Anita L. Kozyrskyj

Anita L. Kozyrskyj
University of Alberta | UAlberta · Department of Pediatrics

BScPhm, MSc, PhD

About

344
Publications
40,421
Reads
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11,258
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2008 - present
University of Alberta
Position
  • Professor
February 2000 - June 2008
University of Manitoba
Position
  • Assistant/Associate Professor

Publications

Publications (344)
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between antibiotic use and Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) has been well established in adults and older children but remains unclear and is yet to be fully examined in infant populations. This study aimed to determine the separate and cumulative impact from antibiotics and household cleaning products on C. difficile coloni...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objectives Differences in gut microbiota, metabolites and immune markers have been observed between individuals with and without obesity. Our study determined the temporal association between infant fecal gut metabolites, sIgA and body mass index (BMI) z score of preschool children, independent of pre/postnatal factors. Subjects/Methods...
Article
Introduction: Epidemiologic studies are starting to report associations between antibiotic use in early life and neurodevelopmental disorders. Through mechanisms within the gut microbiota-brain axis, indeed, it is plausible that infant antibiotic treatment plays a role in the development of atopic disease and neurodevelopmental disorders. Areas c...
Article
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Background/Objective The steep rise in childhood obesity has emerged as a worldwide public health problem. The first 4 years of life are a critical window where long-term developmental patterns of body mass index (BMI) are established and a critical period for microbiota maturation. Understanding how the early-life microbiota relate to preschool gr...
Article
A priori power and sample size calculations are crucial to appropriately test null hypotheses and obtain valid conclusions from all clinical studies. Statistical tests to evaluate hypotheses in microbiome studies need to consider intrinsic features of microbiome datasets that do not apply to classic sample size calculation. In this review, we summa...
Article
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In microbiome studies, researchers often wish to compare the taxa count distributions between groups of samples. Commonly used corresponding methods of analysis are built on examining distance matrices, where distances describe the beta-diversity between samples. Analyses then compare the distribution of distances within groups to the distributions...
Article
Atopic diathesis encompassing atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, food allergy, eosinophilic esophagitis, and asthma is a widely prevalent condition with a broad heterogeneity in clinical course, age of onset, and lifespan persistence. A primary event in AD is the commonly inherited epidermal barrier dysfunction. Together with the...
Conference Paper
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The “Earthrise” photograph, taken on the 1968 Apollo 8 mission, became one of the most significant images of the 20th Century. It triggered a profound shift in environmental awareness and the potential for human unity—inspiring the first Earth Day in 1970. Taking inspiration from these events 50 years later, we initiated Project Earthrise at our 20...
Article
Our study purpose was to determine the prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and examine factors associated with MHO in children with obesity. This cross-sectional study was a secondary, exploratory analysis of data that included 2-17 years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile from the CANadian Pediatric Weight management R...
Article
Full-text available
The “Earthrise” photograph, taken on the 1968 Apollo 8 mission, became one of the most significant images of the 20th Century. It triggered a profound shift in environmental awareness and the potential for human unity—inspiring the first Earth Day in 1970. Taking inspiration from these events 50 years later, we initiated Project Earthrise at our 20...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Few studies consider the joint effect of multiple factors related to birth, delivery mode, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and the onset of labour, on the abundance of Bifidobacterium and the quantity of this genus and its species Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis in the infant gut microbiota. We implemented such a stu...
Article
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Depressive symptoms are common during pregnancy and are estimated to affect 7–20% of pregnant women, with higher prevalence found in those with a prior history of depression, in ethnic minorities, and those with increased exposure to stressful life events. Maternal depression often remains undiagnosed, and its symptoms can increase adverse health r...
Article
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COVID-19-associated measures had a greater impact on gut microbiota, ARGs, and BRGs than did pre-pandemic international travel. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Actinobacteria richness decreased while genes conferring resistance to beta-lactam, polystyrene and phthalate increased. Such alterations may affect both colonisation resistance and acquisitio...
Article
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Introduction Childhood overweight and obesity (OWO) is a primary global health challenge. Childhood OWO prevention is now a public health priority in China. The Sino-Canadian Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (SCHeLTI), one of four trials being undertaken by the international HeLTI consortium, aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted...
Article
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Introduction: There is an emerging interest in modulating the gut microbiota to target the gut-brain axis and improve maternal mental health in the perinatal period. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics supplementation during pregnancy to reduce the risk of maternal mental health problems in t...
Article
Background and aims Increasing evidence supports the role of early-life gut microbiota in developing atopic diseases, but ecological changes to gut microbiota during infancy in relation to food sensitization remain unclear. We aimed to characterize and associate these changes with the development of food sensitization in children. Methods In this...
Article
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Introduction: The functional role of milk for the developing neonate is an area of great interest, and a significant amount of research has been done. However, a lot of work remains to fully understand the complexities of milk, and the variations imposed through genetics. It has previously been shown that both secretor (Se) and Lewis blood type (Le...
Article
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Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been retrospectively linked to autism spectrum disorders but the temporal association between gut microbiota and early neurodevelopment in healthy infants is largely unknown. We undertook this study to determine associations between gut microbiota at two critical periods during infancy and neurodevelopment in a gener...
Article
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Background Mounting evidence suggests both vitamin D and the early life gut microbiome influence childhood health outcomes. However, little is known about how these two important exposures are related. We aimed to examine associations between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels during pregnancy or at delivery (cord blood) and infant gut mic...
Article
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Background and aims: Few studies, even those with cohort designs, test the mediating effects of infant gut microbes and metabolites on the onset of disease. We undertook such a study. Methods: Using SEM path analysis, we tested directional relationships between first pregnancy, birth mode, prolonged labour and breastfeeding; infant gut microbiot...
Article
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The biodiversity hypothesis that contact with natural environments (e.g. native vegetation) and biodiversity, through the influence of environmental microbes, may be beneficial for human commensal microbiota has been insufficiently tested. We aimed to study the association between living near natural environments in the urban context, and gut micro...
Article
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In Canada and the US, the infant diet is supplemented with vitamin D via supplement drops or formula. Pregnant and nursing mothers often take vitamin D supplements. Since little is known about the impact of this supplementation on infant gut microbiota, we undertook a study to determine the association between maternal and infant vitamin D suppleme...
Article
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Short chain fatty acids (SFCAs) are microbial metabolites produced in the gut upon fermentation of dietary fiber. These metabolites interact with the host immune system and can elicit epigenetic effects. There is evidence to suggest that SCFAs may play a role in the developmental programming of immune disorders and obesity, though evidence in human...
Article
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Background: Early-life malnutrition may have long-lasting effects on microbe-host interactions that affect health and disease susceptibility later in life. Diet quality and quantity in conjunction with toxin and pathogen exposure are key contributors to microbe-host physiology and malnutrition. Consequently, it is important to consider both diet-...
Article
From asthma and heart disease to diabetes and obesity, the human microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of each chronic health condition plaguing today’s society. Recent work has shown that the gut microbiota and its metabolites exhibit diurnal rhythmicity which predominantly respond to the feeding/fasting cycle. Persistent jet lag, an obesoge...
Article
Methods Using data from a provincial newborn screen and healthcare database for 12,587 children born in 2004, maternal distress was defined as: prenatal, and self-limiting, recurrent or late-onset postpartum. Atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma at ages 5 and 7 were diagnosed from hospitalization, physician visit or prescription records. Associations...
Article
Background Childhood asthma incidence is decreasing in some parts of Europe and North America. Antibiotic use in infancy has been associated with increased asthma risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that decreases in asthma incidence are linked to reduced antibiotic prescribing and mediated by changes in the gut bacterial community...
Article
Background: Comprehensive longitudinal studies are important for understanding the complex risk factors, pathways, exposures and interactions that lead to the development and persistence of asthma. We aimed to examine associations between use of household cleaning products in early life and childhood respiratory and allergic disease using data fro...
Article
The cover image is based on the Original Article Maternal psychological distress before birth influences gut immunity in mid‐infancy by Liane J Kang et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/cea.13551. Supported By: CHILD Cohort Study, AllerGen NCE & CIHR
Article
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Eczema and food allergy may impact diet. Using data from a cohort of Manitoba children born in 1995, we examined calcium intake, defined as the frequency and quality of calcium products consumed (with the exception of cheese), amongst Manitoba adolescents (12-14 years) with eczema or food allergy in childhood (7-8 years) or adolescence. At both age...
Article
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Colonization with Clostridioides difficile occurs in up to half of infants under the age of 3 months, is strongly influenced by feeding modality and is largely asymptomatic. In spite of this, C. difficile's presence has been associated with susceptibility to chronic disease later in childhood, perhaps by promoting or benefiting from changes in infa...
Article
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Rationale: Associations between allergic disease and puberty amongst females have been widely studied. However, this association has received less attention in multigenerational populations. To this end, we sought to examine maternal allergic disease status ever, and daughters' menarche. Methods: In a cohort of children born in 1995, in Manitoba...
Article
Background: Maternal pre-postnatal psychosocial distress increases the risk for childhood allergic disease. This may occur through a host immunity pathway that involves intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Experimental animal models show changes in the gut microbiome and immunity of offspring when exposed to direct or prenatal maternal st...
Article
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inVIVO Planetary Health (inVIVO) is a progressive scientific movement providing evidence, advocacy, and inspiration to align the interests and vitality of people, place, and planet. Our goal is to transform personal and planetary health through awareness, attitudes, and actions, and a deeper understanding of how all systems are interconnected and i...
Article
Background Childhood obesity is a growing public health concern with evidence demonstrating that while infant exposure to maternal smoking is linked to low birth weight at birth, there is a rapid catch up in weight and increased risk of obesity in later life. This scoping review aims to synthesize up-to-date evidence on the impact of maternal smoki...
Article
Rationale: Sleep duration is critical to growth, learning, and immune function development in infancy. Strategies to ensure that national recommendations for sleep duration in infants are met require knowledge of perinatal factors that affect infant sleep. Objectives: To investigate the mechanistic pathways linking maternal education and infant...
Article
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Objectives Prenatal maternal metabolic problems such as pre-pregnancy adiposity, excess gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. We examined whether these exposures were linked to symptoms of emotional and behavioral problems in offspring at 2 years of ag...
Article
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Objectives: Colonization with Clostridioides difficile occurs in up to half of infants and is predicted by formula feeding. Although this microbe does not appear to pose any immediate risks for infants, its presence has been associated with susceptibility to chronic disease later in childhood, perhaps by promoting changes in the gut microbiome tha...
Article
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Objectives. To identify trajectory patterns of maternal depressive symptoms and perceived stress from midpregnancy to 2 years postpartum and determine relationships with selected sociodemographic factors including income, education, immigration, and postpartum employment. Methods. Pregnant women (n = 3307) recruited from the general population in 4...
Article
A large number of biologically active components have been found in human milk (HM), and in both human and animal models, studies have provided some evidence suggesting that HM composition can be altered by maternal exposures, subsequently influencing health outcomes for the breastfed child. Evidence varies from the research studies on whether brea...
Article
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Childbearing and infant care practices have dramatically evolved since the 15th century. Shifting away from traditional home-based experiences, with the emergence of the microbial aware era and the hospital as a quintessential sanitizing machine, early life has now long been characterized as a condition to be medically managed. Paradoxically, this...
Article
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Background A growing number of studies observe associations between the amount of green space around a mother’s home and positive birth outcomes; however, the robustness of this association and potential pathways of action remain unclear. Objectives To examine associations between mother’s residential green space and term birth weight within the C...
Article
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Previous studies on the differences in gut microbiota between exclusively breastfed (EBF) and non-EBF infants have provided highly variable results. Here we perform a meta-analysis of seven microbiome studies (1825 stool samples from 684 infants) to compare the gut microbiota of non-EBF and EBF infants across populations. In the first 6 months of l...
Article
Background: Emerging links between household cleaning products and childhood overweight may involve the gut microbiome. We determined mediating effects of infant gut microbiota on associations between home use of cleaning products and future overweight. Methods: From the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort, we t...
Article
Introduction: Greater prescribing of antibiotics to infants has coincided with an epidemic of allergic disease. Through meta-analytic synthesis, accumulating evidence from prospective or database cohorts suggests a link between infant antibiotic treatment and the development of atopy. Stronger associations seen with multiple course and broad-spectr...
Article
Full-text available
inVIVO Planetary Health is a progressive, humanist scientific movement promoting both evidence and advocacy around concepts of planetary health which denote the interdependence between human health and place at all scales. Our seventh annual conference was held in Canmore, Alberta 4-6th April 2018, themed “Transforming Life: Unify Personal, Public,...
Article
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Human milk provides essential substrates for the optimal growth and development of a breastfed infant. Besides providing nutrients to the infant, human milk also contains metabolites which form an intricate system between maternal lifestyle, such as the mother’s diet and the gut microbiome, and infant outcomes. This study investigates the variation...
Article
Objective: Past cross-sectional studies have reported that mothers from ethnic minorities experience higher levels of prenatal and post-partum psychosocial distress compared with mothers from ethnic majorities. However, no studies have examined how the pattern varies longitudinally in a Canadian population of heterogeneous ethnicity. Methods: We...
Article
Full-text available
The term planetary health—denoting the interdependence between human health and place at all scales—emerged from the environmental and preventive health movements of the 1970–80s; in 1980, Friends of the Earth expanded the World Health Organization definition of health, stating: “health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and ecological...
Article
Importance The effect of neonatal and infant feeding practices on childhood obesity is unclear. The gut microbiome is strongly influenced by feeding practices and has been linked to obesity. Objective To characterize the association between breastfeeding, microbiota, and risk of overweight during infancy, accounting for the type and timing of supp...
Article
Background Maternal overweight or obesity (OWOB) is linked to gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia and higher rates of caesarean delivery. Objectives The study aims to assess whether maternal pre‐pregnancy OWOB is associated with infant overweight in a sex‐dependent manner, independent of microbiota‐altering variables. Methods Weight and length...
Article
Objective: Childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms may comprise multiple phenotypes depending on craniofacial anatomy, tonsil and adenoid growth, body habitus, and rhinitis symptoms. The primary objective of this study is to identify and characterize the different SDB phenotypes to two years of age. Methods: Data from 770 infants in...
Article
Background Associations between traffic‐related air pollution (TRAP) and childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) remain inconsistent, possibly due to unexplored gene‐environment interactions. The aim of this study was to examine whether a potential effect of TRAP on AD prevalence in children is modified by selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Literature regarding the differences in gut microbiota between exclusively breastfed (EBF) and non-EBF infants is meager with large variation in methods and results. We performed a meta-analysis of seven studies (a total of 1825 stool samples from 684 infants) to investigate effects of EBF compared to non-EBF on infant gut microbiota across differe...
Article
Background: Both short sleep duration and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with poor neurocognitive development. However, the co-contributions of short sleep duration and SDB on neurodevelopment in pre-school children are relatively unknown. Methods: We assessed both sleep duration and SDB by quarterly questionnaire from three mon...
Article
Importance Maternal overweight, which often results in cesarean delivery, is a strong risk factor for child overweight. Little is known about the joint contribution of birth mode and microbiota in the infant gut to the association between maternal prepregnancy overweight and child overweight. Objective To investigate the association of birth mode...
Article
Full-text available
Background The use of long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to treat sleep and breathing disorders in children has increased substantially in the last decade; however, less data exist about its use in infants. Given that infants have distinct sleep and breathing patterns when compared to older children, the outcomes of infants on long-term NIV m...