Anna M Wokovich

Anna M Wokovich
U.S. Food and Drug Administration | FDA · Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

About

24
Publications
49,933
Reads
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1,088
Citations
Citations since 2017
5 Research Items
489 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (24)
Article
Lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) can be administered orally or through a nasogastric (NG) tube for patients who are unable to swallow. In addition, off-label administration through gastrostomy (G) or jejunal (J) tubes has been reported. The purpose of this study was to develop in vitro methods to assess the risk of clogging during...
Article
To estimate strength of a scopolamine transdermal delivery system (TDS) in vivo, using residual drug vs. pharmacokinetic analyses with the goal of scientifically supporting a single and robust method for use across the dosage form and ultimately facilitate the development of more consistent and clinically meaningful labeling. A two-arm, open-label,...
Article
This study investigated the effects of drug recrystallization on the in vitro performance of testosterone drug-in-adhesive transdermal delivery system (TDS). Six formulations were prepared with a range of dry drug loading in the adhesive matrix from 1% to 10% w/w with the aim of generating TDS with various levels of drug crystals. We visually quant...
Article
Raman mapping is a powerful and emerging tool in characterization of pharmaceuticals and provides non-destructive chemical and structural identification with minimal sample preparation. One pharmaceutical form that is suitable but has not been studied in-depth with Raman mapping are transdermal delivery systems (TDS). TDS are dosage forms designed...
Article
The potential for inadvertent inhalation of over-the-counter (OTC) aerosol/powder drug products for topical application requires understanding of the characteristic size distributions of the airborne particles or droplets generated when these products are used as per the directions on the product label. Particle/droplet size is an important factor...
Article
This study examines the relative risk of skin penetration by nanoscale TiO2 nanoparticles in healthy fair-skinned individuals.Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has for decades been approved for use in sunscreens as a physical sunblock. It is not known whether reducing the size of TiO2 particles in sunscreens creates new issues of safety and/or effectiveness....
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To determine if cascade impactor (CI) measurement of drug in small particles from aqueous nasal sprays, described in FDA's 2003 draft Nasal Bioavailability/Bioequivalence Guidance, can be optimized to reduce measurement variability. To examine the influence of flow rate configurations and number of impactor stages on CI deposition and explore the i...
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Full-text available
In the past several years, there has been a trend in the sunscreen/cosmetics industry to replace micron-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles with nanoscale materials. The increased use of nanoscale TiO2 has resulted in questions about these and other nanoproducts. This study examines the effects of using nanoscale TiO2 on ultraviolet (UV) attenu...
Article
Complaints from healthcare providers that the adhesive on the Daytrana™ methylphenidate transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) adhered to the release liner to such an extent that the release liner could not be removed prompted this study. Daytrana™ has a packaging system consisting of a moisture-permeable pouch contained within a sealed tray conta...
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Full-text available
The bead sizes used in approved modified release capsules labeled for sprinkling on food was investigated to generate bead size guidelines for generic products labeled for sprinkling. The conclusions from a survey of FDA databases were corroborated with experimental data obtained by measuring the bead sizes of several reference-listed drugs on the...
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Full-text available
A release liner removal test is a valuable test for assessing the quality of a transdermal drug delivery system (i.e., TDDS, patch). This test measures the force required to remove the release liner from a patch. The objective of the present study was to establish sample preparation and instrument parameters for measuring release liner removal adhe...
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Full-text available
Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is included in some sunscreen formulations to physically block ultraviolet radiation. A dermal penetration study was conducted in minipigs with three TiO(2) particles (uncoated submicron sized, uncoated nano-sized, and dimethicone/methicone copolymer-coated nanosized) applied 5% by weight in a sunscreen. These and control...
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Full-text available
There has been some apprehension expressed in the scientific literature that nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and other nanoparticles, if able to penetrate the skin, may cause cytotoxicity. In light of a lack of data regarding dermal penetration of titanium dioxide from sunscreen formulations, the Food and Drug Administration Center for Dr...
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Full-text available
To determine if commercial sunscreens contain distinct nanoparticles and to evaluate analytical methods for their ability to detect and characterize nanoparticles in unmodified topical products using commercial sunscreens as a model. A total of 20 methods were evaluated for their ability to detect and characterize nanoparticles in unmodified commer...
Article
To understand and evaluate the stability and skin permeation profiles of fentanyl reservoir systems as a function of patch age. Drug release and skin permeation studies were performed using a modified USP apparatus 5 with a novel sample preparation technique. The amount of fentanyl present in the EVA/adhesive layer (EAL) increased from about 17% of...
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Full-text available
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received numerous reports of serious adverse events, including death, in patients using fentanyl transdermal systems (FTS). To gain a better understanding of these problems, the current research focuses on the in vitro characterization of fentanyl reservoir (Duragesic) and matrix (Mylan) syst...
Article
In a previous study on peel adhesion for medical tapes, it was shown that a stainless steel (SS) substrate better discriminated among medical tapes than a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) substrate. The objective of this study was to determine if a SS substrate would also better distinguish among transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs). Five TDDS...
Article
As part of a method development for peel testing, an interlaboratory comparison among Food and Drug Administration-Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration-Center for Devices and Radiological Health and Southwest Research Institute was conducted using medical tapes. The aim was to determine which readily available subst...
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This article presents an application of risk analysis concepts to Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems.
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Full-text available
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), also known as "patches," are dosage forms designed to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of drug across a patient's skin. The adhesive of the transdermal drug delivery system is critical to the safety, efficacy and quality of the product. In the Drug Quality Reporting System (DQRS), the United State...
Article
This work investigated the use of non-traditional analytical methods to evaluate the quality of a variety of pharmaceutical products purchased via internet sites from foreign sources and compared the results with those obtained from conventional quality assurance methods. Traditional analytical techniques employing HPLC for potency, content uniform...
Article
A survey of the multi-stable isotopic composition of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), naproxen, was performed to assess the potential of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to distinguish the provenance of APIs. Twenty-six lots of naproxen from six manufacturers representing four countries (Italy, India, Ireland, and the USA) were anal...
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Full-text available
Current definitions of lotions, gels, creams and ointments vary depending on literature source, market history or traditional use. This often leads to confusion when deciding which dosage form to prescribe and/or purchase. The existing classification of topical dosage forms needs to be re-examined to ensure that definitions for different dosage for...

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