Annapaola Rizzoli

Annapaola Rizzoli
Fondazione Edmund Mach - Istituto Agrario San Michele All'Adige | Fondazione Mach · Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology (DBEM)

DVM, PhD

About

284
Publications
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Publications

Publications (284)
Article
Culex pipiens (Linnaeus), one of the most abundant mosquito species in Europe, plays a crucial role in the endemic transmission of West Nile virus and caused the large outbreak with >1600 human cases in 2018. Although evidence of resistance to pyrethroids has been reported for Cx. pipiens populations from Spain and Greece, resistance monitoring has...
Article
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Background: Trentino is an Italian province with a tourism-based economy, bordering the regions of Lombardy and Veneto, where the two earliest and largest outbreaks of COVID-19 occurred in Italy. The earliest cases in Trentino were reported in the first week of March 2020, with most of the cases occurring in the winter sport areas in the Dolomites...
Article
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Purpose West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne zoonotic pathogen which represents a continuous source of concern for public health worldwide due to its expansion and invasion into new regions. Its distribution and circulation intensity in African countries is only partially known. The aim of the present study is to provide an updated overview...
Article
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Purpose Rodent borne diseases, including those indirectly transmitted by vectors, represent an increasing threat for public health. The provisioning of early warning indicators of the changing hazard is of great utility for the improvement of prevention and control strategies. Climate can affect tree seed production, which represents the major food...
Article
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Background West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which has been posing continuous challenges to public health worldwide due to the identification of new lineages and clades and its ability to invade and establish in an increasing number of countries. Its current distribution, genetic variability, ecology, and epidemiological pattern in the...
Preprint
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1. Mosquito species belonging to the genus Aedes have attracted the interest of scientists and public health officers for their invasive species traits and efficient capacity of transmitting viruses affecting humans. Some of these species were brought outside their native range by human activities such as trade and tourism, and colonised new region...
Presentation
Introduction: Emergence of tick-borne diseases is related to host-pathogen-parasite system alterations, which are affected by several factors. In this sense, underlining the mechanisms between environmental heterogeneity, hosts availability and tick burden are of particular interest to understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens. Materials...
Article
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An unexpected high presence of Mycobacterium microti in wild boar in Northern Italy (Garda Lake) has been reported since 2003, but the factors contributing to the maintenance of this pathogen are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence of M. microti in wild rodents and in water and soil samples collected at wild boar aggregation...
Article
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Diptera is one of the biggest insect orders and displays a large diversity of visual adaptations. Similarly to other animals, the dipteran visual process is mediated by opsin genes. While the diversity and function of these genes is well studied in key model species, a comprehensive comparative genomic study across the dipteran phylogeny is missing...
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The development of new diagnostic methods resulted in the discovery of novel hepaciviruses in wild populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus, syn. Clethrionomys glareolus). The naturally infected voles demonstrate signs of hepatitis similar to those induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans. The aim of the present research was to investigat...
Article
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One-third of all mosquitoes belong to the Aedini, a tribe comprising common vectors of viral zoonoses such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. To improve our understanding of their evolution, we present an updated multigene estimate of Aedini phylogeny and divergence, focusing on the disentanglement between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenetic...
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (vssc) associated with resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widely used and represents a potential early warning and monitoring system for insecticide resistance arising in mosquito populations, which are vectors of different human pathogens. I...
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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe zoonotic neurological disease endemic in northeast Italy since 1992. In the Province of Trento, a sharp increase in TBE incidence has been recorded since 2012, despite the vaccination efforts. To assess current TBE infection hazard in this area, we applied an integrated approach combining the distribution o...
Article
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The mosquito species Aedes albopictus has successfully colonized many areas at temperate latitudes, representing a major public health concern. As mosquito bionomics is critically affected by temperature, we experimentally investigated the influence of different constant rearing temperatures (10, 15, 25, and 30 °C) on the survival rates, fecundity,...
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Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is an emerging virus, first detected in 2016 and widespread in the swine industry. Although not considered a primary pathogen, PCV3 is potentially linked to several clinical conditions that threaten swine farming. Wild boars are considered the main reservoir species for PCV3 infection in the wild, but recent detection in...
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People with some occupational or recreational activities, such as hunters and veterinarians, may have increased risk to be infected by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). The aim of the present study was to establish whether forestry workers could be considered at a higher risk of HEV infection than a control group. One hundred and fifty sera from forestr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Opsin receptors mediate the visual process in animals and their evolutionary history can provide precious hints on the ecological factors that underpin their diversification. Here we mined the genomes of more than 60 Dipteran species and reconstructed the evolution of their opsin genes in a phylogenetic framework. Our phylogenies indicate that dipt...
Article
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Ljungan virus (LV), which belongs to the Parechovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family, was first isolated from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Sweden in 1998 and proposed as a zoonotic agent. To improve knowledge of the host association and geographical distribution of LV, tissues from 1685 animals belonging to multiple rodent and insectivore s...
Article
Honey is a complex mixture of carbohydrates, in which the monosaccharides glucose and fructose are the most abundant compounds. Currently, more than 20 oligosaccharides have been identified in different varieties of honey normally at quite low concentration. A method was developed and validated using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography c...
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Background: In the Netherlands, Aedes albopictus has been found each year since 2010 during routine exotic mosquito species surveillance at companies that import used tires. We developed habitat suitability models to investigate the potential risk of establishment and spread of this invasive species at these locations. Methods: We used two metho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In the Netherlands, Aedes albopictus has been found each year since 2010 during routine exotic mosquito species surveillance at companies that import used tires. We developed habitat suitability models to investigate the potential risk of establishment and spread of this invasive species at these locations. Methods We used two methodolog...
Article
Full-text available
Using specific primers based on the ribosomal operon, positive DNA amplification was obtained from lungs of 11/215 tested small burrowing animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, and including frozen (n = 4) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (n = 7) samples. The main species detected in Europe in mice, otters and river rats was Emmonsia crescens....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In the Netherlands, Aedes albopictus has been found each year since 2010 during routine exotic mosquito species surveillance at companies that import used tires. We developed habitat suitability models to investigate the potential risk of establishment and spread of this invasive species at these locations. Methods We used two methodolog...
Article
Full-text available
Since it has been understood that gut microbiota of vector mosquitoes can influence their vector competence, efforts have been undertaken to develop new control strategies based on host microbiota manipulation, and aimed at suppressing the vector population or replacing it with a less competent one. For the proper design of such control strategies...
Article
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Background: Aedes koreicus was detected in northern Italy for the first time in 2011, and it is now well established in several areas as a new invasive mosquito species. Data regarding the influence of temperature on mosquito survival and development are not available yet for this species. Methods: We experimentally investigated the influence of...
Conference Paper
Changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important anthropogenic factors affecting parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic diseases emergence. Transmission of vector borne pathogens are particularly sensitive to these changes due to the complexity of their cycle. In general, reported cases of vector-borne...
Article
Tick-borne encephalitis is an important zoonosis in many parts of north-western, central and eastern Europe, Russia and the Far East, with considerable altitudinal and latitudinal shifts described during recent decades. The reported routes of transmission for TBE virus include the saliva-activated non-viraemic transmission between co-feeding ticks...
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In the Anthropocene context, changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important anthropogenic factors affecting parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic diseases emergence. Transmission of vector borne pathogens are particularly sensitive to these changes due to the complexity of their cycle, where the tra...
Article
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Background Europe and Italy were declared malaria free since the 1970s although the presence of competent vectors and the high number of yearly imported malaria cases make this disease a potential rising health issue. In September 2017, a cryptic fatal case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Province of Trento, Italy, raised the concern of hea...
Article
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Aedes mosquitoes are considered highly successful global invasive species and vectors of several pathogens of relevance for public health. Their midgut's microbiota can play an important role in affecting not only their vectorial competence but also their fitness, physiology, food digestion, metabolism, immunity and adaptation to new environmental...
Article
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An intensified and continuous West Nile virus (WNV) spread across northern Italy has been observed since 2008, which caused more than one hundred reported human infections until 2016. Veneto is one of the Italian regions where WNV is considered endemic, and the greatest intensity of circulation was observed during 2013 and 2016. By using entomologi...
Conference Paper
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological disease caused by the TBE virus (TBEV), a flavivirus transmitted mainly by the tick Ixodes ricinus. TBE has a patchy distribution in natural endemic hotspots. TBEV circulation in the natural environment occurs via three different modes of transmission: vertical transmission (from the infected f...
Article
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Rodents play a key role as reservoirs of many zoonotic pathogens which represent an emerging public health threat worldwide. Among these, Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is the most pathogenic hantavirus in Europe with a case-fatality rate of up to 12 per cent, while Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has a mortality rate below 1 per cent. Bot...
Conference Paper
This study presents the first results of the use of co-clustering to identify potential spatial and temporal concurrences of favourable conditions for the emergence and maintenance of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Greece. We applied the Bregman block average co-clustering algorithm with I-divergence to various time series (from 2003 to 2016) of indices...
Article
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The arrival of infected travelers from endemic regions can trigger sustained autochthonous transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens in Europe. In 2007 a Chikungunya outbreak was observed in central Italy, mostly affecting two villages characterised by a high density of Aedes albopictus. The outbreak was mitigated through intervention strategies red...
Article
Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered ‘low risk’ for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puu...
Article
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The incidence of tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. has been rising in Europe in recent decades. Early pre-assessment of acarological hazard still represents a complex challenge. The aim of this study was to model Ixodes ricinus questing nymph density and its infection rate w...
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In January 2015, during a 3-week period, 12 captive Tonkean macacques at a sanctuary in Italy died. An orthopoxvirus infection was suspected because of negative-staining electron microscopy results. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology, virus isolation, and molecular analysis performed on different organs from all animals. An epidemiologic inve...
Article
Background: Aedes albopictus has spread during the last decades all over the world. This has increased significantly the risk of exotic arbovirus transmission (e.g. Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika) also in temperate areas, as testified by the Chikungunya 2007- and 2017-outbreaks in north-east and central Italy. Insecticides represent a main tool for...
Article
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In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control...
Data
Technical details on the implementation of the transmission dynamics model, the cost-effectiveness analysis and additional model results. (PDF)
Data
Capture data and daily temperatures for the 10 municipalities. (CSV)
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes spp. ticks removed from wildlife, domestic animals and humans in the Province of Trento (northern Italy) in order to better understand their ecology and provide public health professiona...
Article
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Given the growing risk of arbovirus outbreaks in Europe, there is a clear need to better describe the distribution of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus. Current challenges consist in simulating Ae. albopictus abundance, rather than its presence, and mapping its simulated abundance at a local scale to better assess the transmission...
Article
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Temperature is one of the main drivers of ecological processes. The availability of temporally and spatially continuous temperature time series is crucial in different research and application fields, such as epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases. In 2010, several West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in humans were observed in Europe, with the l...
Article
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Abstract Background Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with increasing relevance for public health in Europe. The understanding of its sylvatic cycle and identification of competent reservoir hosts are essential for improving disease risk models and planning preventative measures. Results In 2012 we collected single ear...
Article
Biodiversity is of critical value to human societies, but recent evidence that biodiversity may mitigate infectious-disease risk has sparked controversy among researchers. The majority of work on this topic has focused on direct assessments of the relationship between biodiversity and endemic-pathogen prevalence, without disentangling intervening m...
Article
Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (Edwards) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are two invasive mosquito species well established in northeastern Italy, and these two species may co-occur in artificial larval habitats such as tires, buckets, drums, and catch basins. Because Ae. albopictus has been shown experimentally to be a superior competito...
Article
Anticipating species distributions in space and time is necessary for effective biodiversity conservation and for prioritising management interventions. This is especially true when considering invasive species. In such a case, anticipating their spread is important to effectively plan management actions. However, considering uncertainty in the out...
Article
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected inte...
Article
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Background Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens larvae reared in the same breeding site compete for resources, with an asymmetrical outcome that disadvantages only the latter species. The impact of these interactions on the overall ecology of these two species has not yet been assessed in the natural environment. In the present study, the temporal pa...
Article
Aedes koreicus (Edwards) is an invasive mosquito species, like Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald), that has already colonized a large part of northeastern Italy and other European countries. Despite its rapid expansion, information about adult distribution and trapping is lacking. Here, we conducted a 2-yr longitudina...
Article
Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex interactions between pathogens, vectors and humans, in...
Article
Aedes koreicus (Edwards) (Diptera: Culicidae) is an invasive mosquito species and potential vector of pathogens which has recently colonised a large part of northeastern Italy and other European countries. Several species of cyclopoid copepods are natural predators of mosquito larvae and can be useful biological control agents in artificial contain...