Anne-Kristin Løes

Anne-Kristin Løes
Bioforsk · Organic Food and Farming

Dr. sc. (scientiarum)

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55
Publications
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Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
Fishbones contain significant amounts of plant nutrients. Fish residues may be preserved by acidification to pH < 4, which may affect the chemical extractability, and the plant availability of nutrients when applied as fertilisers. Grinded bone material from cod ( Gadus morhua ) heads was mixed with formic acid to investigate if this would increase...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fishbones contain significant amounts of plant nutrients. Fish residues may be preserved by acidification to pH < 4, which may affect the extractability and plant availability of nutrients when applied as fertilisers. Grinded bone material from cod ( Gadus morhua ) heads was mixed with formic acid to investigate if acidification would increase the...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue presents the outcomes from “Designing sustainable and circular agricultural systems for the year 2100,” the joint scientific workshop of ISOFAR, the Thünen-Institute, and INRA-Morocco, which was held from November 14 to 16, 2019 in Marrakesh, Morocco. Nineteen scientists from a broad array of background and nationalities came tog...
Article
A farm scale composting drum was used to study exhaust gases from horse manure, and from horse manure mixed with tomato plant residues (TPR) with a lower C/N ratio. To study whether this addition increased gaseous losses of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), selected gas compounds of carbon (C) and N, and sulphur dioxide (SO2), were measured on three da...
Article
Full-text available
Minimising outputs of waste and pollution by recycling and efficient utilisation of renewable resources is of common interest for organic agriculture and the concepts of circular and bioeconomy. However, in practice, many efforts to increase recycling of various biological materials in organic agriculture are hampered because standards for certifie...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining sufficient soil phosphorus (P) levels for non-limiting crop growth is challenging in organic systems since off-farm inputs of P are restricted. This study assessed the status of P on organic farms in Europe using soil test results for extractable P. Data was obtained from published literature, unpublished theses, and various national an...
Article
Full-text available
Organic agriculture can and should play an important role in solving future challenges in producing food. The low level of external inputs combined with knowledge on sustainablity minimizes environmental contamination and can help to produce more food for more people without negatively impacting our environment. Organic agriculture not only include...
Article
It is an honor to be able to present this special issue of Organic Agriculture: Organic 3.0 for the Organic World Congress in India 2017. In this issue, we have collected a number of papers relevant for the theme Organic 3.0. This special issue of Organic Agriculture about Organic 3.0 is published in connection to the science track “Innovative rese...
Chapter
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms. At the current rate of extraction, global reserves of mineable deposits will be exhausted within the next few centuries. This publication aims to summarize the current knowledge on P recycling for organic farming. The evaluation of recycled P fertilizers (RPFs) includes (i) a chemical...
Article
Full-text available
Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming sign...
Conference Paper
The CYCLE project aims at reducing food loss by creating innovative food and feed products and ingredients, in a close cooperation with the Norwegian food industry. Three important food chains are involved: chicken, white and pelagic fish, and vegetables and potatoes. Bioforsk, VTT and SINTEF cooperate on hydrolisation of chicken co-streams to prod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Food losses occur throughout the entire food chain. Globally, food losses account for about one third of the total food produced. In the CYCLE project we mapped the production and utilisation of co-streams in the Norwegian food processing industry.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite huge amounts of feathers being produced (5-6% of chicken weight) and growing knowledge about processing methods, only a few companies produce feather meal in Europe. Yearly, about 175.000 tonnes of feather meal are produced in Europe.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Globally, over 2 million tonnes of chicken feathers are plucked at slaughterhouses each year. Feathers contain 90% protein (keratin), but disulfide bonds make them resistant to degradation. Hydrolysis releases amino acids and improves the digestibility of keratin.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Food losses occur throughout the entire food chain, from primary production via postharvest handling and storage, to food processing, distribution, retailing and consumption. Globally, food losses account for about one third of the total food produced for human consumption. The aim of this report was to map the production and utilisation of co-stre...
Article
Every year since 2002, 150 to 200 farmers in Norway have deregistered from certified organic production. The aim of this study was to get behind these figures and improve our understanding of the reasoning leading to decisions to opt out. Four cases of deregistered organic farmers with grain, sheep, dairy or vegetable production were selected for i...
Article
Full-text available
A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002-2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the potential of fish waste for liquid and gaseous biofuels, with focus on Norway but also some consideration of other markets. Fish production and processing wastes are a significant source of material for bioenergy production. Norway is a country of high fish production, but currently low development of the bioenergy sector...
Article
Increasingly, food consumption occurs in out-of-home contexts, where organic food can also have a role to play. Public food services may be utilised to increase the sustainability of providing nutrition. Although school meals may be well suited to integrating organic food and sustainable nutrition concepts, school food provision systems are very di...
Article
By restricted access to manure, nitrogen (N) supply in organic agriculture relies on biological N-fixation. This study compares grain yields after one full-season green manure (FSGM) to yields with repeated use of a green-manure catch crop. At two sites in south-eastern Norway, in a simple 4-year rotation (oats/wheat/oats/wheat), the repeated use o...
Article
This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic ma...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose-The purpose of this study was to examine whether organic food intervention strategies in Danish school meal systems can support the development of healthier eating patterns among pupils. Design/methodology/approach-This paper investigates the interrelation between the two trends: healthy eating and organic consumption. The study was underta...
Article
Full-text available
On 24 June 1991, the Council of the European Union adopted Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs. As well as defining the required method of production of crops and livestock they also regulate labelling, processing, marketing, import and...
Article
Full-text available
One of eight pilot projects in the European CORE Organic programme, innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth, (iPOPY) will study efficient ways of implementing organic food in public serving outlets for young people (2007-10). By analysing practical cases of school meal systems and other food serving outlets for youth, we will identify...
Article
Full-text available
For å øke forbruket av økologisk mat på lengre sikt, er det viktig å nå unge konsumenter. Bioforsk leder et europeisk forskningsprosjekt om mattilbud i skolen. Deltakerlandene har svært ulike ordninger, og andelen økomat varierer mye. Hva kan vi lære av hverandre for å finne innovative strategier til økt bruk av økologiske matvarer, i skolen og på...
Article
Full-text available
Siden 2002 har mellom 150 og 200 produsenter årlig meldt seg ut av Debio. Den viktigste årsaken til utmelding var for mye byråkrati med kontroll og sertifisering. For dem som driver økologisk er det viktigste problemet uforutsigbare politiske rammevilkår. Økonomiske forhold var viktige årsaker eller problemer for alle.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerous studies have examined organic farmers’ characteristics, motives, attitudes and barriers related to the conversion from conventional to organic farming. Recent studies have also discussed the perceived problems and reasons stated by organic farmers for opting out of certified production. In Norway, farmers’ reasons for opting out of certifi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
From 2002 to 06, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3%. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer’s reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors seem to be public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with rela...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
From 2002 to 2006, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3 %. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer's reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors were public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with relativ...
Article
Full-text available
Med et offentlig mål om at 15 % av matproduksjonen og -forbruket skal være økologisk i 2015, må norsk økologisk landbruk vokse raskt og mye. Da er det problematisk at mange økobønder slutter. Fra 2004 til 2007 meldte 646 bønder seg ut av Debios kontrollordning for økologisk produksjon. Nettotilveksten i samme periode var bare 177 bruk, slik at det...
Article
I løpet av de siste årene har flere hundre økobønder meldt seg ut av Debio, kontrollorganet for økologisk landbruk i NOrge. Samtidig viser en nylig gjennomført spørreundersøkelse blant tidligere og nåværende økobønder at en av fire økobønder vurderer å melde seg ut (se kronikk av samme forfattere i Nationen 7. mai 2008). De viktigste årsakene til å...
Article
Specific root length (SRL, m root g–1 root dry matter) was studied in a broad selection of old and current accessions of spring wheat and barley from Norway and Sweden, at sub-optimal phosphorus conditions in nutrient solution and soil. The results indicated that genotype did not have a significant effect on SRL. A close relationship between root l...
Article
Full-text available
On five long-term organic dairy farms aiming at self-sufficiency with nutrients, soil concentrations of ammonium-acetate lactate extractable potassium (K-AL) and acid-soluble K was measured twice in topsoil (0–20 cm) and subsoil (20–40 cm) over periods of 6–14 years. Organic management had occurred for >9 years at the second sampling. On average th...
Article
Full-text available
Trials were performed with red beet and white cabbage in 1998–2001 to assess the effects on yields and nutrient utilization of surface mulch (chopped grass and/or red clover). No other nutrients were applied. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were measured in mulch, saleable products and above-ground plant residues. A single m...
Article
Full-text available
On organic farms, where the importation of materials to build/maintain soil fertility is restricted, it is important that a balance between inputs and outputs of nutrients is achieved to ensure both short-term productivity and long-term sustainability. This paper considers different approaches to nutrient budgeting on organic farms and evaluates th...
Article
Full-text available
On organic farms, where the importation of materials to build/maintain soil fertility is restricted, it is important that a balance between inputs and outputs of nutrients is achieved to ensure both short-term productivity and long-term sustainability. This paper considers different approaches to nutrient budgeting on organic farms and evaluates th...
Article
Full-text available
In a pot experiment with five harvests of ryegrass the potassium (K) uptake from soil was studied in a clay and a silt soil, with (K1) and without (K0) K fertilizer. Ammonium acetate lactate-extractable K (K-AL) was rapidly depleted, and in K0 the K-AL level stabilized at 30 and 100 mg K kg -1 in the silt and clay soil, respectively. Corrected for...
Article
Full-text available
On five farms that have been managed organically for several years, all cultivated soils were sampled on two occasions. The time span between the first and second soil sampling varied from 6 to 12 years. At the first sampling the farms had been managed organically for 3, 4, 6, 11 or 53 years. The average phosphorus (P) concentrations in topsoil (0-...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional and health problems related to life style alarm European governments. The interest in school meals as a lever for change is increasing because young people reside longer in public institutions and their often unsatisfactory eating patterns might be counterbalanced by healthy school food. Organic food contributes to sustainable nutrition...
Article
Full-text available
Organic farmers are often advised to plough shallowly (<15 cm) in order to optimise nutrient turnover and to promote the activity of soil biota, but deeper for better control of perennial weeds. Different ploughing depths (13 vs 25 cm) had minor effects on decomposition rate of barley straw and earthworm activity in the decomposing straw when using...
Article
Full-text available
The schooldays of European children and youth tend to get longer, and their eating patterns, especially during school hours, are often unsatisfactory. Healthy school food is a logic response to this situation. Organic food contributes to sustainable nutrition, and hence is an interesting starting point for healthier menus and food education. The re...
Article
Full-text available
Manuscript submitted to Crop Science a b c f g h d e Legend to pictures, opposite page a Field experiment with 20 accessions of spring wheat and barley released 1900-2000, grown with limited supply of nutrients and use of pesticides, 10 August 2001. b Above ground dry matter was recorded at 2 weeks interval during the growing season, the first time...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Archived project
Governments, companies, producers and caterers are increasingly committed to public procurement of organic food, but many challenges remain. The iPOPY project suggests efficient policies and instruments for increased consumption of organic products in public food serving outlets for youth. All publications can be found in the OA archive organic eprints (orgprints.org) using the keyword 'ipopy'.
Archived project
The principal objective is to study the reasons for farmers to opt out of certified organic farming, and thereby produce a required base of knowledge for policy makers to develop appropriate policies to achieve the official goals for organic production. Sub-goals: 1) to reveal and analyse which factors that prompt organic producers to abandon certified organic production 2) to compare Norwegian results and external conditions with other European countries 3) to discuss possible design of public means as well as other instruments that may contribute to reduce the number of farmers opting out, and possibly also encourage more farmers to convert