Ann Williamson

Ann Williamson
UNSW Sydney | UNSW · Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research

BSc Honours, PhD

About

195
Publications
33,251
Reads
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6,110
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - present
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (195)
Article
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a science-based beach safety presentation given to multiple audiences in Sydney, NSW, Australia. A total of 383 attendees aged 14 years and over completed pre- and post-intervention surveys associated with 10 Science of the Surf (SOS) presentations with 121 completing a follow-up survey. Following the prese...
Article
Headway is a safety measure commonly used to investigate driving behaviour and driver performance. Its purpose is to reflect the following distance or time between a leading and following vehicle in traffic. It is therefore associated with drivers’ response time, such as in braking or swerving, during safety critical events. In the literature, dist...
Article
Full-text available
Despite significant improvements in road safety in Australia and developed countries over some decades, the downward trend in fatalities and serious injuries has slowed markedly, and even stalled. New strategies are needed to turn this trend around. Current road safety philosophy, the Safe System, has been effective, but needs broadening to increas...
Article
Feedback has been shown to be instrumental in learning. Refining how it is delivered in driver training has the potential to reduce crash risk. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the medium in which feedback is delivered (verbal, written, graphical) on young drivers’ speed management behaviour. Sixty young drivers,...
Article
Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) are a method in transportation research that is increasingly used to bridge the gap between epidemiological research (e.g., using population crash databases) and individual level or experimental research (e.g., self-reported surveys or driving simulators). This article begins with defining NDS and providing a brie...
Article
The aim of the present research was to examine the effect of the medium in which feedback is delivered (verbal, written, graphical) on young drivers’ speed management behavior in two speed zones (i.e., 50km and 80km/h), immediately post-training and one week post-training. Sixty young drivers, randomly allocated to one of four feedback groups (i.e....
Article
Both sleep- and task-related factors are thought to contribute to driver fatigue, with each factor individually associated with deteriorated driving performance. However, the relative and combined effects of these factors in the context of monotonous driving have not been well studied. This study (N = 60) investigated lateral and longitudinal vehic...
Article
Naturalistic driving research shows that drivers spend vast amounts of time engaging in secondary, non-driving tasks. Laboratory and simulation studies have demonstrated that, when engaging in a secondary task, drivers adopt strategies to interrupt, delay and resume the secondary task in order to manage their workload and risk. However, there is ve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Driver distraction is one of the leading causes of crashes. The study of driver distraction has attracted many researchers after recent advances in sensing and information technology. Naturalistic driving data (NDS) collected from vehicles fitted with several sensors including cameras is a rich source to understand how drivers become distracted. Ho...
Article
Management of queuing and waiting for loading/unloading can influence the risk of fatigue for heavy truck drivers if it extends work hours or hampers drivers’ access to rest. Previous studies identified non-driving activities as a major contributor to driver fatigue in this industry despite Chain of Responsibility (CoR) legislation in Australia tha...
Article
Alternate work positions are being considered as a way to address sedentary behaviour for office workers. This study evaluated the effect of two hours of just-sitting versus sitting while under-desk cycling on musculoskeletal discomfort and cognitive function (sustained attention and creative problem solving). To consider mechanisms, muscle fatigue...
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Full-text available
This study used data from the Australian Naturalistic Driving Study to study driver engagement in secondary tasks during every day driving and examine the role that various driver characteristics and driving context variables play in influencing the initiation of secondary tasks. Video from 186 randomly selected trips were viewed to identify a rang...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the Australian Naturalistic Driving Study (ANDS), this study examined patterns of secondary task engagement (e.g., mobile phone use, manipulating centre stack controls) during everyday driving trips to determine the type and duration of secondary task engaged in. Safety-related incidents associated with secondary task engagement wer...
Conference Paper
The demerit points system has been implemented in many countries. The overall effect of the system on road safety, including subsequent traffic offences remains controversial. Data on traffic offenses for all New Zealand (NZ) license-holders over the 10 year period from 2005 to 2014 were analysed. Descriptive statistical analyses were undertaken to...
Article
The current study examined the effectiveness of two cognitive based training methods, namely Feedback and Self-explanation in improving young drivers' speed management behaviour in the operational environment. Seventy-five participants, all provisional licence holders under the age of 25 years completed three on-road drives in an instrumented vehic...
Article
There is growing interest in young driver training that addresses age-related factors, including incompletely developed impulse control. Two studies investigated whether training of response inhibition can reduce risky simulated driving in young drivers (aged 16–24 years). Each study manipulated aspects of response inhibition training then assessed...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of two cognitive-based training methods, namely self-explanation and feedback (i.e., combined and auditory alert) on young novice drivers’ speed management behavior. Seventy-five young drivers, randomly allocated to five groups, completed three on-road drives in an instrumented vehicle. Four g...
Article
Office workers are exposed to high levels of sedentary time. In addition to cardio-vascular and metabolic health risks, this sedentary time may have musculoskeletal and/or cognitive impacts on office workers. Participants (n = 20) undertook two hours of laboratory-based sitting computer work to investigate changes in discomfort and cognitive functi...
Article
Objective: To investigate whether use of a movement intervention when undertaking prolonged standing affected discomfort and cognitive function. Background: Alternate work positions to break up prolonged sitting for office workers are being trialed, such as standing. Prolonged standing has potential negative health implications, including low ba...
Article
Introduction: Driver fatigue is a major road safety problem. While much is known about the effects of fatigue and the factors that contribute to it, fatigue on commuter trips has received comparatively little attention in road safety. Most interventions have focused on longer trips, while investigations of commuting have typically examined particu...
Article
This article develops a “latent elimination” choice model to examine how travelers respond to different levels of safety risk in making decisions about flight choices. We find a pattern of eliminatory and compensatory decision-mix where travelers have varying thresholds of risk acceptance. Below this threshold the options are eliminated, whereas ab...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine which aspect of content-based feedback about drivers’ speed management behaviour (performance, financial infringements and safety implications for speeding) yielded positive changes in compliance with the speed limit. One hundred young drivers were randomly allocated to one of five groups (Control, Perfor...
Article
Due to concerns about excessive sedentary exposure for office workers, alternate work positions such as standing are being trialled. However, prolonged standing may have health and productivity impacts, which this study assessed. Twenty adult participants undertook two hours of laboratory-based standing computer work to investigate changes in disco...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the extent to which safety risk information influences flight choice. Simple stated choice experiments were implemented with four independent samples of college students, young non-college students and older employed people across a 20 months period. Strong consistency in the flight choice behaviour across the samples was observ...
Article
The research-practice gap has been highlighted as a barrier to effective practice in human factors and ergonomics (HFE). There is also evidence of a theory-research gap that may be limiting the scientific evidence base of HFE. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in journal publications, especially relating to the research-practice gap a...
Article
Accident classification systems are important tools for safety management. Unfortunately, many of the tools available have demonstrated poor reliability of coding, making their validity and usefulness questionable. This paper demonstrates the application of four strategies to improve the reliability of accident and incident classification systems....
Article
Prior to 2016, motorcycle licensing in Victoria, Australia, required off-road (range) skillstesting only, focusing on vehicle-handling skills. The objective of this research was to developan education and assessment curriculum commensurate with best practice that included on-roadcomponents and increased focus on awareness, judgment, and decision-ma...
Article
The risky driving of young drivers may owe in part to youthful motivations (such as experience-seeking, authority rebellion, desire for peer approval) combined with incompletely developed impulse control. Although self-reported impulsiveness has been positively associated with self-reports of risky driving, results based on objective measures of re...
Article
Background The authors were commissioned to develop education curricula for a new motorcyclist graduated licensing system in Victoria, Australia. A review of published literature identified several promising models internationally, but no single best-practice framework. The objective of this research was to determine whether a best-practice framewo...
Article
Background Typologies have been defined previously for pedestrian-vehicle interactions and are primarily based on retrospective analysis of crash data. The naturalistic driving study currently underway in Australia makes it possible to study pedestrian-vehicle interaction events that would not otherwise be identified in the crash data. This work ev...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to empirically investigate the effect of various types of feedback on young novice drivers’ speed management behavior. One hundred young drivers, randomly allocated to five groups, completed three test drives using a computer-based driving simulator. For four groups, feedback was provided after an 11km drive and foc...
Article
This study aimed to identify temporal precursor and associated contributing factors for adverse clinical incidents in a hospital setting using the Human Factors Classification Framework (HFCF) for patient safety. A random sample of 498 clinical incidents were reviewed. The framework identified key precursor events (PE), contributing factors (CF) an...
Article
This paper reviews classification theory sources to develop five research questions concerning factors associated with incident coding system development and use and how these factors affect coding reliability. Firstly, a method was developed to enable the comparison of reliability results obtained using different methods. Second, a statistical and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Poor speed management is one of the leading causes of car crashes involving young drivers in Australia. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of cognitive training methods (Self-explanation, Reflection, and Feedback) in improving young drivers' speed management behavior. One hundred and two young drivers completed three test drive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Poor speed management is a major contributing factor to motor vehicle crashes involving young drivers on New South Wales roads (RTA, 2010). Traditional approaches to speed management, involving regulation and enforcement, have had only partial success in reducing young drivers’ tendency for speeding. Therefore, the aim of the present research was t...
Article
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is reported by between 5 and 17% of youth aged 14-25 years. Current management measures focus on repetition prevention in high-risk groups. To examine risk factors and predictors of DSH and DSH repetition in a community sample, by gender. A prospective cohort of 20 822 young adults (aged 17-24 years) was recruited when ob...
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Full-text available
This article examines potential regulatory and safety problems arising from the outsourcing and offshoring of heavy aircraft maintenance. We raise questions about the advisability of using increasingly complex supply chains in the aircraft maintenance industry where safety standards are paramount. Greater disarticulation of maintenance work makes r...
Article
This study looked at the contribution of strategic cognitive processes such as frequency gambling and speed and accuracy trade-off in the production of errors during skill development. We developed a novel psychomotor task and trained participants on the task. We predicted that practice would change the nature of errors and be driven by strategic p...
Article
Objective: To describe the practical issues that need to be overcome to conduct national data linkage projects in Australia and propose recommendations to improve efficiency. Methods: Review of the processes, documentation and applications required to conduct national data linkage in Australia. Results: The establishment of state and national data...
Article
More information about safety is becoming more generally available to travellers, but the extent to which passengers use safety information to make decisions about which airlines to take is relatively unknown. This study attempts to examine the extent to which safety information plays a role in travellers’ flight choices. Using the stated choice me...
Article
Full-text available
Various human factors classification frameworks have been used to identified causal factors for clinical adverse events. A systematic review was conducted to identify human factors classification frameworks that identified the causal factors (including human error) of adverse events in a hospital setting. Six electronic databases were searched, ide...
Article
Drivers are advised to take breaks when they feel too tired to drive, but there is question over whether they are able to detect increasing fatigue and sleepiness sufficiently to decide when to take a break. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which drivers have access to cognitive information about their current state of sleepin...
Article
The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. Thi...
Article
Heavy-vehicle driving involves a challenging work environment and a high crash rate. We investigated the associations of sleepiness, sleep disorders, and work environment (including truck characteristics) with the risk of crashing between 2008 and 2011 in the Australian states of New South Wales and Western Australia. We conducted a case-control st...
Article
This study sought to benchmark the self-reported experiences and views of fatigue among short haul light vehicle (Light) drivers against those of long distance heavy truck (Heavy) drivers. Light drivers (n= 270) who participated in a 2004-2005 state-wide survey were compared to Heavy drivers (n= 1007) who had been surveyed across Australia in 1998....
Article
Full-text available
Background Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1–3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0–4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologie...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Short sleep duration is common in adolescents and young adults, and short sleep duration is a risk factor for motor vehicle crash. Objective: To assess the association between hours of sleep and the risk for motor vehicle crash, including the time of day of crash and types of crash (single, multiple vehicle, run off road, and interse...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of external influences on long distance trucking, in particular, incentive-based remuneration systems and the need to wait or queue to load or unload on driver experiences of fatigue. Methods: Long distance truck drivers (n=475) were recruited at truck rest stops on the major transpo...
Conference Paper
Fatigue management strategies on road and in the workplace involve advice on the need to take breaks when tired. This approach assumes people can assess fatigue effects on performance but this assumption is questionable. The aim of this study was to investigate whether we have access to information about current fatigue state and levels of drowsine...
Article
Many workers are exposed to fatigue risk that they would rarely encounter outside their job. This paper discusses the current state of occupational fatigue research, providing a snapshot of the evidence on its causes and an overview of occupational health and safety approaches to its management. Frameworks for managing other hazards and risk in wor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) is an applied discipline and a profession that demands ecologically valid and practical research. However, there is concern that while HF/E research may be meeting the needs of researchers, it may not have fully met the needs of practitioners nor made a high impact on practice in the 'real world'. Thi...
Article
This study identified precursor (PE) and associated contributing factors (CFs) of clinical incidents in health care. A random sample of 498 clinical incidents in Australiawere reviewed. Staff actionwas the most common type of PE identified. Correspondence analysis for all PEs that involved staff action by error type showed that rule-based errors we...
Article
Aim: To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Methods: Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age...
Article
Background Road trauma identified using hospital admission records and/or police-reported crashes are susceptible to changes in policy and resourcing. Divergence between the incidence of police and hospital reported road trauma trends needs to be explored, as this may have an impact on the development and evaluation of road safety policy. Aim To co...
Article
Background Rip currents are involved in a high proportion of beach drowning and rescue incidents. The most common type of rips in Australia is a fixed rip that appears as a darker, calmer area between regions of breaking waves. People who swim in unpatrolled areas may be endangered by a lack of knowledge about rips – for example choosing to swim in...
Article
Background Land transport crashes are responsible for a large proportion of injury-related morbidity and subsequent disability. The accurate identification of land transport morbidity is essential to inform and evaluate countermeasures and policy. Aims/Objectives/Purpose To develop and compare ICD-based non-fatal injury severity measures, in order...
Article
Background Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, particularly among young adults. While surveys are widely used to measure the incidence of on-road crashes and offences, little is known about the validity of self-reports of these events, particularly among young drivers. Aims/Objectives/Purpose To examine the...
Article
Background When children aged 0-4 years are analysed together as a group for poisoning risk, important differences for smaller age intervals by medicinal and non-medicinal substances are masked. These differences have been attributed to child developmental stages but no studies have been conducted that examine the predictive value of child developm...
Article
Objectives: To compare attitudes and knowledge of beach safety in Australia of beachgoers, rural inland residents and international tourists. Method: This analysis is part of the 2007 baseline survey for the Science of the Surf project and involved interviews of 367 people on beaches in New South Wales (NSW), 62 rural residents of a moderate-sized...
Article
Although monotony is widely recognised as being detrimental to performance, its occurrence and effects are not yet well understood. This is despite the fact that task-related characteristics, such as monotony and low task demand, have been shown to contribute to performance decrements over time. Participants completed one of two simulated train-dri...
Article
IntroductionTrance States and HealingThe Dawn of PsychologyThe State Versus Non-State DebateReferences
Article
The objective of this research was to evaluate a campaign to improve beachgoer recognition of calm-looking rip currents, known to contribute to surf drowning. Posters, postcards, and brochures conveying the message "Don't get sucked in by the rip" were distributed in an intervention area. Beachgoers were interviewed in this and a similar control ar...
Article
Full-text available
Capacity limits on the air traffic management (ATM) system are of global concern. One solution to increase the efficiency of existing ATM system is through the implementation of advanced automation. However, past experience suggests ATCOs are selective and critical about the forms of automation they are given. Therefore, this study aimed to determi...
Article
Although monotony is widely recognised as being detrimental to performance its occurrence and effects are not yet well understood. The main focus of this research is to further our understanding of the effects of task-related characteristics, such as monotony, on performance. The aim of study one was to determine if task complexity affects the perf...
Article
This article compares the epidemiological profile of injury-related hospitalized morbidity of international tourists in New South Wales (NSW) with the hospitalized injury profile of NSW residents. Injury-related hospitalizations were identified from the NSW Admitted Patients Data Collection during 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2009. Injuries were identifi...
Article
Information from hospital trauma registries is increasingly being used to support injury surveillance efforts. This research examines the potential of using trauma registry data for road traffic injury surveillance for different types of road users in terms of both the information collected and how representative trauma data are compared to two pop...
Article
Introduction Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, particularly among young adults. While surveys are widely used to measure the incidence of on-road crashes and offences, little is known about the validity of self-reports of these events, particularly among young drivers. This study examines the accuracy of s...
Article
We were very pleased to have interest in our paper (Estimates of drowning morbidity and mortality adjusted for exposure to risk. Inj Prev. 2010 Aug;16(4):261-266) on the unrecognized importance of drowning as a cause of premature death and suffering. Damian Morgan (Time-exposure drowning rate for swimmers. Letter published online June 14, 2011) rai...
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Full-text available
Background: All deaths that occur following healthcare-related procedures in Australia are required to be investigated by a coroner to assist in identifying any factors that may have contributed to the death. Human factors classification tools can assist in the identification of causal factors for these types of adverse events. Aim: To assess the a...
Article
Time of day and the time since last sleep are acknowledged causes of fatigue, but comparatively little is known about how they interact. This study examines the relative effects of time of day and sleep deprivation on fatigue and performance. Two independent groups were exposed to 28 h of sleep deprivation beginning at 06:00 h for one group (n = 39...
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Full-text available
Air Traffic Management (ATM) operators are under increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of their operation to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution involves increasing the utilisation of automation within the ATM system. The success of this approach is contingent on Air Traffic Control Operators' (ATCOs) willi...
Article
Full-text available
Beach safety is determined largely by the choices people make about where they will swim: it is safest to swim in areas that are patrolled by lifeguards or lifesavers, and swimming outside these areas is risky. Our previous research demonstrated that while most NSW beachgoers are aware of this, a significant proportion report swimming outside patro...
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Full-text available
Introduction Numerous taxonomies have been developed to attempt to identify the human factors contribution to adverse events in complex industries. In healthcare these taxonomies have often focused on outcomes, do not consider the temporal sequence of causal factors or assess framework reliability. The aims of this research are to develop a framewo...
Article
Despite the large literature on the role of fatigue and injury risk in road and occupational settings, evidence for a direct causal link between sports injury risk and fatigue has not previously been reported. This Chapter summarises the epidemiological evidence linking fatigue to sport injury risk, identifies gaps in knowledge relating fatigue and...