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For an avian migrant, refueling capacity attainable during stopovers governs the entire migration schedule and, ultimately, its fitness. Specifically, timely replenishing energy stores is critical when migration involves crossing ecological barriers, within which refueling may be limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fuel deposition rates (F...
Aim Viviparity has evolved more times in squamates than in any other vertebrate group; therefore, squamates offer an excellent model system in which to study the patterns, drivers and implications of reproductive mode evolution. Based on current species distributions, we examined three selective forces hypothesized to drive the evolution of squamat...
Amniote vertebrates share a suite of extra-embryonic membranes that distinguish them from anamniotes. Other than that, however, their reproductive characteristics could not be more different. They differ in basic ectothermic vs endothermic physiology, in that two clades evolved powered flight, and one clade evolved a protective shell. In terms of r...