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Complete mitochondrial genomes of five syllids (Streptosyllis sp., Eusyllis blomstrandi, Myrianida brachycephala, Typosyllis antoni and Typosyllis sp.) have been obtained using Illumina sequencing. Together with two previous studied taxa (Ramisyllis multicaudata and Trypanobia cryptica), the analysed sequences represent most of the main lineages wi...
Many animals permanently inhabit the marine interstitium, the space between sand grains [1, 2]. Different evolutionary scenarios may explain the existence of interstitial animals [3, 4]. These scenarios include (1) that the interstitial realm is the ancestral habitat of bilaterians [5, 6], (2) that interstitial taxa evolved from larger ancestors by...
Gnathostomulida is a taxon of small marine worms, which exclusively inhabit the interstitium. The evolution of Gnathostomulida has been discussed for decades. Originally regarded as primitive animals with affinities to flatworms, the phylogenetic position of Gnathostomulida has been debated. Given the lack of an anus a close relationship to Platyhe...
Based on molecular data three major clades have been recognized within Bilateria: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa and Spiralia. Within Spiralia, small-sized and simply organized animals such as flatworms, gastrotrichs and gnathostomulids have recently been grouped together as Platyzoa. However, the representation of putative platyzoans was low in the resp...
About 2800 mitochondrial genomes of Metazoa are present in NCBI RefSeq today, two thirds belonging to vertebrates. Metazoan phylogeny was recently challenged by large scale EST approaches (phylogenomics), stabilizing classical nodes while simultaneously supporting new sister group hypotheses. The use of mitochondrial data in deep phylogeny analyses...
##Assembly-Data-START## Assembly Method :: CLC Genomics Workbench v. 5 Coverage :: 20x Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing; Illumina ##Assembly-Data-END##
Deuterostomia, one of the three major lineages of Bilateria, comprises many well-known animals such as vertebrates, sea squirts, sea stars and sea urchins. Whereas monophyly of Deuterostomia and several subtaxa is well supported, the relationships of these to each other and, hence, deuterostome relationships are still uncertain. To address these is...
Best ML trees of the amino acid datasets with 17 taxa. This file provides a supplementary figure showing the best tree of ML and BI analyses based on mitochondrial and combined amino acid datasets.
Compositional heterogeneity of the 3rd positions. This file provides a supplementary figure showing the analyses of compositional heterogeneity of 3rd positions included in the mitochondrial dataset as well as of only the 3rd positions of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes.
Mitochondrial genomes and their properties. This file provides a more detailed description of methods for the determination of the mitochondrial genomes as well as of their general properties such as codon usage.
Analyses with increased taxon sets. This file provides a summary of datasets, analyses and results with more than 17 taxa.
Analyses using time-heterogeneous models. This file provides a supplementary figure showing the results of the PHASE analyses using 3, 6 or 9 compositional vectors, respectively, for both the mitochondrial and nuclear dataset.
For phylogenetic reconstructions, conflict in signal is a potential problem for tree reconstruction. For instance, molecular data from different cellular components, such as the mitochondrion and nucleus, may be inconsistent with each other. Mammalian studies provide one such case of conflict where mitochondrial data, which display compositional bi...