Anna Brown

Anna Brown
University of Kent | KENT · School of Psychology

mathematics; psychometrics; higher education

About

74
Publications
187,578
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1,999
Citations
Citations since 2016
40 Research Items
1735 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Introduction
Anna’s research focuses on psychological measurement and psychometric testing, particularly issues in test validity and test fairness. She uses latent variable models including Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) to model responses to typical performance tests including ipsative questionnaires, and to model response biases in self-report measures and in feedback reports to individuals and organisations.
Additional affiliations
May 2012 - present
University of Kent
Position
  • Lecturer in Psychological Methods and Statistics
May 2012 - October 2015
University of Kent
Position
  • Lecturer in Psychological Methods and Statistics
Description
  • Research into response processes involved in impression management; validity of assessments by others; modelling forced-choice response formats
June 2011 - March 2013
University of Cambridge
Position
  • Psychometric modelling of response biases, focusing on the psychopathology and well-being assessment contexts
Education
October 2007 - October 2010
September 1987 - June 1992

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Full-text available
Multidimensional forced-choice formats can significantly reduce the impact of numerous response biases typically associated with rating scales. However, if scored with classical methodology, these questionnaires produce ipsative data, which lead to distorted scale relationships and make comparisons between individuals problematic. This research dem...
Article
Full-text available
To counter response distortions associated with the use of rating scales (a.k.a. Likert scales), items can be presented in a comparative fashion, so that respondents are asked to rank the items within blocks (forced-choice format). However, classical scoring procedures for these forced-choice designs lead to ipsative data, which presents psychometr...
Article
Full-text available
In multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) questionnaires, items measuring different attributes are presented in blocks, and participants have to rank order the items within each block (fully or partially). Such comparative formats can reduce the impact of numerous response biases often affecting single-stimulus items (aka rating or Likert scales). Ho...
Article
Full-text available
In forced-choice questionnaires, respondents have to make choices between two or more items presented at the same time. Several IRT models have been developed to link respondent choices to underlying psychological attributes, including the recent MUPP (Stark, Chernyshenko & Drasgow, 2005) and Thurstonian IRT (Brown & Maydeu-Olivares, 2011) models....
Article
Full-text available
In high stakes assessments of personality and similar attributes, test takers may engage in impression management (aka faking). This article proposes to consider responses of every test taker as a potential mixture of "real" (or retrieved) answers to questions, and "ideal" answers intended to create a desired impression, with each type of response...
Article
Full-text available
Faking on personality assessments remains an unsolved issue, raising major concerns regarding their validity and fairness. Although there is a large body of quantitative research investigating the response process of faking on personality assessments, for both rating scales (RS) and multidimensional forced choice (MFC), only a few studies have yet...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 516 participants responded to the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) under answer honest and instructed faking conditions in a within-subjects design. We analyze these data with a novel application of trifactor modeling that models the two substantive factors measured by the BIDR—self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and impre...
Article
Several forced-choice (FC) computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have emerged in the field of organizational psychology, all of them employing ideal-point items. However, despite most items developed historically follow dominance response models, research on FC CAT using dominance items is limited. Existing research is heavily dominated by simulations...
Article
Full-text available
The Thurstonian item response model (Thurstonian IRT model) allows deriving normative trait estimates from multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) data. In the MFC format, persons must rank-order items that measure different attributes according to how well the items describe them. This study evaluated the normativity of Thurstonian IRT trait estimate...
Article
Full-text available
A common concern with self-reports of personality traits in selection contexts is faking. The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to rating scales (RS) that could prevent faking. The goal of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the MFC format and the RS format to faking in a simulated high-stak...
Preprint
Full-text available
A common concern with self-reports of personality traits in selection contexts is faking. The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to rating scales (RS) that could prevent faking. The goal of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the MFC and RS format to faking in a simulated high-stakes setting....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We aimed to address gaps identified in the evidence base and instruments available to measure the quality of life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia, and develop a new brief, reliable, condition-specific instrument. Methods We generated measurable domains and indicators of carer QOL from systematic literature reviews and qualit...
Article
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Despite profound influence of selection‐by‐ability on children's educational opportunities, empirical evidence for the validity of 11‐plus tests is scarce. This study focused on secondary selection in Kent, the largest grammar school area in England. We analysed scores from the ‘Kent Test’ (the 11‐plus test used in Kent), Cognitive Assessment Tests...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The psychometric properties of the social functioning in dementia scale over different dementia severities are unknown. Methods We interviewed 299 family carers of people with mild, moderate, or severe dementia from two UK research sites; examined acceptability (completion rates); conducted exploratory factor analysis; and tested each...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dementia is a major global health and social care challenge, and family carers are a vital determinant of positive outcomes for people with dementia. This study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the Quality of Life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia. Methods We studied family carers of people with dementia and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dementia is a major global health and social care challenge, and family carers are a vital determinant of positive outcomes for people with dementia. This study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the Quality of Life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia. Methods: We studied family carers of people with dementia and...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a new comparative response format, suitable for assessing personality and similar constructs. In this “graded-block” format, items measuring different constructs are first organized in blocks of 2 or more; then, pairs are formed from items within blocks. The pairs are presented 1 at a time to enable respondents expressing the extent of...
Article
Full-text available
Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called “narcissism epidemic,” we used data from three cohorts of students (N1990s = 1,166; N2000s = 33,647; N2010s = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific facets) have increased across generations. We also test...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, have a profound impact on those with the conditions and their family carers. Consequently, the accurate measurement of family carers' quality of life (QOL) is important. Generic measures may miss key elements of the impact of these conditions, so using disease-specific instruments has been a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Family carers of people with dementia are their most important support in practical, personal, and economic terms. Carers are vital to maintaining the quality of life (QOL) of people with dementia. This review aims to identify factors related to the QOL of family carers of people with dementia. Methods: Searches on terms including...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: There is a need to determine whether health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) assessments in dementia capture what is important, to form a coherent basis for guiding research and clinical and policy decisions. This study investigated structural validity of HRQL assessments made using the DEMQOL system, with particular interest in studying do...
Article
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We examined the effects of response biases on 360-degree feedback using a large sample (N=4,675) of organizational appraisal data. Sixteen competencies were assessed by peers, bosses and subordinates of 922 managers, as well as self-assessed, using the Inventory of Management Competencies (IMC) administered in two formats – Likert scale and multidi...
Article
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Background: Early identification of children with potential development delay is essential to ensure access to care. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) is used as population outcome indicators in England as part of the 2.5-year review. Method: The aim of this article was to systematically review the worldwide evidence for the psychometric pr...
Conference Paper
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Asking people to assess themselves or others on a set of psychological characteristics is by far the most popular method of gathering data in our field. We use this method either because it is the cheapest, or the best there currently exists for measuring the target characteristic. However, respondent-reported data are commonly affected by consciou...
Chapter
Response biases comprise a variety of systematic tendencies of responding to questionnaire items. Response biases exert an influence on item responses in addition to any constructs that the questionnaire is designed to measure and can therefore potentially bias the corresponding trait level estimates. This chapter addresses general response biases...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental assumption in computerized adaptive testing is that item parameters are invariant with respect to context—items surrounding the administered item. This assumption, however, may not hold in forced-choice (FC) assessments, where explicit comparisons are made between items included in the same block. We empirically examined the influence...
Article
Full-text available
To prevent response bias, personality questionnaires may use comparative response formats. These include forced choice, where respondents choose among a number of items, and quantitative comparisons, where respondents indicate the extent to which items are preferred to each other. The present article extends Thurstonian modeling of binary choice da...
Chapter
Full-text available
Response biases comprise a variety of systematic tendencies of responding to questionnaire items. Response biases exert an influence on item responses in addition to any constructs that the questionnaire is designed to measure and can therefore potentially bias the corresponding trait level estimates. This chapter addresses general response biases...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes an investigation of whether Thurstonian item response modeling is a viable method for assessment of maladaptive traits. Forced-choice responses from 420 working adults to a broad-range personality inventory assessing six maladaptive traits were considered. The Thurstonian item response model’s fit to the forced-choice data wa...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalent scoring practice for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) ignores the forced-choice nature of the items. The aim of this study was to investigate whether findings based on NPI scores reported in previous research can be confirmed when the forced-choice nature of the NPI’s original response format is appropriately modeled, and...
Chapter
Full-text available
Instead of responding to questionnaire items one at a time, respondents may be forced to make a choice between two or more items measuring the same or different traits. The forced-choice format eliminates uniform response biases, although the research on its effectiveness in reducing the effects of impression management is inconclusive. Until recen...
Article
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At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid). While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. This study aimed to explore the psychometric characteristics (factorial structure, reliability, and external validity) of an Arabic version of the PICTS, to explore cross-cultural differences between...
Chapter
Full-text available
The ultimate goal of measurement is to produce a score by which individuals can be assessed and differentiated. Item response theory (IRT) modeling views responses to test items as indicators of a respondent's standing on some underlying psychological attributes (van der Linden & Hambleton, 1997) – we often call them latent traits – and devises spe...
Chapter
Full-text available
To counter response distortions associated with the use of rating scales in personality and similar assessments, test items may be presented in so-called 'forced-choice' formats. Respondents may be asked to rank-order a number of items, or distribute a fixed number of points between several items – therefore they are forced to make a choice. Until...
Chapter
Full-text available
The ultimate goal of psychometric testing is to produce a score by which people can be differentiated. Item Response Theory (IRT) devises methods for estimating person's score on one or more psychological constructs (traits) from his/her responses to test items. This chapter gives an overview of scoring methods applicable to situations when the tes...
Article
Full-text available
Perfectionism cognitions capture automatic perfectionistic thoughts and have explained variance in psychological adjustment and maladjustment beyond trait perfectionism. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether a multidimensional assessment of perfectionism cognitions has advantages over a unidimensional assessment. To this aim, w...
Article
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We reply to Flett and Hewitt’s (2014) commentary on our findings (Stoeber, Kobori, & Brown, 2014) focusing on the multidimensionality of the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI) and the question of whether the Multidimensional Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (MPCI) represents an alternative to the PCI. In addition, we reiterate the importanc...
Article
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We report a Monte Carlo study examining the effects of two strategies for handling measurement non-invariance - modeling and ignoring non-invariant items - on structural regression coefficients between latent variables measured with item response theory models for categorical indicators. These strategies were examined across four levels and three t...
Article
Full-text available
Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes’ perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether,...
Article
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To investigate pathways through which momentary negative affect and depressive symptoms affect risk of lapse during smoking cessation attempts. Ecological Momentary Assessment was carried out during two weeks after an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. A three-month follow-up measured smoking frequency. Data were collected via mobile devices in...
Article
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Early detection of child mental health problems in schools is critical for implementing strategies for prevention and intervention. The development of an effective measure of mental health and well-being for this context must be both empirically sound and practically feasible. This study reports the initial validation of a brief self-report measure...
Article
Early detection of child mental health problems in schools is critical for implementing strategies for prevention and intervention. The development of an effective measure of mental health and well-being for this context must be both empirically sound and practically feasible. This study reports the initial validation of a brief self-report measure...
Article
Full-text available
Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of alcoho...
Article
Full-text available
The present research addressed gaps in our current understanding of validity and quality of measurement provided by patient reported experience measures. We established the psychometric properties of a freely available experience of service questionnaire (ESQ), based on responses from 7,067 families of patients across 41 UK providers of child and a...
Code
Full-text available
Supplements for: Brown, A. & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2012). Fitting a Thurstonian IRT model to forced-choice data using Mplus. Behavior Research Methods, 44, 1135–1147.
Method
Full-text available
The Big Five Questionnaire (Brown & Maydeu-Olivares, 2011) was developed in the context of a study researching item response theory (IRT) modeling of forced-choice questionnaires. The purpose of the questionnaire is to measure the Big Five personality factor markers. Items were drawn from the 100 items of the International Personality Item Pool. Th...
Article
Full-text available
The comparative format used in ranking and paired comparisons tasks can significantly reduce the impact of uniform response biases typically associated with rating scales. Thurstone's (1927, 1931) model provides a powerful framework for modeling comparative data such as paired comparisons and rankings. Although Thurstonian models are generally pres...
Article
Full-text available
Johnson et al. (2010) note the need for a vector defining the relationships between job components and overall job performance (OJP) in the job requirements matrix approach to synthetic validation. This need is also implicit in the job components validity approach that they discuss. In our view, relationships between job components and overall crit...
Article
Full-text available
Johnson et al. (2010) note the need for a vector defining the relationships between job components and overall job performance (OJP) in the job requirements matrix approach to synthetic validation. This need is also implicit in the job components validity approach that they discuss. In our view, relationships between job components and overall crit...
Article
Full-text available
Although rating differences among incumbents of the same occupation have traditionally been viewed as error variance in the work analysis domain, such differences might often capture substantive discrepancies in how incumbents approach their work. This study draws from job crafting, creativity, and role theories to uncover situational factors (i.e....