Anke Schaffartzik

Anke Schaffartzik
Central European University | CEU · Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy

B.Sc., Mag. rer. soc. oec., PhD

About

84
Publications
40,634
Reads
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2,427
Citations
Citations since 2016
51 Research Items
2234 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
March 2018 - present
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
Position
  • Senior Researcher
November 2017 - present
Autonomous University of Barcelona
Position
  • PostDoc Position
February 2007 - February 2018
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Degrowth and environmental justice movements share overarching aims of sustainability and justice and pursue them through radical social change and resistances. Both movements are diverse and comprised of groups that originate and operate in different contexts. The ever-growing metabolism of the world economy presents an obstacle to both movements'...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving a global forest transition, that is, a shift from net deforestation to reforestation, is essential for climate change mitigation. However, both land-based climate change mitigation policy and research on forest transitions neglect key processes that relieve pressure from forests, but cause emissions elsewhere (‘hidden emissions’). Here, w...
Article
High levels of resource consumption cause detrimental environmental change. Very low consumption may fail to meet basic needs. A major challenge for a sustainability transformation is to reduce inequalities and achieve a globally sustainable level of resource flows. By providing access to resources beyond national boundaries, trade could either lea...
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Ecologically unequal exchange theory posits asymmetric net flows of biophysical resources from poorer to richer countries. To date, empirical evidence to support this theoretical notion as a systemic aspect of the global economy is largely lacking. Through environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output modelling, we provide empirical evidence...
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Energy, food, or mobility can be conceptualized as provisioning systems which are decisive to sustainability transformations in how they shape resource use and because of emissions resulting from them. To curb environmental pressures and improve societal well-being, fundamental changes to existing provisioning systems are necessary. In this article...
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The planetary boundaries concept has profoundly changed the vocabulary and representation of global environmental issues. We bring a critical social science perspective to this framework through the notion of societal boundaries and aim to provide a more nuanced understanding of the social nature of thresholds. We start by highlighting the strength...
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Mining activities induce profound changes to societies and the environment they inhabit. With global extraction of metal ores doubling over the past two decades, pressures related to mining have dramatically increased. In this paper, we explore where growing global metal extraction has particularly taken effect. Using fine-grain data, we investigat...
Chapter
The accelerating rise in global resource use is inextricably linked to extractive expansion, that is, to the encroachment on or even destruction of habitats and livelihoods and to the disturbance of major biogeochemical cycles. This growth trajectory, however, is considered unavoidable or even necessary to overcome poverty and to sustain the growth...
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To keep global heating and other negative consequences of socioeconomic activities within manageable boundaries, industrialized countries must undergo substantial decarbonization, requiring the exploitation of synergies with other environmental endeavors. Improving resource efficiency-that is, reducing the resources required to generate a unit of e...
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Coal is on the rise in India: despite the devasting impacts of the climate crisis, the awareness for land and forest rights, and political talk of a coal phase-out. In this article, we demonstrate that despite the renewables-led rhetoric, India is in the midst of a transition to (not away from) greater use of coal in its fossil energy system and in...
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As long as economic growth is a major political goal, decoupling growth from resource use and emissions is a prerequisite for a sustainable net-zero emissions future. However, empirical evidence for absolute decoupling, i.e., decreasing resource use and emissions at the required scale despite continued economic growth, is scarce and scattered acros...
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Strategies toward ambitious climate targets usually rely on the concept of “decoupling”; that is, they aim at promoting economic growth while reducing the use of natural resources and GHG emissions. GDP growth coinciding with absolute reductions in emissions or resource use is denoted as “absolute decoupling”, as opposed to “relative decoupling”, w...
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Die wachstumsgeleitete ‚Entwicklung‘, die derzeit trotz verheerender ökologischer und sozialer Konsequenzen verfolgt wird, ist abhängig von ökologischer Ungleichheit. Als ökologisch ungleicher Tausch erlaubt der Außenhandel die Ausdehnung des ökologischen Handlungsspielraums einiger weniger, während er für viele andere deren Einengung bedeutet. Das...
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Despite considerable advancements over the last couple of years, research on the Anthropocene still faces at least two challenges: (1) integrating different approaches from natural, social and cultural sciences, and (2) clarifying the political relevance of this concept. To address these challenges, we propose an interdisciplinary approach from Soc...
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Input-output analysis is one of the central methodological pillars of industrial ecology. However, the literature that discusses different structures of environmental extensions (EEs), i.e. the scope of physical flows and their attribution to sectors in the monetary input-output table (MIOT), remains fragmented. This paper investigates the conceptu...
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The research on economic recession has been more focused on the interactions between macroeconomic and financial variables. However, whether material use has been affected during the recession period has remained under-explored. In order to fill up this gap, this study investigates the relationship between material use and economic recession, as we...
Chapter
Wherever land-use change occurs, empirical trails can lead us to the underlying causes of that change. The study of social metabolism—of the flows a system requires for its reproduction—constitutes one approach to this empirical work. In applying the social metabolism concept, the flows indicative of telecoupling between systems are commonly operat...
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The global energy system subsumes both extreme wealth (and waste) and extreme poverty. A minority of the global population is consuming the majority of the fossil fuel-based energy and causing global warming. While the mature industrialized economies maintain their high levels of energy consumption, the emerging economies are rapidly expanding thei...
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Despite their negative social and environmental consequences, claims to land for resource extraction are dominantly asserted under conditions of land-use competition. The ‘success’ of the extractive expansion relies on very specific labor arrangements. Through dispossession and unfulfilled promises of long-term employment, an overabundance of labor...
Article
Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is...
Article
Absolute reductions in global resource use are a precondition for sustainability. Yet, many countries must increase their resource use in the process of economic development and industrialization. In this dilemma, efficient contraction and convergence is viewed as a potential solution: Per capita resource use must internationally converge below the...
Chapter
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Resource nexus analysis conceptually links different forms of interdependent resource use as well as the institutional settings and broader societal conditions under which they occur. Although it wasn’t yet a buzzword at the time, nexus-thinking lies at the basis of the social metabolism concept and the material flow accounting tool. The study of m...
Book
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Over the last decades, social ecology has made important contributions to interdisciplinary sustainability studies. Established in the late 1980s, social ecology was developed as a deliberate provocation to the more ‘disciplined’ natural and social science environmental research. With its focus on the specific interrelations between societies and t...
Article
Dematerialization at the national level occurs almost exclusively during periods of economic recession or low growth. While recession is not a sustainable strategy to curb environmental impact, such periods may offer important insights on the possibilities of reducing material use. Economic recession research has focused on the interactions between...
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The international industrial ecology (IE) research community and United Nations (UN) Environment have, for the first time, agreed on an authoritative and comprehensive data set for global material extraction and trade covering 40 years of global economic activity and natural resource use. This new data set is becoming the standard information sourc...
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During the second half of the 20th century, the crisis of societal relations to nature emerged as the subject of an international scientific, political, and popular debate. Anthropogenic climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource peaks, or local air and water pollution are symptoms of this crisis. Social ecology provides an inter- and transdisc...
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In order to curb environmental impact, absolute resource use reductions are urgently needed. To reach this goal, multi-scalar synergies and trade-offs in global resource use must be effectively addressed. We propose that better understanding the role of extractive economies—economies that extract raw material for export—in global resource use patte...
Article
Human impacts on the Earth system mark the dawn of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. This claim has triggered a debate in science, media, and politics in which ‘humanity’ as a whole is commonly identified as the driving force of epochal environmental change. The historically and geographically specific expansion of capitalist society-nature...
Article
Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil, a feedstock for agrofuels and an important source of direct, nutritional energy for human consumption. The country is also an important global supplier of coal, petroleum and natural gas while per capita fossil energy consumption is relatively low. For biomass- and fossil fuel-based energy, Ind...
Article
Negative impacts of plantation agriculture were widely recognized when the expansion of palm oil production began in Brazil. In 2010, president Lula da Silva initiated a program to foster socially and environmentally sustainable palm oil production. Our research in Brazil’s palm oil production hotspot Tomé-Açu, Pará, leads us to question the succes...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly...
Chapter
Exponential growth in oil palm land and palm oil production in Indonesia currently makes the country the world’s largest producer of this vegetable oil. Throughout its tumultuous political past from the 1960s until today, conditions were created which enabled the expansion of oil palm plantations. Under President Suharto’s “New Order,” territoriali...
Chapter
Due to the global fragmentation of supply and use chains, final consumption and the production of goods and services are often spatially disconnected. A country in which a large share of material and energy use is dedicated to the production of exports may seem to consume more material than a country that imports material-intensive products. Materi...
Chapter
The basic characteristics of the size and composition of material flows depend on the respective stage of countries’ metabolic transition from an agrarian to an industrial society. On a global level, resource use grew between 1950 and 2010 by a factor of 3.7 to 71 Gt (gigatons) per year. Moreover, the spectrum of resources used by industrializing s...
Chapter
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In the 20th century, the human population grew fourfold and the global economy grew 20-fold. This chapter explores how social metabolism has changed with these megatrends. It shows that material and energy use have grown faster than the population but less than the GDP, implying a growth in metabolic rates and some decoupling of resource use from e...
Chapter
International trade plays an increasingly important role in supplying societies with biophysical resources and products. In terms of land-based products, trade plays an ever-greater role in meeting the resource demand of densely populated industrialized regions such as Europe—not only with relatively small volumes of luxury products such as coffee,...
Article
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Available online xxxx Understanding the environmental implications of consumption and production depends on appropriate monitoring tools. Material flow accounting (MFA) is a method to monitor natural resource use by countries and has been widely used in research and policy. However, the increasing globalization requires the consideration of 'embodi...
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Beset by an unprecedented combination of challenges including globalisation, demographic shifts, high unemployment and climate change, Europe is in dire need of a new kind of growth and development strategy. The authors of this Forum make compelling arguments for a socioecological transition, in which traditional measures of progress like GDP growt...
Article
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In environmental policymaking, the figurative cake that is wanted both to have and eat lies in achieving dematerialisation, i.e. reducing material resource use, and simultaneously pursuing a pathway lined with economic growth. Under such a scenario, we could have it all: increasing production and international convergence at the highest levels of c...
Article
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During the second half of the 20th century, mining expanded globally and must be considered one of the dominant forms of human intervention into the environment. Metals are strategically important resources for industrialized and industrializing societies. In 2010, the five BRICS countries (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, and South Af...
Book
This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly...
Article
All societies depend on natural resources to feed, house, and transport people and to produce the goods and services everyday life depends upon. The magnitude of the physical interaction between society and nature may be measured through material flow accounting. The accounts measure the amount of materials extracted domestically – biomass, fossil...
Book
Full-text available
Natürliche Ressourcen, das sind Energierohstoffe, Metalle, nichtmetallische Mineralstoffe, Biomasse, Wasser und Luft, stellen eine wichtige Grundlage für unser Leben auf diesem Planeten dar. Der sparsame und effiziente Umgang mit natürlichen Ressourcen gilt als eine der Schlüsselstrategien für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung unserer Umwelt, Wirtschaft...
Data
Supporting Information S1: This supporting information provides an overview of methods to measure upstream land requirements, background information on EEIOA‐based global studies, a comparison of the results of global studies, and a comparison of the results of regional and national studies.
Chapter
Ausgangspunkt ist die „hybride Gesellschaft“, die als Zusammenspiel von materiell-energetischen und symbolisch/kulturellen Komponenten besteht. Mit dem Konzept des „sozialen Metabolismus“ wird der Austausch an Stoffen und Energie mit der Umwelt beschrieben und quantifiziert. Die Materialflussanalyse wird dargestellt und ihre Bedeutung für die Anwen...
Article
The growth in Austria's raw material consumption (RMC) or material footprint is driven by changes in consumption and production. In using the tool of structural decomposition analysis and applying it to Austrian RMC between 1995 and 2007, three specific drivers (technology, composition, and volume of final demand) are identified and quantified. The...
Article
Palm oil is used in human nutrition and industrial products including cosmetics and biodiesel. Exponential growth in oil palm land and palm oil production in Indonesia currently make the country the world’s largest producer of this vegetable oil. The expansion of oil palm plantations is linked to processes of territorialization and reterritorializa...
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Full-text available
The indicator domestic material consumption (domestic extraction + imports – exports) is widely used to track the scale, composition, and dynamics of material use. As production increasingly occurs at a spatial distance from the demand it ultimately satisfies, new accounting challenges arise that this indicator may not be able to meet. In response,...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, global trade in agricultural products grew more than three times faster than agricultural production. Nearly all the new land that had been put into production since 1986 was used to produce export crops. While higher volumes of agricultural production and trade increased the global availability of agricul...
Article
Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products...
Article
Full-text available
The dominant energy sources used by human societies and the transitions from one energy source to another have fundamental implications for societal development. A future energy transition is pending but it remains unclear what its socioeconomic corollaries will be. The history of the dominant energy sources used by human societies and their implic...
Article
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The Institute of Social Ecology (SEC) guide for economy wide material flow accounting (EW-MFA) provides an introduction into accounting principles and practical support for students, statisticians, researchers and all others concerned with material flow accounting. This guide is a revised and modified version of the 2009 draft of the Eurostat MFA c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Study results This report was prepared to support discussions about the further development of demand-based measures of material flows at international level. It compares the results obtained from two different measurement approaches: a pure input-output based approach using three different multi-regional input-output (MRIO) databases; and a hybrid...