Annarita Milone

Annarita Milone
Università di Pisa- IRCCS Stella Maris

MD

About

111
Publications
14,978
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1,810
Citations
Citations since 2016
68 Research Items
1248 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
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Research on the association between callous–unemotional (CU) traits and intelligence yielded contradictory results. Moreover, several previous studies focused on global intelligence scores or verbal vs. nonverbal/performance abilities usually evaluated with short/abbreviated instruments. The current study builds on these previous works and explores...
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The paper proposes an ecological and portable protocol for the large-scale collection of reading data in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children based on recording the finger movements of a subject reading a text displayed on a tablet touchscreen. By capitalizing on recent evidence that movements of a finger that points to a scene...
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Background: Abnormal sensory reactivity is considered one of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and has been associated with autism severity, poorer functional outcomes, and behavioral difficulties across the lifespan. Its early characterization could provide valuable insights into the processes favoring the instantiation...
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Previous research identified emotion processing (i.e., emotion recognition and gaze pattern towards emotional stimuli) deficits in youths with callous-unemotional (CU) traits, though mixed results have emerged. CU traits frequently co-occur with high levels of the other psychopathy dimensions, namely narcissism and impulsivity, and overall, psychop...
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Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been related to an increased risk for behavioral addictions, the relationship between ADHD and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is still debated. The aim of this study is to address this topic by exploring the prevalence of IGD in a consecutive sample of ADHD youth, compared to a normal con...
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Background: Sensory reactivity is considered one of the diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and has been associated with poorer functional outcomes, behavioral difficulties, and autism severity across the lifespan. The characterization of the sensory processing in ASD has thus become crucial to identify the sensory and motor fe...
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Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) refer to a group of conditions that typically share difficulties in modulating aggressive conducts, self-control, and impulses, with resulting behaviors that constitute a threat to others’ safety and to social norms [...]
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Aggressive behaviors and disruptive/conduct disorders are some of the commonest reasons for referral to youth mental health services; nevertheless, the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in real-world clinical practice remains unclear. In order to define more appropriate targets for innovative pharmacological therapies for disruptive/conduct dis...
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This study aimed to further validate the self-reported version of the Proposed Specifiers Conduct Disorder (PSCD) scale, testing the associations between the PSCD with a scale that measures emotional/behavioral difficulties and prosocial behaviors (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ). A total of 536 Italian students (47.76% male; 11–14 ye...
Article
Background Cyclothymic-hypersensitive temperament (CHT) has been related to both depression and bipolarity, as well as to suicidality. Recently, a psychometrically sound way of assessment has been validated in youth (Cyclothymic-Hypersensitive Temperament Questionnaire, CHTQ), but data on clinical populations are still scant. Aim of our study is to...
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Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with gaze pattern deficits in youths, though it has not yet been explored if environmental factors could influence this relationship. Since parenting can influence both CU traits and children's emotion processing, the current study sought to test whether parenting moderated the relation between gaze pa...
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In recent years, there has been growing interest in investigating the effect of specific pharmacological treatments for ADHD not only on its core symptoms, but also on social skills in youths. This stands especially true for ADHD patients displaying impulsive aggressiveness and antisocial behaviors, being the comorbidity with Disruptive Behavior Di...
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Background: Empathy has long been considered a multidimensional construct, encompassing cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. Deficits in empathic competences in early childhood contribute to psychopathology, and have been variably implicated in several clinical conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and conduct disorders. Aim...
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Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) are the most common mental health disorders in the school-aged child population. Although harsh parenting is a key risk factor in the shaping of DBD, studies neglect the presence of siblings and differential parenting. This study aims to compare: (1) parenting style and sibling relationship in sibling dyads of cl...
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Early adolescence, with its several changes and demands, represents a delicate period of life. Several studies highlighted that during early adolescence, emotional and behavioral problems tend to increase. Using a person-centered approach, the present study explored the emotional and behavioral functioning profiles in a sample of Italian preadolesc...
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Introduction: Secure attachment in adolescence, related to caregiving quality, is a robust predictor of positive behavioral adjustment in early adulthood and beyond. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to develop treatments to promote parent–adolescent attachment security. Methods: Using a longitudinal, multicenter, randomized controlled tria...
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The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse psychological effects on children and parents. While parenting is essential for positive development, increased parental distress has interfered with children’s wellbeing. In our study, we aimed to identify the predictors of parental distress in families of children with neuropsychiatric dis...
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Background: Beside the core symptoms, patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently show relevant difficulty in developing relationships with peers. Although ADHD symptoms may account for social impairment, deficits in cognitive and/or affective empathy have also been involved. Our aim was to investigate the effect of me...
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Background: Severe suicide ideation or attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) present both differences and relevant overlaps, including frequent co-occurrence and shared risk factors. Specific categorical diagnoses, namely bipolar disorder (BD), may affect clinical features and natural histories of suicidal or not suicidal self-harm behaviou...
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Background: Increasing attention has been recently paid to precursors of bipolar disorder (BD). Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been reported among the most common prodromes of BD. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of BD in youths affected by ADHD based on prospective studies. Methods: A systematic rev...
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LEGO®-based therapy is a social skills development program aimed at children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science bibliographic databases were searched from their date of inception to August 2020. The review included 19 studies. Studies we...
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Background The failure to regulate emotions, namely emotional dysregulation (ED), is a relevant construct in adolescent psychiatry, in terms of prognostic and developmental implications. We developed and validated a novel self-report questionnaire for the assessment of ED, the RIPoSt-Y, both in clinical and non-clinical samples. Methods Items sele...
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Phantom Phone Signal (PPS) refers to the false perception of a mobile phone ringing, vibrating and blinking, when in fact it did not. A recent literature about PPS is growing, parallel to an increasing interest about its possible psychopathological implications. The present review aims to synthesize the current knowledge about the phenomenon, and t...
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Emotional dysregulation (ED) is currently the most frequently used term to describe children with an impaired regulation of emotional states. Recent research studies speculate whether ED may be a neurodevelopmental disorder itself, a shared risk factor, or a common key feature of several psychiatric disorders, including, among others, attention def...
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Evidence from everyday life suggests that differences in social behaviors between males and females exist, both in animal and in humans. These differences can be related to socio‐cultural determinants, but also to specialized portions of the brain (the social brain), from the neurotransmitter to the neural network level. The high vulnerability of t...
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On 11 March 2020, a national lockdown was imposed by the Italian government to contain the spread of COVID19 disease. This is an observational longitudinal study conducted at Fondazione Stella Maris (FSM), Italy to investigate lockdown-related emotional and behavioural changes in paediatric neuropsychiatric population. Families having children (1.5...
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Although childhood‐onset psychiatric disorders are often considered as distinct and separate from each other, they frequently co‐occur, with partial overlapping symptomatology. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co‐occur with each other and with other mental disorders, particularly disruptive...
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Background: Bipolar Disorders (BD) in youth are a heterogeneous condition with different phenomenology, patterns of comorbidity and outcomes. Our aim was to explore the effects of gender; age at onset (prepubertal- vs. adolescent-onset) of BD; and elements associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorder (...
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Executive functions have been previously shown to correlate with empathic attitudes and prosocial behaviors. People with higher levels of executive functions, as a whole, may better regulate their emotions and reduce perceived distress during the empathetic processes. Our goal was to explore the relationship between empathy and executive functionin...
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Background: It is currently debated whether specific psychiatric disorders or Internalizing versus Externalizing psychopathological dimensions are associated to Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD). We explored this issue in youth with and without IAD referred to a third-level Department of Adolescent Psychiatry during a 12-month period. Method: All t...
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Background Children's self-views encompass two independent dimensions: self-esteem and narcissism, which recently have received growing attention from researchers and clinicians. The current study sought to test whether these dimensions might predict the developmental course of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder diagnosis. Method The samp...
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In recent years, the study of eye movements has increasingly become a window into neurological function and processes. This paper reports data about applications of eye-tracking technology in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially in studying the clinical characteristics of ADHD. These studies indicated that eye-tracking approach rep...
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Objective: This study was the first attempt to explore the efficacy of a mindfulness protocol for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and their parents. Method: Fifty male children with ADHD and ODD diagnosis, aged 8 to 12, were randomly assigned to the mindfulness intervention ( n...
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Background: Although a better understanding of the prodromes of affective disorders in youth has important clinical and research implications, empirical data are still unconclusive. Cyclothymic-hypersensitive temperament (CHT) has been linked to both depression and bipolarity, as well as to suicidality. Its conceptualization is still debated, as we...
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RIASSUNTO. Recentemente la ricerca ha focalizzato l’attenzione sul narcisismo come tratto di personalità non necessariamente patologico, che può essere presente fin dall’età scolare e può condurre, in taluni casi, a conseguenze negative nello sviluppo del bambino, come problematiche affettive e comportamentali. Dopo aver illustrato le principali ip...
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Recently, studies have focused on narcissism as a personality trait, which can be detected during childhood, and can lead to negative outcomes, such as emotional and behavioral problems. After illustrating the main hypotheses on the development of narcissistic traits in children, this paper aims to outline the relation between narcissism, self-este...
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Background Epidemiological studies worldwide indicate that teenagers are at risk of internalizing and externalizing problems that persist into adulthood. In our country, there are few epidemiological studies on adolescents internalizing and externalizing problems. These studies, however, were not conducted in all of Italy. The aim of this study, pr...
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Universal prevention approaches have significantly reduced children's conduct problems and aggressive behavior in the school setting, but it has not been clear whether the effects generalize into children's behavior in home and community settings in later elementary school years. The present study examined this issue using a classroom-randomized de...
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Background: Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a trans-nosographical condition characterized by mood instability, severe irritability, aggression, temper outburst, and hyper-arousal. Pathophysiology of emotional dysregulation and its potential biomarkers are an emerging field of interest. A Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profile, defined as Dysregul...
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Previous studies indicated that a lack of empathy could be considered the core feature of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children and adolescents. The present study is aimed at exploring relationships among CU traits, cognitive and emotional dimensions of empathy, emotion recognition (basic, social, and complex emotions), and history of maltrea...
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Children with severe aggressive behavioral problems are one of the groups most frequently referred to mental health clinics, and they engage in behaviors that put them at risk for substance use problems and a host of other negative outcomes. The present study aimed to assess the long-term outcome (six-year follow up) of the Coping Power Program del...
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Research suggests that callous unemotional (CU) traits are associated with poor emotion recognition due to impairments in attention to relevant emotional cues. To further investigate the mechanisms that underlie CU traits, this study focused on the relationship between levels of CU and children's attention to, and recognition of, facial emotions. P...
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Background: Although lithium is currently approved for the treatment of bipolar disorders in youth, long term data, are still scant. The aim of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of lithium in referred bipolar adolescents, who were followed up at the 4th (T1) and 8th (T2) month of treatment. Methods: The design was naturalistic a...
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Purpose: Our aims were to explore the developmental trajectories of callous–unemotional (CU) traits using a growth curve analysis in Italian children with disruptive behavior disorders treated with a multimodal intervention, and to test both predictors and distal outcomes of CU traits trajectories. Patients and method: One hundred and sixty-eight c...
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Background: Several studies have investigated relationships between narcissism, self-esteem and behavioral problems in children. Most of these studies have been conducted in community samples, rather than in clinical referred samples. This field of research is clinically important, because data on community samples suggest that narcissism is a sig...
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Background: Growing evidence supports the comorbidity between bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. Our aim is to further explore clinical and treatment implications of this comorbidity, as it appears in clinical practice. Method: The sample included 429 consecutive patients with BD and/or OCD...
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Background: Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in adults, but its mechanism of action is still far from clear. Furthermore, evidences of its use in pediatric populations are sparse, not only for bipolar disorders, but also for other possible indications. Objectives: To provide a synthesis of published data on the possible mec...
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Conduct Disorder (CD) is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated. Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are a meaningful specifier in subtyping CD for more severe antisocial and aggressive behaviours in adult...
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The study presented the initial report of a project regarding the implementation of the Coping Power Program in Italian community hospitals, and the program’s ability to reduce externalizing behavioral problems in children with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis. Usually, interventions for children are implemented by a number of therapists wi...
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Background: Non suicidal self-injuries (NSSIs) are deliberate self-harm behaviors without suicidal intent, usually starting in adolescence, with increasing rates of occurrence both in epidemiological and clinical samples. Several studies associated cyclothymic-hypersensitive temperament (CHT) with self-harm behaviors and suicidal risk. Aim of this...
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Background/purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generat...
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The interplay between Callous Unemotional Traits (CU) and Moral Disengagement (MD) was examined in a sample of 90 adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Using a person-centered approach, three CU and MD configurations were identified, attesting the strong relationship between these two moral dimensions. However, for some adolescents, CU an...
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Several studies demonstrated that maternal psychopathological risk is related to child’s maladjustment, but until recently research has relatively neglected fathers. Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and Eating disorders (ED) have a large prevalence during childhood but a few studies have focused on their association with paternal psychopathologic...
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The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared w...
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During the past decade, a substantial increase in the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has occurred for a number of juvenile psychiatric disorders, often as off-label prescriptions. Although they were thought to be safer than older, first generation antipsychotics, mainly due to a lower risk of neurological adverse reactions, recent s...
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Recently, social anxiety disorder (SAD) and paranoia have been demonstrated to be closely related. However, data were primarily drawn from adult community samples or patients with schizophrenia. The present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate a sample of adolescents with SAD (n = 30, mean age 15.3 ± 0.9 years) compared with an age- and...
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Background: The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), (high scores in Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior subscales), has been related to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation in children and adolescents. Our aim is to evaluate if it may be associated with auto-aggression in youth with opposit...
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Background: Callous-unemotional traits have been proposed as risk factors for a poorer prognosis in young people with disruptive behaviour disorders. Identification of factors that may cause or maintain elevated levels of such traits could help in developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Some previous studies have investigated the role of mo...
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Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with...
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Objective: Several studies suggested that in addition to child-driven factors (i.e., temperamental style), parenting behavior can, at least in part, influence the maintenance of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in children; however, more information is needed to distinguish which styles (negative parenting or lack of positive parenting) predict inc...
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Prevention and intervention at a young age are preferable; however, studies indicate that approximately half of all serious teen behavioural problems are first treated in adolescence. Evidence suggests that interventions, which improve parenting skills, are associated with reductions in problem behavioural problems. However, programmes for behaviou...
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Although multi-component psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatments for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), pharmacotherapy is often associated for more severe patients. Our aim was to explore effectiveness of an associated pharmacotherapy in referred children with DBD receiving a one-year psychotherapeutic intervention. Aggression,...
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The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disord...
Article
Prevention and intervention at a young age are preferable; however, studies indicate that approximately half of all serious teen behavioural problems are first treated in adolescence. Evidence suggests that interventions, which improve parenting skills, are associated with reductions in problem behavioural problems. However, programmes for behaviou...