Anna Kristina Hultgren

Anna Kristina Hultgren
The Open University (UK) · School of Languages and Applied Linguistics

DPhil (Oxon); MA (Copenhagen); Cert (LSE); SFHEA

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99
Publications
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Introduction
Anna Kristina Hultgren (DPhil Oxon, MA Copenhagen, SFHEA, Cert LSE) is UKRI Future Leaders Fellow and Professor of Sociolinguistics and Applied Linguistics at The Open University, UK.

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
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Despite a shift to service-based economies, male-dominated, high-status workplaces have been the predominant focus of research into language and gender in the workplace. This study redresses this shortcoming by considering one female-dominated, low-status, highly regimented workplace that is emblematic of the globalized service economy: call centre...
Article
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This study offers an extension of existing politeness theories by illuminating how changes in politeness conventions come about as a result of contextual specificities. Despite a surge in mediated service encounters, few studies to date have considered the linguistic enactment of politeness in call centres, mainly due to restrictions on access. Dra...
Article
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This paper identifies a particular ‘rapport-building’ speech style prescribed to call centre workers in four countries – Denmark, Britain, Hong Kong and the Philippines – irrespective of the language being spoken in the service interaction. It then compares Danish and British call centre workers’ compliance with the prescribed speech style and find...
Article
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This paper aims to contribute to the study of multilingualism in the workplace by analysing top-down language policies advocating parallellingualism at Denmark's eight universities. Parallellingualism, a key concept in Nordic language policy, has been suggested as a way to ensure an equitable balance between English and the Nordic language(s) witho...
Article
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European universities have, since the late 1990s, undergone dramatic changes centred on internationalisation, harmonisation and competition. This paper is concerned with two specific consequences of these changes and their interrelationship: rankings and Englishisation, the latter defined as an increase in the use of English at universities of nati...
Article
The rise of English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) has prompted concerns over linguistic injustice, educational disadvantage, societal inequality and epistemic homogenization. As EMI tends to generate heated debates, its drivers need to be better understood. Borrowing conceptual frameworks from political science, this article proposes a new under...
Article
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As English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) continues to expand across the globe, there is a glaring absence of research on assessment. This article reviews the scarce literature to date and maps out a research agenda for the future. Drawing on Shohamy’s ( 2001 , 2007) Critical Language Testing and McNamara et al.’s (2019) notions of “fair” and “ju...
Chapter
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This chapter offers a longitudinal overview of Englishization in Danish higher education, tracing its conceptualization from critical to constructive. In the initial stages, English was viewed skeptically, with concerns over domain loss, equity, quality of education, and consequences for the national language and culture. Such concerns led to a joi...
Chapter
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The introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) has changed higher education enormously in many European countries. This development is increasingly encapsulated under the term Englishization, that is, the increasing dispersion of English as a means of communication in non-Anglophone contexts. Englishization is not undisputed: legal ch...
Book
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This report presents findings on English medium education (EME) in higher education in four Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) from Central (Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and South Asia (Bangladesh and Nepal) regions. It focuses on one university in each country. The data consisted of language policy documents and a survey with university teach...
Article
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This is a rejoinder to Ursula Lanvers' response to my position paper 'Global English: From “Tyrannosaurus Rex” to “Red Herring”'.
Article
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A growing strand of work in ERPP (English for research publication purposes) explores how English is nested within research evaluation regimes in non-Anglophone contexts across the world. This paper focuses on the under-researched context of Russia, where language of research publication is at the heart of tensions in institutional, national and in...
Article
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This project examined academic reading in two contrasting English as a medium of instruction (EMI) university settings in Nepal and Sweden and the unique challenges facing students who are studying in a language other than their primary language. The motivation for the project was to explore the role of high‐stakes testing in EMI contexts and the i...
Book
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For international students around the world, 2020 was a year like no other. The very dream of travel and study in another country itself was threatened by a pandemic that spread across the globe resulting in travel restrictions, health lockdowns and grounded flights. Some students who had their cases packed to study in another country found themsel...
Article
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The spread of English around the world is often wound up in discourses about equity, fairness and social justice. In other words, the rise of English to become the world's most widely spoken language in the world often prompts questions about its impact on an equitable distribution of resources, opportunities and privileges. At the same time, howev...
Article
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The rise of English as the world's main international language has prompted a social justice agenda underpinned by an assumption that English causes or exacerbates inequality and injustice in the world. In this position statement, I set out to problematise and complexify this assumption, suggesting that English is neither a "Tyrannosaurus Rex", a "...
Article
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In closing this special issue, I seek to pull out some similarities and disjunctures that have emerged in the contributions to this special issue in order to consider how the study of global English might fruitfully be moved forward. I want to begin, however, by emphasizing, as Mufwene also finds himself needing to do, that my position “is not a de...
Research Proposal
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By bringing together experts in a variety of disciplines, we intend to address the significant topic of gender in writing for scholarly publication. Drawing on different research methodologies and gender theories, we will bring to the fore the under-represented and under-researched issue of gender in the scholarly publication. In other words, this...
Article
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In virtually every research paper on this topic we come across we read that, in the particular context that the writer is operating, English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the increase. But what exactly is EMI? If we consider every classroom around the world in which learners are exposed to English language as their second language (L2) we...
Presentation
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TOEFL iBT is increasingly used worldwide in the expanding field of university English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI). To date, the TOEFL iBT has been used primarily for admissions decisions for North American universities. However, EMI university settings in both Global South and Global North countries are arguably different in a number of key wa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
TOEFL iBT is increasingly used worldwide in the expanding field of university English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI). To date, the TOEFL iBT has been used primarily for admissions decisions for North American universities. However, EMI university settings in both Global South and Global North countries are arguably different in a number of key wa...
Article
Full-text available
Within the fields of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP), the question of whether English as an Additional Language (EAL) scholars are disadvantaged by the pressure to publish in English continues to be debated. In this paper, I challenge this orthodoxy, raising questions about the evidence upon...
Preprint
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p>This is a written version of a keynote talk delivered at PRISEAL, Research and Practice: Moving Forward, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14 - 16 September, 2018. Abstract : Within the fields of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP), there is an unquestioned orthodoxy that scholars with English as an Additio...
Preprint
Full-text available
p>This is a written version of a keynote talk delivered at PRISEAL, Research and Practice: Moving Forward, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14 - 16 September, 2018. Abstract : Within the fields of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP), there is an unquestioned orthodoxy that scholars with English as an Additio...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a written version of a keynote talk delivered at PRISEAL, Research and Practice: Moving Forward Reykjavik, Iceland, 14 - 16 September, 2018. Pending peer review in Publications. Comments welcome. Abstract: Within the fields of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP), there is an unquestioned...
Article
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This is a proposal for a Special Issue on the Englishization of European education to the European Journal of Language Policy. To be published in 2018.
Article
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During the first half of 2017, four scholars who know English‐medium instruction (EMI) well and view it from different perspectives took part in a round‐robin exchange. The forum contributors answered six sets of questions on aspects of EMI: defining terms; learning English in an EMI environment; the political or policy framework; learning a subjec...
Chapter
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This paper reports on a rigorous literature review of research into medium of instruction in Ghana and India, whose language-in-education policies represent two contrasting models of use of local languages and the development of competence in English. The paper begins by briefly overviewing the language-in-education policy in these two countries an...
Article
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In the context of an ongoing Englishization of higher education in the Nordic countries, much of the language policy discourse has centred on the notion of "domain loss", a di?use and under-defned concept based on the idea that English encroaches on the status and functionality of the national languages. In response to such concerns, "parallel lang...
Article
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This is a popularized version of the paper: New perspectives on language and gender: Linguistic prescription and compliance in call centres by Anna Kristina Hultgren. Language in Society, Volume 46, Issue 5, November 2017 , pp. 671-695.
Article
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This is a pre-print version (Author’s Accepted Manuscript) of a plenary address given at the 2015 Department of Education, English as a medium of instruction event, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 4 November, 2015, subsequently published under Plenary Speeches in Language Teaching.
Chapter
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This chapter is concerned with the extent to which globalization – understood here as intensified global competition facilitated by a deregulation of trade and significant advances in technology and communication infrastructure – brings about changes in linguistic politeness. The overall aim of the chapter is to explore how politeness is prescribed...
Book
Full-text available
This report is the product of a research collaboration between Education Development Trust, the British Council and The Open University. Its starting point was to consider the complex field of English Medium Instruction (EMI) policies in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Its purpose is to provide insight and support to those responsible for...
Chapter
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Article
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With English as an undisputed global lingua franca, there is long-standing concern in anglophone countries over the lack of interest in language learning. In the UK, significant changes in language education policy, a mentality of insularity and the global spread of English have all contributed to a drop in language learning uptake beyond the compu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a rigorous literature review of research into medium of instruction in Ghana and India, whose language-in-education policies represent two contrasting models of use of local languages and the development of competence in English. The paper begins by briefly overviewing the language-in-education policy in these two countries an...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on how education policy plays a role in what constitutes the subject of English in university. It explores how and to what extent contemporary policies, devised in the context of an ongoing massification of higher education (Altbach et al., 2009), are reflected in an English Studies curriculum, using the University of Copenhage...
Conference Paper
Fuelled by globalization ? specifically advances in information technology, plummeting costs of data transmission, political and economic deregulation, and perennial attempts to control costs ? call centres have grown exponentially since the early 1990s, effectively replacing face-to-face with call centre service provision (Holman et al. 2007; Inco...
Conference Paper
The massive growth in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in non-English-dominant universities in Europe and beyond is undisputed (Dearden 2014; Wächter and Maiworm 2014; Hultgren et al. 2015), as is the recognition that it both enables and constrains multilingualism. Considering the case of Nordic universities, the region of Europe which is m...
Conference Paper
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This presentation sets out the wider context against which the colloquium is set. It focuses on the reasons why Englishization at non-English dominant universities happens. Englishization is understood as an increase in the use of English in the three key university domains of research, teaching and administration (Lillis and Curry 2010; Dearden 20...
Conference Paper
The massive growth in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in non-English-dominant universities in recent years is undisputed. However, it raises questions about the quality and standard of such programmes for all kinds of students: domestic, international, outgoing, incoming and returning. This workshop focuses on the language-related aspects...
Chapter
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Der har i den sidste tirarsperiode været rettet stor opmærksomhed mod den stigende brug af engelsk ved danske universiteter. I den forbindelse har det ikke altid været nemt at fra fat i oversigter over, hvor udbredt brugen af engelsk egentlig er. Der findes ganske vist opgørelser over brugen af engelsk pra forskellige delomrrader, som fx undervisni...
Book
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This volume provides a focused account of English Medium Instruction (EMI) in European higher education, considering issues of ideologies, policies, and practices. This is an essential book for academics, students, policy makers, and educators directly or indirectly implicated in the internationalization of European higher education.
Chapter
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This chapter is concerned with attitudes to English as an international language of science among Nordic scientists. It reports on a questionnaire completed by 200+ physicists, chemists and computer scientists at universities in five Nordic countries: Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The purpose is two-fold: First, it investigates if c...
Article
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This article draws attention to a widening and unproductive disconnect between two sets of scholarly activities seeking to understand the Englishization of Nordic universities, and, more generally, the effects of globalization on language. While these scholarly activities are not internally homogenous, we shall refer to them here as “policy and pra...
Article
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A book of review of: Internationalization of Higher Education in East Asia - Trends of student mobility and impact on education governance, Edited by Ka Ho Mok & Kar Ming Yu, London & New York: Routledge, 251 pages, 2014, ISBN: 9780415705035 Ever since the General Agreement on Trade in Services was ratified in 1995, member states have committed to...
Article
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Ever since the General Agreement on Trade in Services was ratified in 1995, member states have committed to considering higher education as a service to be traded rather than as a common good and to remove obstacles to trading (Phillipson forthcoming). Higher education, by consequence, is increasingly viewed as a commodity, which has paved the way...
Article
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SPEAKGLOBAL: The SPEAKGLOBAL programme is designed to raise awareness of multilingualism in the world, and cognitive benefits of speaking several languages. The programme is free to use for any UK Modern Languages teacher. It is targeted at Key Stages 3 and 4 and consists of 2 sessions of about 40-45 minutes each, suitable for all abilities and stu...
Conference Paper
European universities have, since the late 1990s, undergone dramatic changes centred on internationalization, harmonization, marketization and competition. To traditionally non-English-dominant universities in Europe, such changes often seem to be accompanied by a degree of Englishization, i.e. an increase in the use of English in key areas. Howeve...
Chapter
Full-text available
In today?s globalized societies, characterized by increased translingual, multimodal and sometimes fast-paced communication, the concept ?linguistic competences? has become a highly prolific notion. It is frequently invoked as the remedy for all sorts of problems, and lack thereof is seen as the root of all evils (Cameron 2000a). This paper offers...
Article
The emergence of English as an international language of science has generated prolific debates in the Nordic countries about ‘domain loss’, here defined as the national Nordic languages failing to develop adequate scientific terminology. This paper sheds some much needed empirical light on domain loss by examining the language practices of 10 scie...
Article
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This article sets out to shed light on "linguistic normation" in two very different types of institutions in the globalized work order: call centres and universities. "Linguistic normation" is understood as metalinguistic practices aimed at making visible the linguistic and communicative behaviour of employees. Comparing examples from call centre c...
Conference Paper
Peter Harder og Anna Kristina Hultgren holdt fordrag ved Forskningens Døgn i Videnskabernes Selskab fredag den 3. maj.
Book
Full-text available
Der har i den sidste tirarsperiode været rettet stor opmærksomhed mod den stigende brug af engelsk ved danske universiteter. I den forbindelse har det ikke altid været nemt at fra fat i oversigter over hvor udbredt brugen af engelsk egentlig er. Der findes ganske vist opgørelser over brugen af engelsk pra forskellige delomrrader, som fx undervisnin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Predominantly non-English-using universities in the competitive European zone of research and higher education tend to equate ?world class? with an increase in the use of English in key areas. However, little is known about whether there is in fact a correlation between the extent to which such universities use English and their place on world univ...
Article
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This article attempts to shed light on a distinction which has been particularly prominent in the Danish debate on domain loss: ?English instead of Danish? (language shift) versus ?English in Danish? (loan words). Data consists of naturally occurring spoken Danish scientific language recorded at bachelor level in chemistry, physics and computer sci...
Conference Paper
The rising demand of academics to publish internationally has raised considerably public and political concern in the Nordic countries (Kulturministeriet 2008, Statens Offentliga Utredningar 2002, Sprrakrradet 2005). One concern relates to the presumed failure of the national Nordic languages to develop adequate scientific terminology, particularly...
Conference Paper
The emergence of English as an international language of science has raised concerns in the Nordic countries about the status of the national Nordic languages and about the consequences for teaching and learning. A key concern relates to the idea that the national languages will fail to develop adequate scientific terminology. Little systematic kno...
Conference Paper
The emergence of English as an international language of science has raised concerns in the Nordic countries about the status of the national Nordic languages and about the consequences for teaching and learning. A key concern relates to the idea that the national languages will fail to develop adequate scientific terminology. Little systematic kno...
Conference Paper
Afholder Forskningsgruppen for Fremmedsprog og Sprogforskning (LangLing) og Sprogligt RradgivningsCenter en fælles seminardag under overskriften ?Sproglige Kompetencer?. Hovedforedraget pra seminardagen vil blive holdt af postdoc pra Københavns Universitet Anna Kristina Hultgren, som forsker i, hvordan globaliseringen pravirker sprog ? i øjeblikket...
Conference Paper
Recent sociolinguistic theory posits that the social meaning (or ?indexicality?) of a linguistic variant is indeterminate. In a deliberately rigid interpretation, this can be seen to imply that no linguistic variant is devoid of social meaning. The proposed talk aims to generate discussion about whether or not ?indexicality? and ?authencity? are al...
Conference Paper
In this talk Hultgren takes a closer look at the debate about the use of English in Danish universities as it has unfolded in Danish print media and other relevant documents over the past decade. She shall scrutinize taken-for-granted assumptions about language as a living organism existing independently of language users, for example as reflected...
Article
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I Nyt fra Sprognævnet 2008/2 skelner Ole Ravnholt pra frugtbar vis mellem to forskellige betydninger af det omdiskuterede fænomen ?domænetab?. I dette indlæg bygger jeg videre pra denne skelnen i et forsøg pra at forstra hvad det egentlig er man frygter nrar man taler om ?domænetab?. Samtidig beskriver jeg et igangværende forskningsprojekt pra Cent...
Chapter
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It is widely agreed that in the globalized service economy considerable emphasis is placed on workers' communication skills. In this chapter, we scrutinize the notion of communication skills as it is understood in call centres and point to some of its problems and limitations. Drawing on authentic audio-recorded customer service transactions collec...
Chapter
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This chapter is concerned with questions in telephone interaction between customers and service personnel (?agents?) in call centers. The call center industry distinguishes between ?inbound? centers, where calls are initiated by customers, and ?outbound? centers, where calls are initiated by agents. Agents in inbound centers generally deal with ser...
Thesis
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This thesis aims to contribute to the study of workplace talk, language and gender, and the sociolinguistics of globalization by exploring the phenomenon of ?linguistic regulation? in call centres. ?Linguistic regulation? refers to the practice, now widespread in the globalized service economy, of codifying and enforcing rules for employees? use of...
Chapter
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[About the book] ensuremath ensuremath ensuremath ensuremath ensuremath Gender and Language Research Methodologiesensuremath draws together for the first time the main current methodological approaches to the study of language and gender. These include sociolinguistics and ethnography, corpus linguistics, conversation analysis, discursive psycholog...
Conference Paper
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The risk of overgeneralising the speech behaviour of men and women and of reinforcing gender stereotypes led to a postmodern turn in Language and Gender research away from an essentialist understanding of gender, whether the framework was one of dominance or difference. Where current trends assume that gender does not exist pre-discursively, but is...
Conference Paper
If you have ever called your bank or your mobile phone company, it is highly likely that you have spoken to an agent in a call centre. Call centres are workplaces whose employees have as their primary task to interact with customers using integrated telephone and IT technology. They build on the principles of Taylorism (Knights and McCabe 1998) whi...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Hi Research Team,
This sounds super interesting and worthwhile. Thanks for starting this project. When does the project start and will any output or preliminary reports be posted to Research Gate? If so, I will keep myself updated! Also, who is the funder?
Many thanks,
Kristina

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
https://www.open.ac.uk/research/news/ou-researchers-tackle-gender-inequality-low-and-middle-income-countries%E2%80%99-schools?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=welsatwork_incl_world_health_day_and_award_nominations_7_apr_2022&utm_term=2022-04-07 Education can be both a vehicle for socioeconomic mobility and a reproducer of inequalities, including gender inequality. The rapid and offhanded expansion of English-medium education (EME) has made this conundrum even more acute and raised important questions about gender equality. The proposed research addresses the pressing question of whether EME serves as an enabler or barrier to gender equality in low and middle income countries. Adopting a signature OU approach, premised on participatory, inclusive and critical scholarship, we embed gender at every step of the research cycle: from design, data collection, analysis, team composition and impact. Combining cross-country and in-country studies, and quantitative and qualitative research methods, the research has been designed to arrive at both generalizable and situated understandings of the complex relationship between EME and gender equality, and the important role of intersecting variables such as socio-economic, ethnic, religious and other factors. With a transformative agenda in mind (Jayasinghe et al. 2019), we aim to contribute to policies and practices that improve gender equality as increasing numbers of low and middle income countries move to English-medium education. To this end, we will capitalize on our team’s unique and interdisciplinary strengths that combine feminist scholarship with expertise in sociolinguistics, education, economy and international development together with intimate knowledge of the local contexts under investigation, further building on the OU’s expertise in creating Open Educational Resources that have already extended millions of teachers’ agency to move towards more gender-inclusive educational practices.