Ann M Kring

Ann M Kring
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

125
Publications
60,036
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13,922
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
6051 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
Additional affiliations
January 1999 - present
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
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Background: Social engagement-important for health and well-being-can be difficult for people with schizophrenia. Past research indicates that despite expressing interest in social interactions, people with schizophrenia report spending less time with others and feeling lonely. Social motivations and barriers may play an important role for underst...
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There has been extensive discussion about gender gaps in representation and career advancement in the sciences. However, psychological science itself has yet to be the focus of discussion or systematic review, despite our field's investment in questions of equity, status, well-being, gender bias, and gender disparities. In the present article, we c...
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Objective: Emotion regulation is posited to be disrupted in eating disorders, but studies have yet to examine the linkage between eating disorder symptoms and emotion regulation strategy use in daily life. We conducted an experience sampling study investigating associations between trait-level difficulties with emotion regulation, daily emotion re...
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Objective: Dysfunction in positive affect is a defining symptom of bipolar I disorder (BD), both during and between mood episodes. We hypothesize that helping people with BD learn skills to create balance in their affective experiences by engaging in strategies that increase low activation positive emotion (LAP; e.g., relaxation) could help to imp...
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Previous studies have found that people with schizophrenia report more negative affect (NA) in response to positive and neutral stimuli (incongru-ent NA) than people without schizophrenia, perhaps related to heightened overall NA. We sought to decrease NA and increase positive affect (PA) using the Broad-Minded Affective Coping (BMAC) procedure in...
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Defeatist performance beliefs are prevalent and linked to decreased motivation in people with psychological disorders. In this study, we investigated whether defeatist performance beliefs were associated with transdiagnostic psychopathology risk in people with no history of formal diagnosis and whether defeatist performance beliefs impacted engagem...
Article
Objectives Emotion deficits are well documented in people with schizophrenia. Far less is known about their ability to implement emotion regulation strategies. We sought to explore whether people with schizophrenia can modify their emotion responses similar to controls. Methods People with (n = 25) and without (n = 21) schizophrenia were instructe...
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Previous research has revealed anticipatory pleasure deficits in people with schizophrenia and people with social anhedonia but who do not have schizophrenia. Prospection is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, but little is known about the role of prospection in social anhedonia. In 2 studies, we investigated prospection and anticipato...
Article
The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was designed in accordance with the recent theory and research in social affective neuroscience and to address the psychometric and conceptual limitations of other instruments assessing negative symptoms. The present study aimed to provide a large-scale validation of the CAINS in China...
Article
The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a self-report instrument that assesses pleasure experience. Initial scale development and validation in the United States yielded a two-factor solution comprising anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. However, a four-factor model that further parsed anticipatory and consummatory pleasure experie...
Chapter
Many people with schizophrenia have the symptom of anhedonia, which refers to diminished experience of pleasure. Interestingly, however, one of the most well-replicated affective science findings in schizophrenia is that people with schizophrenia report experiencing similar (or slightly less) amounts of pleasure and positive emotion compared to tho...
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While recent research suggests that people with schizophrenia anticipate less pleasure for non-social events, considerably less is known about anticipated pleasure for social events. In this study, we investigated whether people with and without schizophrenia differ in the amount and updating of anticipated pleasure over the course of repeated inte...
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While people with schizophrenia report experiencing as much emotion in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli as do people without schizophrenia, evidence suggests that they have deficits in the anticipation of positive emotion. However, little is known about the anticipation of negative emotion in schizophrenia, thus leaving open whether an...
Article
Clinicians and researchers have long known that one of the debilitating aspects of psychotic disorders is the presence of "negative symptoms," which involve impairments in hedonic and motivational function, and/or alterations in expressive affect. We have a number of excellent clinical tools available for assessing the presence and severity of nega...
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Background: Deficits in anticipatory pleasure have been consistently shown among chronic, first-episode, and clinical high risk for psychosis populations, but much less attention has been given to non-clinical individuals experiencing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS). Methods: Young adults (N = 1839) were administered the Temporal E...
Article
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both...
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Aim: To review the literature on sex differences in facial emotion perception (FEP) across the schizophrenia spectrum. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of empirical articles that were included in five separate meta-analyses of FEP across the schizophrenia spectrum, including meta-analyses that predominantly examined adults with chronic...
Article
Negative symptoms are a strong predictor of poor functional outcome in people with schizophrenia. Unfortunately there are few effective interventions for either negative symptoms or functional outcome, despite the identification of potential mechanisms. Recent research, however, has elucidated a new potential mechanism for negative symptoms and poo...
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Anticipatory pleasure deficits have been observed in people with schizophrenia. Less is known about the extent to which interrelated processes that comprise anticipatory pleasure, including memory, prospection, and emotion experience are disrupted. We asked people with (n = 32) and without (n = 29) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to provi...
Article
The outcomes of the decisions we make can be used to inform subsequent choices and behavior. We investigated whether and how people with and without schizophrenia use positive and negative social outcomes and emotional displays to inform decisions to place trust in social partners. We also investigated the impact of reversals in social partners' be...
Article
Findings regarding the protective effect of social role functioning on suicide ideation in individuals with schizophrenia have been mixed. One reason for such inconsistencies in the literature may be that individuals with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia may not experience a desire for social closeness, and therefore social role functio...
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Background: Dorsal (DLPFC) and ventral (VLPFC) subregions in lateral prefrontal cortex play distinct roles in episodic memory, and both are implicated in schizophrenia. We test the hypothesis that schizophrenia differentially impairs DLPFC versus VLPFC control of episodic encoding. Methods: Cognitive control was manipulated by requiring participant...
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Previous research has demonstrated pervasive deficits in response-related processing in people with schizophrenia (PSZ). The present study used behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia involves specific impairment in the ability to exert control over response-related processing. Twenty-two PS...
Article
Previous research suggests that our prospections rely, in part, upon our memories. However, less is known about the ways in which the content of memories and prospections are similar (or dissimilar) and whether this similarity varies by emotion. In the present study, we coded the content and style of participants' (n = 109) positive, negative, and...
Article
Schizophrenia is associated with motivational deficits that interfere with a wide range of goal directed activities. Despite their clinical importance, our current understanding of these motivational impairments is limited. Furthermore, different types of motivational problems are commonly seen among individuals within the broad diagnosis of schizo...
Article
The majority of studies examining self-reported anticipatory and consummatory pleasure in schizophrenia, as measured on the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), have been conducted on chronically ill people with the disorder. In this study, people with a recent-onset schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (first psychotic episode within one year...
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Prior studies indicate that men with schizophrenia are less outwardly expressive but report similar emotion experience as healthy people. However, it is unclear whether women with schizophrenia show this same disconnect between expressivity and experience. Men (n = 24) and women (n = 25) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and women with...
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Unlabelled: Although current treatments help to alleviate some of the symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience residual symptoms. An emotion-focused treatment approach may help to improve well-being in this population by increasing positive experiences and resources. In this article, we discuss the feasibil...
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To demonstrate the influence of unconscious affective processing on consciously processed information among people with and without schizophrenia, we used a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm to examine whether early and rapid processing of affective information influences first impressions of structurally neutral faces. People with and wi...
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A range of emotional and motivation impairments have long been clinically documented in people with schizophrenia, and there has been a resurgence of interest in understanding the psychological and neural mechanisms of the so-called "negative symptoms" in schizophrenia, given their lack of treatment responsiveness and their role in constraining fun...
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Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on loca...
Article
Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with...
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Objective: A major barrier to developing treatments for negative symptoms has been measurement concerns with existing assessment tools. Fulfilling the top recommendation of the National Institute of Mental Health's Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was developed u...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on loca...
Article
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Translational research on emotion in schizophrenia has revealed deficits in emotion perception and expression, as well as intact areas, including emotional experience and brain activation in the presence of emotionally evocative material. Yet, a closer look at emotional experience reveals that all is not well in the experience domain. People with s...
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The current studies were designed to investigate if the emotion context insensitivity hypothesis (ECI; Rottenberg & Gotlib, 2004) is applicable across the time course of emotion. Recent affective science research has pointed to the importance of considering anticipation and maintenance of emotion. In the current studies, we assessed emotion respons...
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When do people call someone emotional? Why is it generally accepted that women are emotional and men are not? What are the actual differences between men and women with regard to specific emotions? Under what circumstances are these differences most pronounced? How can we explain these alleged differences? In this book a distinguished international...
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During social interactions, we use available information to guide our decisions, including behaviour and emotional displays. In some situations, behaviour and emotional displays may be incongruent, complicating decision making. This study had two main aims: first, to investigate the independent contributions of behaviour and facial displays of emot...
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Presents an obituary for John M. Neale. Neale died in Hilton Head, South Carolina, on November 19, 2011, after a long illness. He was born on August 31, 1943, in Toronto, Canada. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Toronto in 1965, where his interest in psychology had been sparked by an introductory course taught by George Mand...
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Research on emotion perception in schizophrenia has focused primarily on the perception of static faces displaying different emotion signals or expressions. However, perception of emotion in daily life relies on much more than just the face. In this article, we review the role of context in emotion perception among people with and without schizophr...
Article
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The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a measure specifically designed to capture the anticipatory and consummatory facets of pleasure. However, few studies have examined the structure of the measure in non-Western samples. The current study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the TEPS in a Chinese sam...
Article
Progress in the development of new pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is impeded by limitations of available assessment instruments. The multi-site Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia (CANSAS) was established to develop and validate a new clinical rating scale usi...
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Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to poor functional outcome, persistent over time, a source of burden for caregivers, and only minimally responsive to currently available medications. A major challenge to developing efficacious interventions concerns the valid and reliable assessment of negative symptoms. In a recent consensus stateme...
Article
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Despite schizophrenia patients' reports of diminished experience of emotion in interviews and self-report measures, their emotional experience in the presence of emotional stimuli and in daily life ("in the moment") appears largely intact. To examine emotion-cognition interactions, the authors tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have...
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This pilot study examined loving-kindness meditation (LKM) with 18 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and significant negative symptoms. Findings indicate that the intervention was feasible and associated with decreased negative symptoms and increased positive emotions and psychological recovery.
Article
As part of an ongoing scale development process, this study provides an initial examination of the psychometric properties and validity of a new interview-based negative symptom instrument, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), in outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 37). The scale was designed...
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The past two decades of research on emotional response in schizophrenia has demonstrated that people with schizophrenia do not have a marked deficit in reported emotional experience in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli. However, the extent to which people with schizophrenia maintain their emotional state to guide future behavior remains...
Article
Emotional disturbances are central to diverse psychopathologies. In this article, we argue that the functions of emotion are comparable for persons with and without psychopathology. However, impairment in one or more components of emotional processing disrupts the achievement of adaptive emotion functions. Adopting a theoretical conceptualisation o...
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Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experien...
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Research on emotion and psychopathology has blossomed due in part to the translation of affective science theory and methods to the study of diverse disorders. This translational approach has helped the field to hone in more precisely on the nature of emo-tion deficits to identify antecedent causes and maintaining processes, and to develop promisin...
Article
Deficits in anticipation are implicated across a variety of cognitive and emotional processes in schizophrenia. Although diminished anticipatory event-related potentials (ERPs) have been detected during tasks requiring motor response preparation in schizophrenia, no prior ERP study has examined non-motor-related anticipatory processes or used motiv...
Article
This review integrates Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions with advances in affective neuroscience regarding plasticity in the neural circuitry of emotions to inform the treatment of emotion deficits within psychopathology. We first present a body of research showing that positive emotions broaden cognition and behavioral re...
Article
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People with schizophrenia consistently report normal levels of pleasant emotion when exposed to evocative stimuli, suggesting intact consummatory pleasure. However, little is known about the neural correlates and time course of emotion in schizophrenia. This study used a well-validated affective picture viewing task that elicits a characteristic pa...
Chapter
Emotional disturbances are found in nearly all disorders in the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), the official diagnostic system used by mental health professionals. These disturbances span positive and negative emotions and include excesses of emotion (e.g., too much anxie...
Article
This study examined anticipatory and consummatory pleasure in schizophrenia patients with and without negative symptoms. Negative symptom patients experienced less anticipatory pleasure than non-negative symptom patients; only one facet of consummatory pleasure was unaffected in negative schizophrenia. Greater pleasure deficits were correlated with...
Article
Depression and dysphoria have been characterised by dampened positive emotional experiences. However, it remains unclear whether dysphoria is also characterised by dampened expectancies about positive emotional experiences. In the present study, participants with (dysphoric group; n=36) and without (non-dysphoric group; n=36) dysphoria reported on...
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OBJECTIVE: Prior laboratory based research has shown that people with schizophrenia report experiencing similar levels of emotion compared to people without schizophrenia when presented with evocative stimuli. However, it remains less clear whether these findings generalize outside the laboratory setting and in the context of daily life. METHODS: I...
Article
In this article, we describe the clinical applicability of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) to individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders with persistent negative symptoms. LKM may have potential for reducing negative symptoms such as anhedonia, avolition, and asociality while enhancing factors consistent with psychological recover...
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Research has indicated that schizophrenia patients report similar amounts of experienced emotion in response to emotional material compared with nonpatients. However, less is known about how schizophrenia patients describe and make sense of their emotional life events. We adopted a narrative approach to investigate schizophrenia patients' rendering...
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Our understanding of the emotional features of schizophrenia has benefited greatly from the adoption of methods and theory from the field of affective science. This article covers basic concepts and methods from affective science on the psychological and neural mechanisms contributing to emotions and reviews the ways in which this research has adva...
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Contemporary conceptualizations of emotion all include reference to nonverbal behaviors, particularly facial expressions, as integral to emotional responding. Emotion disturbances figure prominently in many different forms of psychopathology. To date, little research has been conducted on understanding how nonverbal behaviors outside the context of...
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Social cognition has become a high priority area for the study of schizophrenia. However, despite developments in this area, progress remains limited by inconsistent terminology and differences in the way social cognition is measured. To address these obstacles, a consensus-building meeting on social cognition in schizophrenia was held at the Natio...
Article
This study systematically manipulated both picture content and noise probe time in order to evaluate the effects of motivational salience (as distinguished from affective valence) on both early and late modulation of the startle response. Specifically, modulation was compared for erotic versus action/adventure scenes, and for direct threat versus v...
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A selective review of measures that can be used to assess various aspects of emotional responding during the course of psychotherapy is provided. We pay special attention to measures that index emotion regulation, emotional experience, emotional expression, and emotional awareness across self-report, observer-based, and psychophysiological methods....
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We tested the hypothesis that the tripartite model [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and psychometric implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] can be extended to account for change during treatment for anxiety and depression. Forty-one patients treated naturalist...
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Research on anhedonia in schizophrenia has revealed mixed results, with patients reporting greater anhedonia than healthy controls on self-report measures and semi-structured interviews, but also reporting comparable experiences of positive emotions in response to pleasurable stimuli. Basic science points to the importance of distinguishing between...
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This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse sample...
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Conventional wisdom holds that women are more "emotional" than men. However, research evidence suggests that sex differences in emotion are considerably more complex. The authors tested hypotheses about sex differences in the engagement of the approach and avoidance motivational systems thought to underpin emotional responses. The authors measured...
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This study investigated the ability of schizophrenia patients to volitionally display various emotional expressions. Accuracy and intensity of facial and vocal emotional expression were rated in 26 unmedicated male schizophrenia patients and 20 non-patient male controls while posing emotional facial and vocal expressions. Results indicate that schi...
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The behavioral manifestations of social anxiety may have implications for social outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about how anxiety shapes social interaction. The present study examined social interactions in dyads consisting of either 2 nonsocially anxious (NSA) individuals or 1 socially anxious (SA) and 1 NSA individual. Behavior, self-re...
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The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) was designed to measure individual trait dispositions in both anticipatory and consummatory experiences of pleasure. From an initial pool of theory-based items, we developed a 10-item anticipatory pleasure scale and an 8-item consummatory pleasure scale using several large college-age samples; the tw...
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The authors evaluated whether self-reported trait anhedonia in schizophrenia reflects faulty memory, such that patients are capable of experiencing pleasure while engaged in enjoyable activities but underestimate their pleasure in recalling these experiences. Thirty schizophrenia patients and 31 nonpatient control participants rated their emotional...