Anna Sergi

Anna Sergi
University of Essex · Department of Sociology

Doctor in Criminology, LLM Criminal law & justice
Professor Criminology, University of Essex - mafia and organised crime expert

About

121
Publications
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Citations
Introduction
Working on mafia mobility, port security and organised crime, drug trafficking and policing, corruption and comparative criminal justice
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - August 2015
University of West London
Position
  • Lecturer in Policing and Crime Science
January 2013 - October 2014
University of Cambridge
Position
  • Research Assistant
January 2011 - present
University of Essex
Position
  • PhD

Publications

Publications (121)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is an extended report compiled for GI-TOC The full research and a shorter version of this report is found at Scaturro R. and W. Kemp (2022) Portholes. Exploring the maritime Balkan routes, The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime - https://globalinitiative.net/analysis/balkans-maritime-routes-ports-crime/ Copyright: the Aut...
Article
Full-text available
In the past decade, the attention to the Calabrian mafia, the ‘ndrangheta, has been rekindled everywhere in the world. On the one hand, Italian attention to the phenomenon has increased; on the other hand, the mobility of the Calabrian clans has been the object of scrutiny in view of the clan’s wealth and ability to commit transnational criminal ac...
Chapter
The conclusion discusses how each chapter connects with one another and it provides a synthesis of the book. The conclusion highlights how the book applies a first explicitly criminological lens on the political economy of ports. The book has taken a practical look at some of these junctures and the relationships that port spaces produce, blend and...
Chapter
Chapter three explores some of the main vocabulary used in the governance of security literature, defining key concepts such as flows, nodes, plural policing, nodal governance, polycentric systems, partnerships, networks, assemblages, regulation, hybridity and accountability. This vocabulary is then used to illustrate some of the main findings of r...
Chapter
Chapter four demonstrates that the political economy approach proposed in this book provides a useful lens for exploring and evaluating how social, technological, economic and political forces will continue to shape port security in the future. It begins by discussing the ‘long shadow’ of the ISPS Code and its treatment – or lack thereof – of organ...
Chapter
The first chapter adopts a political economy approach to define how institutional frameworks, the maritime economy embedded in large ports, and the social environment affect and influence each other, both at the local and the global scale. This approach has long been present in this field of study, but in a rather implicit way. The chapter tries to...
Chapter
This chapter provides a framework for analysing large-scale, organised and complex criminality through and within major seaports and the challenges of policing these activities. The chapter’s main aim is to analyse how organised crime, organisational crime and forms of collusion and/or corruption on the waterfront and in/through seaports should be...
Research
Full-text available
By using open data and primary resources, previous and ongoing research, and the privileged partnerships with Eurojust Italian Desk and Operations and Europol, the Mafiaround-Europe report - stemming from the CRIME (Countering Regional Italian Mafia Expansion) project presents the first analysis of the presence of Italian mafias in 7 European count...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key points - Available data on organised crime and mafiatype groups during the pandemic in Italy shows that some ‘traditional’ criminal activities have contracted. - Data also shows an increase in suspicious financial activities and other economic crimes not clearly linked to organised crime groups’ (OCGs’) activities, demonstrating the vulnerabili...
Article
Full-text available
This paper, which is the introduction to this special issue on ‘Spaces of Organised Crime’, aims to analyse the nexus between organised crime groups and territories. Such groups are able to exploit resources that circulate within territorial contexts in which they are embedded. They also operate concretely as entities that can take part to the tran...
Article
OPEN ACCESS - https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/cross/article/view/15342 : Questa ricerca si lega a studi sulla mobilità criminale della ‘ndrangheta in Australia. Risultato di una estesa ricerca sul campo, e partendo da una critica del concetto di etnia nel crimine organizzato italiano in Australia, questo lavoro riflette sugli interessi politic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key points - Following Brexit, the creation of new maritime borders will affect the use as much as the exploitation and policing of waters. - The gap in security performance between larger commercial ports and others is likely to lead to more and diversified opportunities for illicit inbound and outbound trade, smuggling, and corruption. - The diff...
Article
Full-text available
Attention to the Calabrian mafia, the ‘ndrangheta, has been increasing across law enforcement authorities around the world. This paper aims at bringing forward a theoretical and operational conversation on how to best approach, from a policing perspective, what is a complex clan-based criminality able to operate simultaneously in different states....
Technical Report
Full-text available
Early data suggests that the cocaine trade appears to have weathered the Covid-19 pandemic. Dr Anna Sergi examines trends in cocaine trafficking under lockdown for Jane's Intelligence Review, IHS
Article
Ports are spaces in which a certain degree of informal – or strictly illegal – governance might emerge. This can involve different activities, from drug trafficking to corruption and different actors, from port worker to terminal owners. Through the collection of qualitative data, this study aims at exploring if and how organised crime is present i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Secur.Ports workshop brought together 16 pratitioners and 9 researchers with expertise in the field of port policing, port security, organised crime and border control. Funded by the British Academy, the workshop was organised by the University of Essex and Strategic Hub for Organised Crime Research (SHOC) at the Royal United Services Institute...
Book
This book is a policy-oriented report-style publication, within a criminological framework and stemming out of an academic research, on seaports and organised crime. It is the first of its kind, as research in ports and organised crime oriented to policy and practice is, to date, scarce. • Fresh primary data collected by the author in five differ...
Article
Full-text available
This article will present the results of a qualitative research into organised crime in the port of Genoa, Italy’s largest port, by looking at the challenges of policing the port space. Through the case of Genoa, the paper reflects on how organised crime manifests across three trajectories in seaports: trafficking through the port, infiltration in...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents findings from a qualitative research project into organized crime, policing and security across five major seaports (‘Portvilles’): Genoa (Italy); Melbourne (Australia); Montreal (Canada); New York (USA); and Liverpool (UK). Through content analysis of confidential judicial files, the article will construct the offenders’ scen...
Research
Full-text available
Research - preliminary findings on port security policing and organised crime - drug importation through major seaports
Article
Full-text available
The In the past decades, the Australian 'ndrangheta has been object of media attention, academic inquiry and growing policing concern. In Australia, however, the phenomenon is not new. Next to contemporary manifestations of mafia clans and activities, there is an historical 'ndrangheta, with families and networks in specific areas of the country. T...
Article
The Italian Antimafia Operation ‘Mondo di Mezzo’ (the World in Between) has presented the group called “Mafia Capitale” as a mafia-type group born and bred in Rome, with its own mandate and reach into public administration and politics. A maxi-trial established that the corruptive method employed by associates of Mafia Capitale, together with the e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A Conceptual Report for the Workshop: MAFIAROUND: The fight against Italian mafias beyond Italy Thursday 29 and Friday 30 November 2018 RUSI, 61 Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET In partnership with the University of Essex and sponsored by the Impact Acceleration Fund – Economic and Social Research Council UK – with the support of the Italian Embassy,...
Chapter
Full-text available
The clans of the ‘ndrangheta, from the Southern Italian region of Calabria, have become the wealthiest and most powerful Italian mafia groups, allegedly present in over 25 countries around the world, undisputed oligarchs of the cocaine market, and reliable criminal partners for other criminal groups around the world. Their presence in Europe, Canad...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT In the past decades, the Australian ’ndrangheta has been object of media attention, academic inquiry and growing policing concern. In Australia, however, the phenomenon is not new. Next to contemporary manifestations of mafia clans and activities, there is an historical ’ndrangheta, with historical families and networks in specific areas o...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores proceedings by the Youth Tribunal of Reggio Calabria, Southern Italy, aimed at the protection of children in families where one or both parents are investigated for mafia offences. The findings show that preventing the transmission of mafia ('ndrangheta) culture in the local context has become an essential part of child protec...
Book
Full-text available
Whilst corruption and organized crime have been widely researched, they have not yet been specifically linked to sport. Corruption, Mafia Power and Italian Soccer offers an original insight into this new research area. Adopting a psycho-social approach based mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's praxeology, the book demonstrates that corruption and the mafia...
Preprint
Full-text available
A Report on the Calabrian mafia, the 'ndrangheta, for RCMP-AFP-FBI-Europol and other law enforcement agencies, Online Only. Citable as “Sergi, A. (2018) ‘Ndrangheta. A Report for Socio-Cultural Policing. Understanding the Social, Cultural and Organisational Features of the Calabrian Mafia”. A Report for RCMP-AFP-FBI-Europol within the ‘Cultural ch...
Chapter
Full-text available
In order to show how the permanent migrant crisis in Italy and Europe works to enable mafia groups to illicitly access substantial public funding, we concentrate here on a primary case study and two corollary, but connected to one another, ones. First, and most importantly, we look at the iconic borderland of Lampedusa. The case of this tiny Sicili...
Article
Full-text available
While attention to the 'ndrangheta, the Calabrian mafia, in Australia, has significantly increased in the past two decades, historical records referring to this peculiar manifestation of organised crime in the country date back almost a century. This research is situated in between studies on mafia mobility and studies on the nature of mafia-type o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Traditional New York crime families are being reinvigorated by collaboration with the Calabrian mafia. Anna Sergi reports from New York on the shifting dynamics. Key Points  The ‘Five Families’ of La Cosa Nostra (LCN) remain the most potent organised crime threat in New York, and have diversified their operations despite an apparent decline in t...
Article
Full-text available
The Italian antimafia authorities have warned Canadian law enforcement about the risks and the growing concerns for the infiltration of clans of the Calabrian mafia, known as ‘ndrangheta, in Eastern Canada3. The alarm linked to the rise of the ‘ndrangheta challenges the paradigms of traditional organized crime in Canada, because the ‘ndrangheta is...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key points - Multiple efforts in the UK to create a coherent national agency to combat organised crime have failed because of institutional wrangling and a lack of strategic focus. - The National Crime Agency is faring better than its predecessors, but faces challenges in the form of budgets, Brexit, its remit in financial and white collar crime, a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report on Montreal and Toronto criminal groups.
Chapter
The third chapter presents the findings from the research in Italy, combining interviews with experts and law enforcement and document analysis to build a discourse around the Italian policing system against mafia and organised crime. The two historical focuses of the chapter are the events surrounding the Sicilian mafia in the 1990s and the rise o...
Chapter
The eighth chapter places the four policing models against mafia and organised crime in Italy, US, Australia and UK, within international frameworks, with specific focus to contributions from the United Nations and the European Union. The aim of this chapter is to reflect on the challenges of policy transfer and harmonisation within a perspective t...
Chapter
The second chapter presents the theoretical boundaries of the book, by looking at the intersections between criminology and criminal law theories and by introducing a first analysis of the conceptualisations of both mafia and organised crime. This chapter explains how manifestations of organised crime and mafia can be placed on a spectrum, on a con...
Chapter
The fourth chapter presents the findings from the research in the US, combining interviews with experts and law enforcement with document analysis to build a discourse around the US federal policing system against mafia and organised crime. The two historical focuses of the chapter are the events surrounding Italian-American (La) Cosa Nostra and th...
Chapter
The sixth chapter presents the findings from the research in the UK, especially England and Wales, combining interviews with experts and law enforcement with document analysis to build a discourse around the UK policing system against mafia and organised crime. The two historical focuses of the chapter are the events in two cities, Liverpool and Lo...
Chapter
The introduction sets the aims of the book. It described the different stages and places of the data collection and the theoretical frameworks of comparative studies in criminal justice within which the data has been analysed. It sets the expectations on methodology and theoretical underpinnings on mafia and organised crime guiding the following ch...
Chapter
The seventh chapter looks at the four national models from Italy, US, Australia and UK together to identify conceptual and procedural convergences across them. Among the conceptual convergences, the chapter highlights the “follow the money” strategy, the understanding of organised crime as involving trafficking and the glocal and transnational char...
Chapter
The fifth chapter presents the findings from the research in Australia, combining interviews with experts and law enforcement with document analysis to build a discourse around the Australian federal and national policing systems against mafia and organised crime. The two historical focuses of the chapter are the events surrounding the criminalisat...
Chapter
The conclusion of this book presents the way forward departing from the findings of this research. It considers how a cultural approach to mafia and organised crime might to a more promising socio-behavioural understanding of the phenomena by addressing both the social construction of the two concepts and its actual manifestations. This final chapt...
Book
This book presents primary research conducted in Italy, USA, Australia and the UK on countering strategies and institutional perceptions of Italian mafias and local organized crime groups. Through interviews and interpretation of original documents, this study firstly demonstrates the interaction between institutional understanding of the criminal...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The presence of organised crime groups in a society has the potential to exacerbate the impact of natural disasters. Dr Anna Sergi examines this dynamic and the risk of criminal groups exploiting recovery and reconstruction efforts following natural disasters. Key Points - Organised crime groups in countries ranging from Haiti to Italy to Japan ha...
Article
Full-text available
This paper will interpret and critically analyse the new offence for organised crime in England and Wales (Section 45 of the Serious Crime Act 2015) from a criminological perspective in light of evidence found in research in the country. It will argue that changes in the law relate to changes in political narratives rather than to variations in the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper, based on discourse analysis of policy documents, departs from a critique of the juxtaposition of the terms " serious " and " organised " in policies against organised crime in the UK. The conceptualisation of organised crime as national security threat supports our hypothesis that a similar critique can be applied to the emerging narrat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key Points  The role of Nigerian criminal groups in Sicily was highlighted by the conviction of three members of the Black Axe group under laws designed to target mafia organisations in July 2016.  The greater role played by Nigerian criminal groups in Palermo does not indicate a weakening of the Sicilian Cosa Nostra mafia group in its traditiona...
Book
https://www.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319325842 This book presents an historical and sociological account of the Italian mafia-type organisation known as the ‘ndrangheta. It draws together diverse perspectives on the various ‘ndrangheta clans and their behavioural models, focusing specifically on their organisational skills, their bonds with Calabr...
Chapter
This second chapter of Part I investigates how the criminal model of the ‘ndrangheta has moved over the years to a number of regions, replicating peripheral structures but maintaining the direction in Calabria. We will look at Lombardia, Liguria, Piemonte, Emilia Romagna, Lazio, and Veneto as case studies to distinguish between colonisation and del...
Chapter
Following from the previous chapter, this fourth and conclusive chapter of Part I shall look at the presence of ‘ndrangheta clans outside of Italy. It will present and describe the importance of family ties and migration routes for ‘ndrangheta settlements, with the specific cases of Germany and Switzerland in Europe and, outside of Europe, with ref...
Chapter
This chapter looks at the main revenue of the ‘ndrangheta—that is, drug trafficking. It describes the main judicial operations that have tracked the presence of ‘ndrangheta members and brokers around the world. After describing the way the clans have entered drug markets since the 1970s, the focus shall be on the most contemporary Antimafia investi...
Chapter
The ‘ndrangheta is a poly-crime mafia. This second chapter of Part II looks at various illicit markets the clans invest in and are protagonist of, presenting some selected and relevant cases to show the versatility and the flexibility of illegal activities of the Calabrian clans today. The first part of the chapter focuses on case studies of crimin...
Chapter
As qualified minority of Calabrian society, the ‘ndrangheta is today a mafia-type criminal system, supported by social prestige and embedded in society. As any other mafia, the clans of the ‘ndrangheta have growth in parallel to the evolution of their region. This chapter will look at the historical evolution of the clans and their relationships wi...
Chapter
This final chapter of the book will draw together the conclusions of our work as presented in the previous chapters. By looking again at the ‘ndrangheta as behavioural model spreading through a ‘ndranghetisation process, we pinpoint the main concepts of this book and we review our findings. We also briefly highlight some areas of research and analy...
Article
Full-text available
Mafia-type criminal groups belonging to, or originated from, the Calabrian ‘ndrangheta from Southern Italy, have been object of recent academic research and media attention in Australia. The Australian ‘ndrangheta, as qualified form of organised crime, poses new challenges for law enforcement in the country. This paper briefly looks at the strategi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper combines the theoretical foundations of organisational ecology-one of the most important approaches in economic sociology-with classic crimino-logical theories to interpret the birth, evolution and death of criminal associations. This mixed approach will support the interpretation of organised crime groups as phenomena strictly linked to...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Explore how organised crime, from mafia type to trafficking networks, are interested to the port access and the port economy and how port security enters the scene...
Archived project
British Academy/Leverlhulme Trust Small Grant Research Project - The main aim of this research project is to critically assess the institutional perception of mafia-type groups in countries distant from the one of origin. In particular, this research will look at policing approaches to the Calabrian ‘ndrangheta in Canada and Australia, and will explore how cultural awareness can become an essential trait of policing mafia crimes nationally and transnationally. The ‘ndrangheta is the collective name given to mafia-type clans in Calabria, southern Italy. The clans are at the centre of major judicial enquiries and are active in various countries around the world, mainly Canada and Australia and various European countries. Scholars debate to what extent criminals of Calabrian origin around the world belong to, and replicate the structure of, the clans in Calabria. More research is needed in Italy, Canada, Australia and Europe (via Europol) to avoid both ethnic stereotyping of Calabrian migrants and flawed or biased policing approaches to mafia-type groups abroad.