Anna Björklund

Anna Björklund
KTH Royal Institute of Technology | KTH · Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering

PhD Industrial Ecology

About

89
Publications
31,314
Reads
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4,042
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
1809 Citations
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Introduction
Anna Björklund currently works at the Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Anna does research in Environmental systems analyses, ficusing on Life Cycle Assessment. A recent project was 'EU MSCA-ETN Red Mud'.
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
January 2008 - December 2013
KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Full-text available
Ambitious fossil-free targets imposed on the aviation industry worldwide demand a large volumetric supply of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) to meet. Sweden's commitment to a 30% volume SAF blending target by 2030 attracts interest in local production. However, the sustainability of local production is largely unknown. Addressing this gap, we aim t...
Conference Paper
Life cycle assessment (LCA) research on the performance of circular economy (CE) measures such as reuse, repair and remanufacturing has been criticized for inadequate consideration of functional equivalency of circular compared to new products, allocation between use phases, displacement rates, rebound effects, product use and user behavior. For su...
Article
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Aviation accounts for approximately five percent of global greenhouse gas emissions through the combustion of fossil fuels. This paper analyses the opportunities and challenges of mitigation measures in limiting travel volume, energy and emission intensity to reduce the climate impact of aviation in Sweden. Several measures are in place that aim to...
Article
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Purpose LCA is increasingly used in infrastructure policy and planning. This study maps approaches used in comparative LCA of road and rail infrastructure to (1) determine the length of the analysis period, (2) estimate the maintenance frequency, and (3) include the effects of climate change on infrastructure performance. A LCA may need to fulfil d...
Article
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Our ability to produce and transform engineered materials over the past 150 years is responsible for our high standards of living today, especially in the developed economies. Yet, we must carefully think of the effects our addiction to creating and using materials at this fast rate will have on the future generations. The way we currently make and...
Article
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There is a general agreement in the LCA community that there are two types of LCAs: attributional and consequential. There have been numerous discussions about the pros and cons of the two approaches and on differences in methodology, in particular about methods that can be used in consequential LCA. There are, however, methodological aspects of at...
Article
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As cities worldwide implement strategies to accelerate the transition toward a circular economy (CE), there is an increasing need for tools to monitor progress. However, a standardised metric for CE monitoring in urban areas is lacking. This study examines the potential of the EU Circular Economy Monitoring Framework (CEMF), an established indicato...
Article
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Public procurement has been recognized as a tool to promote more sustainable production and consumption practices. As such, an increasing body of literature has become available in recent years focusing on the sustainable public procurement of food. This article reviews the literature on the sustainable public procurement of food with the aim to an...
Article
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The environmental impact of Industry 4.0 and related technologies remains relatively unknown, with little research devoted to investigating the impact on sustainability aspects, resulting in a greater need for climate reporting. However, impacts of data transmission have historically been the least studied part of the information and communication...
Article
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While it may be impossible to accurately predict what the world will look like in the future, we can be certain that it will be different from the world of today. By extension, we know that using today's data in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies claiming to represent future scenarios is problematic. For the future impact of products to be estimat...
Article
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Purpose The overall aim of this study is to contribute to the creation of LCA database on electricity generation systems in Ethiopia. This study specifically estimates the environmental impacts associated with wind power systems supplying high voltage electricity to the national grid. The study has regional significance as the Ethiopian electric sy...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to investigate the common understanding of the variety of simplifications in LCA, by reviewing what simplification approaches are described in LCA and propose how these simplifications can be categorised. Such an overview can give guidance to researchers/practitioners as to how they should document simplifications and explai...
Article
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o address increasing environmental sustainability concerns among consumers, many companies have developed approaches to provide functions, rather than products through product-service systems (PSS).This study evaluates a use-oriented tool rental service from Husqvarna, called‘Tools for you,’ with theaim to identify critical processes to improve the...
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in waste management for the last two decades and hundreds of journal papers have been published. The use of LCA in waste management has provided a much-improved holistic view of waste management including waste flows and potential environmental impacts. Although much knowledge has been obtained from LCA stu...
Article
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The article entitled ‘Review: the availability of life-cycle studies in Sweden’ by Croft and colleagues (January 2019, volume 24, issue 1, pages 6–11) has puzzled many researchers in Sweden. The stated purpose of the article is to review the availability of water and carbon footprinting studies and life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies in Sweden. Des...
Article
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Bauxite residue, the main waste product of alumina production, is a potentially valuable secondary resource. The MSCA-ETN REDMUD project aims to develop environmentally friendly technologies to realize this value, by extracting valuable metals (aluminium, iron, titanium, scandium, rare-earth elements) or utilizing it in construction applications. S...
Article
High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is...
Article
Conventionally the use phase of a road vehicle contributes to more than 70% of the total environmental impact in terms of energy use or emissions of greenhouse gases. This figure is no longer valid concerning electric vehicles and a shift to other life cycle stages and impacts is expected and should be re-evaluated. The goal of this study is to ass...
Article
The potential impact of ionising radiation from enhanced exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) to humans and the environment is not currently accounted for sufficiently in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Here we present midpoint and endpoint characterisation factors resulting from the implementation of impact assessment models f...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of the study was to outline and demonstrate a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilising spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) to improve estimates on earthworks during early stages of road infrastructure planning. Methods This was undertaken by using three main met...
Article
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Purpose Despite advances in the development of impact categories for ionising radiation, the focus on artificial radionuclides produced in the nuclear fuel cycle means that the potential impacts resulting from increased exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are still only covered to a limited degree in life cycle assessment (...
Article
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Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper...
Article
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The need for new policy instruments supporting the on-going transition from end-of-pipe waste treatment to resource management has been recognized in European policy. Instruments need to be carefully assessed before implementation to promote the desired changes and avoid problem shifting. Mathematical models may assist policy makers in such assessm...
Article
A screening environmental life cycle analysis (LCA) of the novel self-reinforced poly(ethylene therephthalate) (SrPET) is presented in this paper. A truck exterior panel is used as case study where a concept design made by SrPET is assessed and compared to a glass fibre reinforced composite and a thermoplastic blend that are currently used for the...
Article
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Abstract Weight reduction is commonly adopted in vehicle design as a means for energy and emissions savings. However, selection of lightweight materials is often focused on performance characteristics, which may lead to sub optimizations of life cycle environmental impact. Therefore systematic material selection processes are needed that integrate...
Conference Paper
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Bauxite Residue (BR) is a potentially valuable source of metals and construction materials. New technologies for recycling and valorisation of BR will be developed in the EU-funded project REDMUD. To ensure that these new technologies deliver the maximum environmental benefit and minimise risk to human health, the potential impact of their implemen...
Article
The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provi...
Article
New and improved Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is being produced every day. With every new product on the market, an older product becomes obsolete. These obsolete products are being added to the world's fastest growing waste stream, ICT electronic waste (e-waste). This is formally recycled in developed countries, stockpiled, landf...
Article
An empirical study was conducted on integration of environmental aspects and requirements into four vehicle manufacturing companies in Sweden. The aim was to gain insights into how Design for Environment (DfE) is organised in these companies and, thus help bridge the gap between methodological development and practice. The processes for identifying...
Article
We conduct a screening comparison using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to model two end-of-life vehicle (ELV) waste management scenarios. The first is the prevalent scrapping process, which entails shredding. The second is manual disassembly, a hypothetical scenario designed to reach the targets in the EU ELV Directive for 2015. The LCA co...
Article
Bio-based materials have come increasingly into focus during the last years, as alternatives to conventional materials such as fossil-based polymers, metals, and glass. The present paper is an application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology in order to explore the possibility of improving the eco efficiency of glass fibre composite materials...
Article
Asphalt waste from State roads in Sweden is usually recycled in order to preserve natural resources and reduce the burden on landfill. However, there appears to be a knowledge gap regarding the methods of asphalt recycling used by municipalities and private owners in Sweden. There is also a lack of knowledge regarding best practice from a life cycl...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste...
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This articl...
Article
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Inclusion of Life Cycle Assessment during the planning of transport infrastructure is rarely used in practice, but is becoming a widely discussed issue nowadays. This study sought to improve understanding of the life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of transport infrastructure, using the example of a road tunnel. Two levels of analysis...
Conference Paper
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An on-going interdisciplinary Swedish research programme, Towards Sustainable Waste Management aims at assessing policy instruments that may contribute to a more sustainable waste management, shifting it towards the upper levels of the waste hierarchy -to waste prevention and material recovery. 15 policy instruments have been chosen for final asses...
Conference Paper
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An ongoing Swedish research program, Towards Sustainable Waste Management (TOSUWAMA), funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency during 2006-2012, aims at formulating and assessing policy instruments that may contribute to the development of a more sustainable waste management, shifting waste management upwards in the waste hierarchy. Th...
Chapter
In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management...
Article
Collection and treatment of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regulated in the European Union by the WEEE Directive. Producers are responsible for take-back and recycling of discarded equipment. Valuable materials are, however, at risk of “getting lost” in current processes. Thus, strategies to minimize losses are sought afte...
Article
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This article presents a model for local energy planning and its application in a full-scale experiment in a Swedish municipality. The model is based on legal requirement, research findings and standards of good practice and includes a combination of analytical and procedural tools intended to support rational decision-making: external scenarios, a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An ongoing Swedish research program, Towards Sustainable Waste Management (TOSUWAMA), funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency during 2006-2012, aims at formulating new waste policy instruments that may contribute to the development of a more sustainable waste management, shifting waste management towards the upper levels of the waste...
Article
Full-text available
The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental im...
Conference Paper
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We refine and combine a set of existing, quantitative tools to investigate how different policy instruments affect the cost and environmental impacts of waste management in Sweden in the year 2030. The tools include the national waste statistics, a general equilibrium model of the Swedish economy, a systems engineering model of the Swedish waste-ma...
Article
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The environmental impact of the management of biodegradable waste in Stockholm, based mainly on incineration and landfilling, was compared to systems with significant nutrient recycling; large-scale composting, anaerobic digestion, and separate collection and utilization of urine. The systems' emissions, residual products, energy turnover, and reso...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In assessments of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which ar...
Article
A large number of methods and approaches that can be used for supporting waste management decisions at different levels in society have been developed. In this paper an overview of methods is provided and preliminary guidelines for the choice of methods are presented. The methods introduced include: Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Enviro...
Article
The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and...
Article
In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management...
Article
At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence was...
Article
Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fjärrvärmesystemet expanderar fortfarande och det finns därför behov av nya investeringar. Ofta finns ett val mellan olika typer bränslen, där biobränsle, avfall och naturgas kan konkurrera. I denna studie har vi gjort en konsekvensorienterad livscykelanalys för att jämföra olika bränslen ur miljösynpunkt. I studien jämförs kraftvärme med bara fjär...
Article
Recycling of waste materials has been analysed from a life cycle perspective in a number of studies over the past 10–15 years. Publications comparing the global warming impact and total energy use of recycling versus incineration and landfilling were reviewed in order to find out to what extent they agree or contradict each other, and whether there...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Development of local energy systems, i.e. supply, distribu-tion and use of energy in a municipality, is crucial for overall environmental performance of national energy systems. It follows that availability and effectiveness of instruments to control this development are of great interest. For local au-thorities, energy planning may be such an inst...
Article
Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation...
Article
This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Avfallsfrågor engagerar. Det är någonting som berör människor i deras vardag och det är kanske ett skäl till att vi då och då får uppblossande debatter om hur vi ska hantera avfall. Beslut och investeringar inom avfallsområdet kan få långsiktiga konsekvenser. En avfallsförbränningspanna är exempelvis en stor och långsiktig investering. Samtidigt le...
Article
Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been preoccupied with SEA as a procedure and there are relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. This paper applies and tests an analytical framework for an energy sector SEA. In a case study on a policy proposal for waste-to-energy taxation in Sweden, it studies ch...
Article
A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorga...
Article
Limitations of data quality and difficulties to assess uncertainty are long since acknowledged problems in LCA. During recent years a range of tools for improvement of reliability in LCA have been presented, but despite this there is still a lack of consensus about how these issues should be handled. To give basic understanding of data quality and...
Article
Innovative technologies are required to offset increasing consumption and declining stocks of non-renewable resources. This study examines a possible enhancement of waste management and transportation by integrating two emerging technologies: municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), by fueling FCVs with hydrogen produ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consequences for energy turnover, environmental impact and economy of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and com...
Article
The management system for solid and liquid organic waste affects the environment and surrounding technical systems in several ways. In order to decrease the environmental impact and resource use, biological waste treatment and alternative solutions for sewage treatment are often advocated. These alternatives include increased agricultural use of wa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Energy, environmental, and economic consequences of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easil...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Energy, environmental, and economic consequences of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easil...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Energy, environmental, and economic consequences of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easil...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Energy, environmental, and economic consequences of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion) of easily degradable or...
Article
Environmental consequences of implementing Uppsala's waste management plan have been analysed using orware, a computerized static substance flow model based on life cycle assessment methodology. Normalizing emissions from waste management to total emission loadings in the municipality was tested as a means to improve the evaluation. It was found th...
Article
The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions...
Article
A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineratio...