducted in the kelp beds within Elwha...
Article
Full-text available
Fifty-eight juvenile Chinook salmon were collected from nearshore areas of the central and western Strait of Juan de Fuca, west of the Elwha River, between June and September 2007. Genetic analysis documented that 43% of these fish were Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Elwha/Dungeness reporting group), with 48% representing various Columbia River popula...

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Project (1)
Project
The removal of the Elwha River dam requires true ecosystem monitoring. Multiple individuals and groups are currently working on multiple facets of monitoring including juvenile and adult salmonid enumeration, changes to physical habitat features, and changes in the food web.