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Anna Bruce

Anna Bruce
UNSW Sydney | UNSW · School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering

PhD

About

191
Publications
63,695
Reads
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1,216
Citations
Citations since 2016
130 Research Items
1140 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
June 2017 - present
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2008 - February 2016
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
March 1992 - December 1996
UNSW Sydney
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (191)
Article
Rapid decarbonisation of electricity production is required if Australia is to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement. Critical to achieving this at low cost while maintaining system reliability is the selection of an appropriate mix of generation technologies to service electrical demand. Australia has seen extensive deployment of renewabl...
Article
There has been a boom in the sale of small-scale off-grid solar products across the Global South over the past decade. A substantial portion of this boom has been driven by international investment in off-grid solar start-up companies, and a formalized off-grid solar sector has been established, with the Global Off-Grid Lighting Association acting...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review To investigate the interaction between restructured electricity market designs, in particular Australia’s National Electricity Market (NEM), and variable renewable generators. In particular, to examine how the expansion of near-zero marginal cost, variable renewable generators may impact participant incentives and market power. R...
Article
The significant growth in the number of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems installed behind the customers' meter in the last decade has provided financial savings for customers and reduced the greenhouse gas emissions of the electricity sector. However, at high penetrations, PV electricity exported to the grid may result in reverse power flows t...
Article
For restructured electricity industries undergoing energy transition, designing effective and efficient frequency control arrangements is a complex and ongoing task that requires appropriate configuration of controllers, generator technical connection requirements, market arrangements and wider policy settings. In this paper, we provide an overview...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is widely acknowledged that climate change is occurring because of anthropogenic emissions. To avoid the worst impacts of climate change, many countries are aiming to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. Reaching net zero emissions by 2050 will likely require a net zero electricity grid somewhat earlier than 2050 as other sectors of the economy w...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive Summary Australia's social and community housing could host as much as 1.8 Gigawatts (GW) of rooftop solar, allowing some of Australia's most vulnerable energy consumers to benefit from the low cost of solar. This is enough to: • provide more than 2,000 skilled jobs for 5 years • save 440,000 households an average of $750 every year for 2...
Article
Battery electrified public transit (BEPT), including buses and passenger ferries, is a promising solution to transport-related climate emissions and urban air pollution, but introduces potentially challenging large, coincident demand in the low-voltage distribution network. This paper presents a tool for estimating the energy and charging demand of...
Conference Paper
Australia has world leading uptake of distributed PV (D-PV) and increasing installations of battery energy storage systems (BESS). D-PV and BESS can provide various economic and environmental benefits to energy users, network companies and other industry stakeholders. However, integrating increasing levels of D-PV into electricity networks present...
Technical Report
Australia has world leading uptake of distributed PV (D-PV) and increasing installations of battery energy storage systems (BESS). Recent reports estimate one in four households own D-PV and installation rates are anticipated to grow in the years ahead. D-PV and BESS can provide various economic and environmental benefits to energy users, network c...
Article
Full-text available
Pacific Island Countries and Territories have set ambitious targets for energy access and the transition to sustainable energy. These efforts, however, are being severely impacted by shocks and stresses such as climate change, natural hazards and the COVID-19 pandemic. Resilience is a central pillar for energy policy in the region, but innovative a...
Article
Over the last decade, the electricity sector has seen a significant increase in the number of residential battery systems, as well as increasing interest in using them to reduce demand during network peaks. Although there is an abundance of literature assessing this ability using modelled residential batteries, there is a lack of detailed assessmen...
Article
Appliance level control and automation is an increasingly promising demand-side management tool with growing installation of advanced metering, monitoring and control infrastructure in both residential and commercial contexts. Successful implementation of appliance control and automation can alleviate network peak demand and improve distributed pho...
Article
The penetration of distributed battery energy storage systems in electricity grids globally is forecast to grow rapidly over the next 10 years. These systems can provide benefits for the customers that install them, but also introduce new opportunities and challenges for distribution network operators. This paper presents an algorithm that optimise...
Article
Water heating is one of the most energy intensive applications in households and domestic electric water heating systems (DEWH) offer large thermal storage for moving electrical load across the day. This study uses a unique dataset from 410 households and presents a comprehensive analysis of electricity consumption and hot water draw of DEWH for th...
Article
Wind and solar are increasingly cost-competitive as well as environmentally less harmful alternatives to the fossil-fuel generation that dominates most electricity industries. However, their highly variable and somewhat unpredictable output still requires high levels of dispatchable plants to ensure demand can be met at times of low renewables avai...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Research by UNSW and APVI shows there is a lead role for AFL, cricket and soccer clubs, associations and national governing organisations to play in mitigating the impacts of climate change in Australia. This document reports the findings on AFL.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Research by UNSW and APVI shows there is a lead role for AFL, cricket and soccer clubs, associations and national governing organisations to play in mitigating the impacts of climate change in Australia. This document reports the findings on Australian Cricket.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Research by UNSW and APVI shows there is a lead role for AFL, cricket and soccer clubs, associations and national governing organisations to play in mitigating the impacts of climate change in Australia. This document reports the findings on Australian Soccer.
Article
This study analyses distributed photovoltaic (D-PV) system curtailment and impacts on consumers in response to high network voltages. Novel analytical techniques are applied to a unique real-world operational dataset of over 1,300 D-PV systems in South Australia to identify ‘tripping’. Data-driven methods are valuable due to the diverse range of D-...
Article
Full-text available
The short-term characteristics of utility-scale PV variability become increasingly important for power system operation as PV penetrations grow. However, understanding how these characteristics and their aggregated impacts will change with new PV deployments is challenging given the limited and highly site dependent availability of high-resolution...
Article
Electricity industries in emerging economies face particular challenges in delivering affordable, environmentally sustainable, and secure power given growing demand and limited financial resources. While supply reliability is often poor and emission reductions given lower priority, solar and wind are now amongst our cheapest supply options but high...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A key initiative in the Energy Security Board’s (ESB) post-2025 National Electricity Market (NEM) design work is how best to design system services arrangements (including frequency control, ramping and reserves and system strength services) to meet the technical needs of the power system during energy transition. As a part of this process, the ESB...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A key initiative in the Energy Security Board’s (ESB) post-2025 National Electricity Market design work is how best to design system services arrangements to meet the technical needs of the power system during the energy transition. As a part of this process, the ESB has used the electricity market rule change process to accelerate the design proce...
Article
Understanding competition in electricity markets is fundamental to developing good regulatory, market design and associated policy frameworks for the electricity sector. Where and when competition is effective, appropriate market designs can be largely left to run; where it is not, interventions may be needed. Despite the need to monitor competitio...
Article
Full-text available
Although the amount of solar photovoltaic systems installed in residential buildings is increasing globally, it is largely limited to single-occupancy dwellings and is extremely uneven across jurisdictions. Deployment on apartment buildings remains low, even in Australia with its world-leading residential photovoltaic penetration, or in countries s...
Article
Full-text available
The growing deployment of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) in electricity industries raises many concerns for power system operation. Due to the highly variable and somewhat unpredictable characteristics of short-term PV output, the system operator faces challenges in balancing electricity supply and demand, which increases the need for short-term f...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Energy Security Board (ESB) is currently investigating electricity market design transformation given the changing nature of energy services and users in a post-2025 National Electricity Market (NEM). In September, the ESB released a consultation paper asking for feedback on seven market design initiatives that were being considered. Our submi...
Article
Full-text available
It's a sunny spring day in South Australia. A light breeze is cooling the coastal state capital of Adelaide as approximately 260,000 distributed solar photovoltaic systems (D-PVs) on residential and business rooftops generate electricity, setting a new State record for lowest minimum electrical demand for the third time this spring. All looks peace...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This technical brief provides an update on the nempy python package v1.0.0. It includes a summary of its features, accuracy, run-time, documentation, support plan and ongoing work.
Article
The electricity sector has a key role to play in the sustainable energy transition. The falling costs of wind and solar PV have added to both the opportunities yet also challenges of balancing sometimes competing industry objectives of costs, security, and environmental impacts. This paper presents novel techniques for assessing possible future ind...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Energy Security Board commissioned the Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets at the University of New South Wales to undertake analysis of voltage on the LV networks within the NEM, as well as distributed PV’s influence on that voltage. This work used a unique dataset of maximum and minimum voltage measurements over 12,000 sites in the LV...
Article
Full-text available
As distributed photovoltaics (PV) levels increase around the world, it is becoming apparent that the aggregate behavior of many small-scale PV systems during major power system disturbances may pose a significant system security threat if unmanaged. Alternatively, appropriate coordination of these systems might greatly assist in managing such distu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) between end-users of electricity and renewable energy generators are of increasing significance in the Australian electricity sector. PPAs, depending on how they are structured, can allow end-users to achieve several objectives, including supporting renewable energy development, meeting corporate emissions reduction...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electricity access is a key driver of socioeconomic development of a nation, and a critical catalyst to achieving the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Unfortunately Papua New Guinea (PNG) faces an acute electrification challenge with the majority of the population, especially in rural communities living without basic access to electricity. This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Some two million distributed PV systems have been installed on rooftops across Australia over the past decade but there is surprisingly little data available about inverter market trends and therefore their potential behaviour and impact on the grid. This paper seeks to remedy this gap with regard to inverter specifications including rated AC power...
Article
Full-text available
As subsidised feed-in-tariffs for distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation are reduced or abolished in many jurisdictions, there is growing interest in increasing self-consumption to realise greater value from rooftop PV generation. However, deployment of PV on apartment buildings lags behind other residential deployment despite the potential advan...
Article
Demand Side Management (DSM¹) and in particular load shifting has considerable potential for facilitating renewables integration. At present, dispatchable loads in power systems are often operated to run late at night when electricity demand is lowest. However, they might also be managed to facilitate increasing levels of variable renewable generat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report estimates the total potential for rooftop solar in Austral;ia to be 179 gigawatts with an annual energy output of 245 terawatt-hours. It was produced in collaboration between the Australian PV Institute, the University of New South Wales and the Institute for Sustainable Futures. The analysis was undertaken by Jessie Copper, Mike Rober...
Article
Australia has one of the highest penetrations of residential PV in the world and is projected to see substantially more deployment in coming years, with a growing proportion of this being coupled with battery energy storage (BES). Previous analysis of the implications of these residential distributed energy resources (DERs) has tended to focus on t...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding of residential electricity demand has application in efficient building design, network planning and broader policy and regulation, as well as in planning the deployment of energy efficiency technologies and distributed energy resources with potential emissions reduction benefits and societal and household cost savings. Very few studi...
Article
Full-text available
Distributed photovoltaics is playing a growing role in electricity industries around the world, while Battery Energy Storage Systems are falling in cost and starting to be deployed by energy consumers with photovoltaics. Apartment buildings offer an opportunity to apply central battery storage and shared solar generation to ag-gregated apartment an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Distributed photovoltaics (PV) is playing a growing role in electricity industries around the world, while Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are falling in cost and starting to be deployed by energy consumers with PV. Apartment buildings offer an opportunity to apply central BESS and shared PV generation to aggregated apartment and common loads...
Chapter
Full-text available
The authors are Australia-based energy researchers who view a close link between access to energy data and the country's transition to a sustainable and just community-based energy future, which they argue is currently hampered by some major incumbent energy sector businesses and politicians. Rooftop solar (PV) panels are popular additions to Aust...
Preprint
Understanding of residential electricity demand has application in efficient building design, network planning and broader policy and regulation, as well as in planning the deployment of energy efficiency technologies and distributed energy resources with potential emissions reduction benefits as well societal and household cost savings. Very few s...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reviews opportunities for, and barriers to, increasing photovoltaic (PV) deployment on apartment buildings, with a particular focus on the Australian experience. In 2015, residential loads account for 27% of global electricity use [1], while offsetting these loads with rooftop PV has been significant in developing a commercial global PV...
Article
This paper reviews opportunities for, and barriers to, increasing photovoltaic (PV) deployment on apartment buildings, with a particular focus on the Australian experience. As rapid urbanisation drives increasing housing density, PV penetration in multi-occupancy housing has been limited by comparison with stand-alone housing in many jurisdictions,...
Preprint
Microgrids for rural electrification, are expected to play a key role in achieving global energy access goals. However, the high cost of stand-alone microgrids intended to serve generally poor communities remains a key barrier to their deployment, while appropriate microgrid design and operation is a challenging task given the generally low diversi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Australia's National Electricity Market (NEM) is undergoing rapid transition in its generation mix. Importantly, large-scale synchronised generation is increasingly being replaced with variable renewable resources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). These technologies have rather different operational characteristics to conventional thermal and h...