Anke Karl

Anke Karl
University of Exeter | UoE · College of Life and Environmental Sciences

About

108
Publications
39,949
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4,684
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
2187 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
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Objectives Self-compassion is the ability to be kind to oneself in adversity. This multidimensional construct is typically assessed by the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). In Chinese samples, there have been inconsistent psychometric findings that impede cross-cultural research. This study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Chinese version (S...
Article
This research set out to investigate displaced women’s resilience and growth relationally, including relationships between displaced women and their children and how growth might extend to those working with displaced women. A unique relational, narrative and ethnographic approach demonstrated how processes of ‘reciprocal growth’ were constructed....
Article
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Objectives In order to address an important gap in understanding mechanisms of depressive relapse, we complemented self-report with psychophysiological measures to a specifically developed brief self-compassion exercise, to examine if mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces dispositional negative self-bias in individuals with recurrent d...
Article
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Background. Suicidality is a common public health concern in young people. Previous research has highlighted pain as a key correlate of suicidality in young people. However, the long-term experience of pain may vary between individuals, and the relationship between distinct pain trajectories and suicidality is poorly understood. This study aims to...
Article
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Self-compassion (SC) is a mechanism of symptom improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, the underlying neurobiological processes are not well understood. High levels of self-compassion are associated with reduced activation of the threat response system. Physiological threat responses to trauma reminders and increased arousal...
Article
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Armed Forces personnel are exposed to traumatic experiences during their work; therefore, they are at risk of developing emotional difficulties such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following traumatic experiences. Despite evidence to suggest that self-compassion is effective in reducing the symptoms of PTSD, and greater levels of self-com...
Article
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Self-compassion, being kind to oneself in difficult times, is a way of relating to oneself that promotes better mental health, but little is known about how self-compassion affects interpersonal relationships. The current study examined the association between self-compassion and adolescent depressive symptoms from an interpersonal perspective in d...
Article
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Objectives Recent research has suggested that Chinese individuals from a collectivist culture may have a different understanding of self-compassion, which could differentially contribute to mental health. This study aimed to obtain an in-depth insight into Chinese adults’ understanding of self-compassion. Methods Four online focus groups in Chines...
Preprint
Full-text available
Negative self-bias is a detrimental vulnerability factor of recurrent depression. Here we examine the potential of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) to reduce this bias by assessing self-report and psychophysiological responses to a previously validated self-compassion exercise in individuals with recurrent depression. One group (n= 25) re...
Article
To further understand protective mechanisms to prevent post-traumatic stress disorder or assist recovery from psychological trauma, this study investigated whether pharmacological and psychological activation of a secure attachment representation elicits higher felt-security and a related response pattern of reduced physiological arousal and increa...
Article
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Purpose Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a proposed new eating disorder, used to describe a pathological obsession with healthy or ‘clean’ eating. Although some quantitative research has been carried out in ON, very little qualitative work has been published to date to explore individual experiences of ON. Thus, this study aimed to explore individuals’ p...
Article
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Rationale Social functioning is modulated by the endogenous opioid system. In opioid use disorder, social functioning appears disrupted, but little research has delineated the nature of these deficits and their relationship to acute opioid use. Objectives The current study aimed to assess both emotional and cognitive empathy, along with subjective...
Article
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Opioid use disorder (OUD) is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is notoriously difficult to treat. Compassion focused therapy (CFT) has emerged as therapeutic tool for treating individuals exhibiting high levels of self-criticism and low self-esteem, both of which are common in OUD. Until now, however, there had been no research investiga...
Article
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Self-compassion and its cultivation in psychological interventions are associated with improved mental health and well-being. However, the underlying processes for this are not well understood. We randomly assigned 135 participants to study the effect of two short-term self-compassion exercises on self-reported-state mood and psychophysiological re...
Article
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This paper explores the relationship between dispositional self‐compassion and cognitive emotion regulation capacities in individuals with a history of depression. Study 1 (n = 403) established that self‐compassion was associated with increased use of positive and decreased use of negative strategies, with small to medium sized correlations. Study...
Data
A full account of the measures, manipulations, fMRI design, and the self-report analyses from Richins, Barreto, Karl, & Lawrence (2018).
Article
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Individuals feel more empathy for those in their group (i.e. ingroup members) than those who are not (i.e. outgroup members). But empathy is not merely selective to group distinctions, rather it fluctuates according to how groups are perceived. The goal of this research was to determine whether group-based evaluations can drive biases in self-repor...
Article
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Background: Extending previous research, we applied latent profile analysis in a sample of adults with a history of recurrent depression to identify subgroups with distinct response profiles on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and understand how these relate to psychological functioning. Method: The sample was randomly divided into two s...
Article
This study examined the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) using a bifactor model, a higher order model, a 6-factor correlated model, a 2-factor correlated model, and a 1-factor model in 4 distinct populations: college undergraduates (N = 222), community adults (N = 1,394), individuals practicing Buddhist meditation (N = 215), and...
Article
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Background: Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with reduced quality of mother-infant interaction. However, there is little research examining the role of maternal cognitive factors (e.g. rumination) in the relationship between depressive symptoms and mother-infant interaction quality. This study investigated the hyp...
Data
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The original FFMQ was developed by Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, and Toney (2006) and the FFMQ-15 was developed by Baer, Carmody, and Hunsinger (2012). The factor structure and psychometric properties of the FFMQ-15 was tested by Gu et al. (2016).
Article
Previous studies have found that communicating acceptance and understanding (validation) enhances the recipient's psychological and physiological wellbeing compared with receiving nonunderstanding feedback (invalidation). Yet, such studies have not established whether it is validation or absence of invalidation that is beneficial. This study examin...
Poster
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Evidence indicates that empathic responses to other’s pain are modulated by a variety of contextual and individual factors. However, few studies have examined how empathy and underlying brain functions are modulated by how we perceive a particular social group. In this poster, we present self-report and brain imaging data to demonstrate that empath...
Article
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Research into the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) requires reliable and valid measures of mindfulness. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-39) is a measure of mindfulness commonly used to assess change before and after MBIs. However, the stability and invariance of the FFMQ factor structure...
Article
Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral models highlight the role of learning and memory biases in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. However, the extent to which a memory bias is a consequence of the clinical state of being a chronic pain subject is unknown. This article presents a study which delineates the influence of chronic and acute pain on autob...
Article
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and Objectives: Individual differences after trauma vary considerably and can range from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to posttraumatic growth (PTG). Current theoretical models cannot fully explain this variability. Therefore, we integrated attachment theory with Ehlers and Clark’s model of PTSD to understand whether attachment style is asso...
Article
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A predominant expectation that social relationships with others are safe (a secure attachment style), has been linked with reduced threat-related amygdala activation. Experimental priming of mental representations of attachment security can modulate neural responding, but the effects of attachment-security priming on threat-related amygdala activat...
Conference Paper
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The cultivation of self-compassion is increasingly recognized as being beneficial in improving mental health, positive emotions and wellbeing. It is less well understood if the facilitation of self-compassion also reduces negative self-referential processing as is often reported in individuals with depression. To investigate the effect of self-comp...
Article
The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) are widely used measures of mindfulness and self-compassion in mindfulness-based intervention research. The psychometric properties of the FFMQ and the SCS need to be independently replicated in community...
Article
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Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibiting disturbances in information processing, including trouble with attention, were studied. Event-related potentials (ERPs)-specifically, the P3 components (P3a, P3b, and P3 working memory {P3wm})-provide an objective, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for evaluating such disturbances....
Article
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This study explored the effects of oxytocin on Compassion Focused Imagery (CFI), that is, imagining another "mind" being deeply compassionate to oneself, and the interaction of these effects with self-criticism and feeling socially safe with others. Forty-four healthy participants (29 men and 15 women) completed self-report measures of self-critici...
Article
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Treatment effects on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and its subdomains were investigated together with predictors of the Janus-face model of PTG. Effects were investigated within a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural theropy (CBT) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Forty motor vehicle accident survivors were randomly assigned...
Article
Many traumatized refugees experience both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Based on Mutual Maintenance Theory and the Perpetual Avoidance Model, this study examined the additional effect of physical activity within a biofeedback-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-BF) for traumatized refugees. In a controlled design, 36 patients...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate negative and positive changes in individuals who experienced psychological trauma; specifically it is interested in protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in factors that facilitate posttraumatic growth (PTG), a positive transformation following a traumatic event. The participants wer...
Article
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In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the 33-item Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (Foa, Ehlers, Clark, Tolin, & Orsillo, 1999) in 213 individuals with accident-related trauma and 190 individuals with interpersonal trauma. Confirmatory factor analyses generally supported the scale's original three-factor structure—Negative Cog...
Article
Background: Resting brain activity appears altered in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The default mode interference hypothesis (Sonuga-Barke and Castellanos, 2007) postulates that patterns of spontaneous very low frequency brain activity, typical of the resting brain, cause attention lapses in ADHD when they remain unattenuated fo...
Article
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Despite its hypothesized role in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little research has investigated neural correlates of episodic memory impairment in trauma survivors. This pilot study utilized a correlational design to investigate the association between PTSD symptom severity, hippocampal volume, episodic memory, and brain act...
Article
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Current models of recognition memory performance postulate that there are two fundamentally distinct retrieval processes, i.e. recollection and familiarity. This view has been challenged and little is known from human research about the functional connectivity of the brain areas involved in these processes. In our study we used a Remember-Know proc...
Article
Chronic pain (CP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are both frequent and often comorbid in refugees. To date, few controlled trials have studied the efficacy of treatments targeting this comorbidity; no treatment guidelines yet exist. The authors examined the feasibility and efficacy of short-term cognitive behavioural biofeedback (BF) addr...
Article
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Different neuroimaging techniques provided evidence for structural and functional brain alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Due to technical improvements, especially concerning localization techniques and more reliable analysis methods, one technique, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), has increasingly become of int...
Article
Recent cognitive models stress the impact that negative appraisals have on the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of posttraumatic negative cognitions in 110 survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and to examine the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment on negative appraisa...
Article
Background: The default mode interference hypothesis (Sonuga-Barke & Castellanos, 2007) predicts (1) the attenuation of very low frequency oscillations (VLFO; e.g., .05 Hz) in brain activity within the default mode network during the transition from rest to task, and (2) that failures to attenuate in this way will lead to an increased likelihood of...
Article
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe, traumatic event and recently research into the role of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to the injury has become of increasing interest. This study has been conducted in order to investigate potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in those with SCI....
Article
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To investigate the role of a general coping style in the development and maintai- nance of PTSD-like symptoms, we investigated 44 survivors of severe motor vehicle accidents. Coping was assessed using a German instrument. We also included personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion, peritraumatic and cognitive factors that are linked to...
Article
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Posttraumatic growth (PTG), the phenomenon of self-reported positive outcomes of trauma, is assumed to consist of two sides: a constructive and an illusory side. This study investigates the relationship between PTG and its possible illusory and constructive predictors, as well as the moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity....
Article
Spontaneous very low frequency oscillations (VLFO: <0.2 Hz) in functional magnetic-resonance imaging are proposed to identify a default-mode network of resting brain activity. Activity in this network has been related to lapses of attention during goal-directed tasks and may provide a basis for ADHD. This study assessed the relation between scalp-r...
Article
To explore changes for the first time in neural processing due to effective cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after severe motor vehicle accidents. Recent studies have highlighted the role of right hemisphere activation during withdrawal-related emotions (e.g., anxiety). There has been little research on cha...
Article
Since its first description in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been characterized as a disorder of altered affective functioning which causes tremendous distress. In addition, it has been recognized that PTSD is not only accompanied by ''poor health'' but also by a number of spec...
Article
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Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been shown to display elevated baseline cardiovascular activity and a heightened physiological reactivity to trauma-related stimuli. Study 1 examined differences in baseline heart rate (HR) and HR reactivity in 68 survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and healthy controls without MVA. MVA...
Article
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This study examined whether patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) would show an abnormal pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetries, which has been proposed for particular types of anxiety. Patients with PTSD (n = 22) or subsyndromal PTSD (n = 21), traumatized controls without P...
Article
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Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state af...
Article
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In recent years there has been an accumulation of studies that have utilized the measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) to examine the neuroelectric correlates of hypothesized alterations in information processing in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of ERP P...
Article
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We translated, modified, and extended a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) protocol by Blanchard and Hickling (2003) for the purpose of treating survivors of MVA with full or subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whose native language is German. The treatment manual included some additional elements, e. g. cognitive procedures, imagin...
Article
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This series of meta-analyses examined structural abnormalities of the hippocampus and other brain regions in persons with PTSD compared to trauma-exposed and non-exposed control groups. The findings were significantly smaller hippocampal volumes in persons with PTSD compared to controls with and without trauma exposure, but group differences were m...
Article
This series of meta-analyses examined structural abnormalities of the hippocampus and other brain regions in persons with PTSD compared to trauma-exposed and non-exposed control groups. The findings were significantly smaller hippocampal volumes in persons with PTSD compared to controls with and without trauma exposure, but group differences were m...
Article
Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been shown to display elevated baseline cardiovascular activity and a heightened physiological reactivity to trauma-related stimuli. Study 1 examined differences in baseline heart rate (HR) and HR reactivity in 68 survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and healthy controls without MVA. MVA...
Article
This study examined verbal-subjective, peripheral and central physiological responses of motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), without PTSD symptoms as well as healthy controls. Seven persons of each group were exposed to positive, neutral, accident-related and negative, non-accident-related s...