Anita Mcgahan

Anita Mcgahan
University of Toronto | U of T

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142
Publications
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8,106
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Publications

Publications (142)
Article
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To the surprise of many in the West, the fall of the USSR in 1991 did not lead to the adoption of liberal democratic government around the world and the much anticipated “end of history.” In fact, authoritarianism has made a comeback, and liberal democracy has been on the retreat for at least the last 15 years culminating in the unthinkable: the in...
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By introducing the concept of ‘structural advocacy organizations’, this study theorizes and tests the boundary conditions within which organizations designed to protect the rights of disenfranchised groups promote structural changes at the intersection of gender and race. We test these claims on Brazil’s “women´s police stations,” a type of structu...
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Purpose is a concept often used in managerial communities to signal and define a firm’s benevolent and pluralistic approach to its stakeholders beyond its focus on shareholders. While some evidence has linked purpose to positive organizational outcomes such as growth, employee satisfaction, innovation, and superior stock market performance, the def...
Article
Are socially irresponsible employment practices, such as abusive discipline and wage theft, systematically tied to manufacturing outcomes in emerging-market countries? Drawing on a stream of stakeholder theory that emphasizes economic interdependencies and insights from the fields of industrial relations and human resource management, we argue that...
Chapter
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Business is redefining itself with purpose and declaring their intentions to restructure core activities in line with sustainable development goals. Yet, scholarly evidence in the management literature to guide practice remains limited. Part of the challenge in sustainability research and practice is that it has interdependencies and interconnected...
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A powerful new stakeholder theory (NST) of strategic management is emerging. The theory, which is yet incomplete, offers novel and precise tools for understanding stakeholder involvement in organizations. This article identifies open questions in the NST in five areas (organizational formation, resource development, claims on value, governance, and...
Article
Open innovation includes external knowledge sources and paths to market as complements to internal innovation processes. Open innovation has to date been driven largely by business objectives, but the imperative of social challenges has turned attention to the broader set of goals to which open innovation is relevant. In this paper, we discuss how...
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On January, 27, 2017, U.S. President Donald J. Trump issued Executive Order 13769 on immigration and travel (EO 13769), which restricted entry into the U.S. of the citizens of seven primarily Muslim countries. Many academics reacted with outrage, including me and other members of the Academy of Management (AOM), of which I was President at the time...
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We contribute to the literature of the country, industry and firm effects on performance by developing an autoregressive cross-classified mixed-effect linear model that examines heterogeneity in the profitability of corporations in emerging and developed economies, as well as corporations located in different supranational regions. To this purpose,...
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In recent years, strategy scholarship expanded its scope beyond the realm of private firms. Despite notable advances, the field still lacks theoretical and empirical frameworks for fully understanding how public and non‐profit organizations interact with private firms to create and appropriate value. By recognizing the inherent complexity of intera...
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Research summary We examine how formal collaboration allows organizations to resolve performance tradeoffs that cannot be resolved informally. The theory is tested on U.S. fire departments, which pursue goals that sometimes conflict: reducing casualties and saving property. By relying on intrinsic motivation, informal collaboration reduces casualti...
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The organizations and institutions with which we interact in our everyday lives are heavily implicated in the rising levels of global inequality. We develop understanding of the ways in which a preference in social structures for the free market over other forms of economic organization has made inequality almost inevitable. This has been accompani...
Article
The organizations and institutions with which we interact in our everyday lives are heavily implicated in the rising levels of global inequality. We develop understanding of the ways in which a preference in social structures for the free market over other forms of economic organization has made inequality almost inevitable. This has been accompani...
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Governance gives life to an organization by establishing the rules that shape organizational action. Structures of governance rest on stakeholder engagement, particularly on how stakeholders assess the prospects for earning a return by committing their specialized resources to the organization. Once formalized, governance structures and processes c...
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Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing novel approaches to healthcare that may be relevant to high-income countries (HICs). These include products, services, organizational processes, or policies that improve access, cost, or efficiency of healthcare. However, given the challenge of replication, it is difficult to identi...
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Background: Mental illness is a substantial and rising contributor to the global burden of disease. Access to and utilization of mental health care, however, is limited by structural barriers such as specialist availability, time, out-of-pocket costs, and attitudinal barriers including stigma. Innovative solutions like virtual care are rapidly ent...
Article
Perhaps the most compelling Grand Challenge in healthcare is addressing diseases that primarily afflict the poor. In this paper, we examine the effect of the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) 1994 policy of Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which was justified in part by a claim that patents and other intellectual property protec...
Chapter
The entry discusses the strategy of designing and implementing public policies intended to promote public interests. It begins by recognizing that public interests are complex, multifaceted, ambiguous and implemented in weak selection environments. However, theories from strategic management, originally formulated to deal with private-sector issues...
Chapter
Organizational performance is at the heart of the field of strategy and innovation management. Indeed, the field of strategy is frequently defined as the study of organizational performance (Porter 1980, 1985; Barney 2011). This entry begins by describing the challenges, opportunities and trade-offs associated with various measures of corporate per...
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Background Many health service delivery models are adapting health services to meet rising demand and evolving health burdens in low- and middle-income countries. While innovative private sector models provide potential benefits to health care delivery, the evidence base on the characteristics and impact of such approaches is limited. We have devel...
Article
Costas Markides and Anita McGahan take small steps to make the world a better place
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Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child,...
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On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal f...
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True and long-lasting change only happens if the structure of the underlying system is changed. Costas Markides and Anita McGahan explain why.
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In emerging-market countries, commercial institutions do not always develop sufficiently quickly or effectively to support ambitious entrepreneurs. How might intermediaries remedy these problems? We address this question by drawing on institutional literatures to develop the concept of "open system intermediaries." Our research design involves exam...
Article
This chapter describes the nexus of urbanization, human trafficking, and public health and identifies promising innovations to address global human trafficking. First, we briefly describe why human trafficking is an urban health concern. Second, we provide a brief overview of the social determinants of human trafficking. Third, we highlight innovat...
Article
By 2050, more than 75 % of the world’s population is expected to live in cities. Cities in lower-income countries will absorb 95 % of population growth and will be home to 80 % of the world’s urban population. The health of a city’s residents depends on critical infrastructure, the maintenance of water and sanitation systems, the availability of af...
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Background: Scaling up innovative healthcare programs offers a means to improve access, quality, and health equity across multiple health areas. Despite large numbers of promising projects, little is known about successful efforts to scale up. This study examines trans-national scale, whereby a program operates in two or more countries. Trans-nati...
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We investigate the interplay between institutional structures and agency in the emergence of the private military and security industry (PMSI). Despite its controversial nature, the PMSI has achieved sufficient legitimacy since the end of the Cold War to account at times for the majority of military personnel deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. We fi...
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In this article, we contribute to understanding of country, industry and firm effects on performance by examining heterogeneity in the profitability of corporations from both emerging and developed economies. Using a linear regression method that accounts for cross classifications, mixed effects, and auto correlation, we analyze 137,858 observation...
Article
This purpose of this article is to provide a framework into which we can integrate global strategy with stakeholder theory. Our aim is to create the basis for a research agenda that deals specifically with issues that are unique to global strategy and to use this perspective to demonstrate the insights that may arise for core stakeholder theory thr...
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Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficki...
Article
Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare...
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Public organizations are relatively understudied in the strategic entrepreneurship literature. In this article, we submit that public organizations are usefully analyzed as entities that create and capture value in both the private and public sectors and that a capabilities lens sheds important new insights on their behavior. As they try to create...
Article
This purpose of this article is to provide a framework into which we can integrate global strategy with stakeholder theory. Our aim is to create the basis for a research agenda that deals specifically with issues that are unique to global strategy and to use this perspective to demonstrate the insights that may arise for core stakeholder theory thr...
Data
Country specific critical incomes for adult male, adult female and children (in constant $2005 with purchasing price parity) for the years 1970, 1990 and 2007. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00051.013
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Debates on "shareholder" and "stakeholder" approaches to corporate governance often get bogged down in competing normative claims about economic rent streams, entitlements of different group members, fairness, and similar distributional issues. These concerns are important, but core economic issues in shareholder-stakeholder debates revolve around...
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Biopharmaceutical innovation has had a profound health and economic impact globally. Developed countries have traditionally been the source of most innovations as well as the destination for the resulting economic and health benefits. As a result, most prior research on this sector has focused on developed countries. This paper seeks to fill the ga...
Article
abstractInclusive innovation, which we define as innovation that benefits the disenfranchised, is a process as well as a performance outcome. Consideration of inclusive innovation points to inequalities that may arise in the development and commercialization of innovations, and also acknowledges the inequalities that may occur as a result of value...
Article
USAP faces extraordinary opportunities to change the way that automobiles are serviced in the US by selling parts at fair prices though online channels.Learning Objective: The case demonstrates how a young CEO of an entrepreneurial company is disrupting the long-established and highly profitable automotive retail industry by implementing a focused,...
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This paper addresses the relationship between patent protection and investment in the development of new pharmaceutical treatments. The TRIPS Agreement, which specifies minimum levels of intellectual property protection for countries in the World Trade Organization, has increased levels of patent protection around the world. Since patents also have...