Anil Wijeyewickrema

Anil Wijeyewickrema
Tokyo Institute of Technology | TITech · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

120
Publications
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865
Citations

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research work is to investigate the efficiency of newly developed Natural Fiber Rope Reinforced Polymer (NFRRP) composites to enhance the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Two types of NFRRP composites were made using low-cost hemp and cotton fiber ropes. The effectiveness of this NFRRP confinement in increasing the...
Article
In this study, a simplified method is proposed to generate collapse fragility curves for low-rise reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) systems. Capacity curves are developed without carrying out structural modeling and nonlinear static analysis, to obtain equivalent SDOF parameters. Ground motion spectra that matches the condit...
Article
Full-text available
Spectral floor-acceleration demands are necessary for the seismic design of acceleration-sensitive non-structural components (NSCs). Existing studies to estimate floor response spectra (FRS) using empirical equations are based on elasto-plastic and stiffness degrading hysteretic behavior of the primary structure. In the present study, the FRS for s...
Article
Post-tensioned hybrid (PH) precast concrete wall-frame buildings provide excellent seismic performance, by reducing structural damage and residual drifts. In the present study, the use of PH precast concrete walls, as partial infill walls in low-rise reinforced concrete (RC) moment-resisting frames is evaluated and compared with RC infill wall (RIW...
Article
Coupled walls with replaceable steel shear link coupling beams are used to minimize the repair cost and downtime of buildings after major earthquakes. In this study, the direct displacement-based design (DDBD) method for coupled walls with steel shear link coupling beams using inelastic displacement spectra is developed. For capacity design, a cont...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates the behavior of square concrete columns externally wrapped by low-cost and easily available fiber rope reinforced polymer (FRRP) composites. This study mainly aims to explore the axial stress-strain relationships of FRRP-confined square columns. Another objective is to assess suitable predictive models for the ultimate st...
Article
Previous researchers have extended the direct displacement-based design (DDBD) procedure, to design reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame (RC-MRF) buildings with linear viscous dampers (LVDs). In those studies, the viscous damper forces are found to be larger than the design viscous damper forces because the actual relative structural velocity...
Conference Paper
Considerable damage to reinforced concrete walls during strong earthquakes has led to the development of innovative precast concrete walls known as rocking walls that can uplift and rock about their base. These walls may be equipped with energy dissipating elements to limit damage to the structural components and post-tensioning to provide self-cen...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to evaluate the vulnerability of typical low-rise reinforced concrete (RC) buildings located in Indonesia subjected to tsunami loading. Design/methodology/approach The vulnerability of typical three-story RC buildings located in Indonesia subjected to tsunami loading is discussed using fragility curves. Buildings without op...
Article
Cloaking of a circular cylindrical elastic inclusion embedded in a homogeneous linear isotropic elastic medium from antiplane elastic waves is studied. The transformation or change-of-variables method is used to determine the material properties of the cloak and the homogenization theory of composites is used to construct a multilayered cloak consi...
Article
An alternative design methodology which can be conveniently adopted by practicing engineers is proposed to enhance the seismic performance of existing reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RC-MRF) buildings by employing viscous dampers. Here, the response indicators of the unretrofitted building are calculated using nonlinear response history...
Conference Paper
The viscoelastic coupling damper (VCD) has recently been developed to enhance wind and seismic performance of high rise buildings. Moreover, reducing cross-section of the walls at upper levels may become economical or make it more visually appealing for the very tall building. Generally “Finite element method” (FEM) is used to analyze the building...
Conference Paper
Nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA) is considered to take high computational cost for the determination of the seismic demand. Various methodologies have been developed for the prediction of the seismic demand with lower computational cost. In this study, equivalent linearization approach in multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system have been a...
Article
Full-text available
The uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) and conditional mean spectrum (CMS) are commonly used as target spectra in selecting and scaling of records to be used in nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA). When using CMS with tall buildings, CMS ground motions conditioned at multiple natural periods of the buildings should be considered. The application...
Article
Among various analysis methods, response spectrum analysis (RSA) is widely used to compute design forces of structures subjected to earthquake loading. Previous studies indicate that using a single response modification factor (R) to reduce elastic forces contributed from all modes in the RSA procedure is the primary cause for underestimating the d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reinforce concrete (RC) buildings, generally infilled by brick masonry walls, constitute the major building population in urban and semi-urban areas of Nepal. Severe damage of these buildings during the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake sequences has raised serious concerns about the targeted life safety objective of the Nepal Building Code (NBC). Although mo...
Conference Paper
Post-tensioned hybrid (PH) precast concrete walls, which utilize post-tensioning (PT) tendons for self-centering and energy dissipation (ED) bars for energy dissipation reduce damage by allowing a gap to open at the base of the wall. In this study, nonlinear static and nonlinear response history analysis are carried out to investigate the behavior...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismic performance of post-tensioned hybrid precast concrete wall-frame (PWF) buildings has been mainly studied in the past by considering the effects of far-fault (FF) ground motions. In the present study, the multi-level seismic response of PWF buildings is investigated for near-fault (NF)pulse-like ground motions. For that purpose, rigorous non...
Conference Paper
Post-tensioned hybrid (PH) precast concrete walls, which utilize post-tensioning (PT) tendons for self-centering and energy dissipation (ED) bars for energy dissipation reduce damage by allowing a gap to open at the base of the wall. In this study, nonlinear static analysis is carried out to investigate the behavior of four-story reinforced concret...
Article
The behavior of base-isolated buildings under near-fault (NF) ground motions with fling-step and forward-directivity characteristics is investigated using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models. Nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA) is also carried out after removing the dominant pulse from the NF ground motion records. The results...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Post-tensioned hybrid (PH) precast concrete walls have been developed instead of traditional walls in order to limit the damages on the structural system for better seismic performance. However, such systems experience higher mode effects and significantly increases the force demand in the structure. Previous research has shown that providing extra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fragility curves are useful tools for presenting the probability of structural damage due to an earthquake as a function of ground motion intensity. It can be obtained from incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), truncated incremental dynamic analysis (TIDA), and multiple stripes analysis (MSA). However, MSA is the most efficient fragility curve estima...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reinforced concrete (RC) frames with masonry infill walls, generally three to five stories high, are most commonly encountered building typologies in the urban and semi-urban areas of Nepal. Brick masonry infills are generally employed as interior partitions and external walls as they offer an economic solution for the separation functional spaces....
Article
Full-text available
A method to accurately calculate seismic shear forces in post-tensioned hybrid (PH) precast concrete walls under risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake (MCER) level ground motions is essential to avoid unexpected damage or possibly failure. Although extensive research on seismic performance evaluation of PH precast concrete walls has been carr...
Conference Paper
The effectiveness of isolating the nonstructural reinforced concrete (RC) infill walls from the bounding frame, when subjected to earthquake ground motions is investigated. A finite element model of the precast confined rocking wall is developed to study the lateral load behavior and is validated with available experimental results. Pushover analys...
Conference Paper
Seismic performance enhancement using updated seismic design maps is necessary for existing RC buildings that have been designed using older versions of seismic design codes. In this study, a new methodology is proposed to calculate the characteristics of additional nonlinear viscous dampers that are needed, to achieve an enhanced seismic performan...
Article
A method to accurately calculate seismic shear forces in post-tensioned hybrid (PH) precast concrete walls under risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake (MCER) level ground motions is essential, to avoid unexpected damage or possibly failure. Although extensive research on seismic performance evaluation of PH precast concrete walls has been car...
Article
In this paper, the seismic collapse probability of base-isolated reinforced concrete buildings considering pounding with a moat wall and financial loss estimation is studied. For this purpose, three-dimensional finite element models of a code-compliant 10-story base-isolated shear wall-frame (BI-SWF) building and a 10-story base-isolated moment res...
Conference Paper
Many existing RC buildings have been designed using older versions of seismic standards and such buildings may be severely damaged due to earthquakes that may occur in the future. New buildings are designed to achieve a higher seismic performance compared to existing buildings, using updated seismic design maps. Hence, seismic performance enhanceme...
Article
A novel set of analytical and semi-analytical solutions is obtained for the generalized T-stress for both electrically impermeable and permeable penny-shaped cracks embedded in a transversely isotropic, linear piezoelectric, infinite medium under uniform far-field loading and general mechanical and electrical crack-face loading. The generalized str...
Article
Cultural heritage structures are an integral facet of the irreplaceable cultural heritage of a nation and have been constructed several hundreds and even thousands of years ago. In this paper, based on a field reconnaissance of the highly damaged areas of Kathmandu Valley and Sindhupalchowk district, damage to cultural heritage structures due to th...
Article
This paper reports on an investigation of the seismic response of base-isolated reinforced concrete buildings, which considers various isolation system parameters under bidirectional near-fault and far-fault motions. Three-dimensional models of 4-, 8-, and 12-story base-isolated buildings with nonlinear effects in the isolation system and the super...
Article
Seismic performance of posttensioned hybrid precast wall systems has been mainly studied in the past without considering the interaction of the wall system with the rest of the structure. In the present study, the multilevel seismic response of posttensioned hybrid precast wall-frame (PWF) buildings is evaluated using nonlinear response history ana...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Gorkha earthquake of April 25, 2015 and its aftershocks caused extensive damage to hundreds of thousands of building structures in Nepal. A reconnaissance survey was carried out in the most affected areas to assess the damage to buildings due to the earthquakes. It was found that many old as well as modern reinforced concrete buildings includin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reinforced concrete coupled walls are very efficient lateral load resisting systems in multistory buildings. Coupled walls provide two-fold benefits over cantilever walls, viz. part of the total overturning moment is resisted by the coupling action and seismic energy is also dissipated along the height of the building through the formation of plast...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reinforced concrete coupled walls are efficient structural systems for resisting seismic and wind loads in multi-story buildings. Architectural requirements in multi-story buildings (openings required for elevators, stairs, doors etc.) sometimes warrant the use of coupled wall systems (CWSs). In the design of these systems, the degree of coupling (...
Article
A weakly singular, symmetric Galerkin boundary element method capable of solving problems of isolated cracks in three-dimensional, linear anisotropic piezoelectric, infinite media with various types of crack-face boundary conditions including impermeable, permeable, semi-permeable, and the energetically consistent boundary condition introduced by L...
Article
The dispersive behavior of finite-amplitude time-harmonic Love waves propagating in a pre-stressed compressible elastic half-space overlaid with two compressible elastic surface layers of finite thickness is investigated. The half-space and layers are made of different pre-stressed compressible neo-Hookean materials. The dispersion relation which r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In-plane behavior of unbonded post-tensioned clay brick masonry walls are investigated using detailed finite element (FE) models. FE models of three walls having different aspect ratios of 1.50, 1.00, and 0.67 are developed. Effects of tendon spacing on in-plane behavior of these walls are investigated using different tendon spacings ranging from 0...
Article
The effects of modeling viscous damping on the response of base-isolated reinforced concrete buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions are investigated. The test results of a reduced-scale three-story building previously tested on a shaking table are compared with nonlinear direct-integration and modal time-history analyses. Nonlinear direct...
Article
Full-text available
In-plane behavior of unbonded posttensioned clay brick masonry walls are investigated using detailed finite-element (FE) models. FE models of three walls having different aspect ratios of 1.50, 1.00, and 0.67 are developed. Effects of tendon spacing on in-plane behavior of these walls are investigated using different tendon spacings ranging from 0....
Article
There is no consensus at the present time regarding an appropriate approach to model viscous damping in nonlinear time-history analysis of base-isolated buildings because of uncertainties associated with quantification of energy dissipation. Therefore, in this study, the effects of modeling viscous damping on the response of base-isolated reinforce...
Article
One of the major issues associated with structures located in the tsunami inundation zone is impact of massive objects carried by the tsunami flow. Characterization of forces and assessment of damage to structures due to such impact loads are vital for the design of buildings used for tsunami evacuation purposes and other important structures locat...
Article
The propagation of finite-amplitude time-harmonic shear horizontal waves, in a pre-stressed compressible elastic layer of finite thickness embedded between two identical compressible elastic half-spaces, is investigated. This is accomplished by combining finite-amplitude linearly polarized inhomogeneous transverse plane wave solutions in the half-s...
Article
The accuracy of the equivalent lateral force (ELF) procedure described in codes and specifications for the analysis and design of seismically isolated structures is of concern, because this procedure is always used either directly under certain conditions or to establish a lower-bound limit on the results of response history analysis (RHA). A numbe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In-plane behavior of unbonded post-tensioned clay brick masonry walls are investigated using detailed finite element (FE) models. Masonry is modeled as a homogenous isotropic material, the post-tensioning tendons are modeled using Hughes-Liu beam element. The material model is first calibrated using small scale prism tests available in the literatu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The effects of modeling viscous damping on the response of seismically isolated reinforced concrete buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions, are investigated. The test results of a reduced-scale three-story building previously tested on a shaking table are compared with three-dimensional finite element simulation results. The study is focu...
Article
This paper presents a computationally efficient numerical technique capable of modeling isolated planar cracks in three-dimensional linear elastic media by taking the influence of surface stresses into account. The majority of a medium (i.e., a bulk) is modeled by a classical theory of linear elasticity whereas the crack surface is treated as a zer...
Article
Near-fault ground motions containing long-period pulses are expected to impose large seismic demands on base-isolated buildings. A review of previous studies on the performance evaluation of base-isolated buildings under near-fault ground motions shows that these studies lack in the consideration of seismic pounding and the use of lower bound and u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of new structural systems which suffer no or minor damage following a severe event was a key interest of researchers during the past few decades. Self-centering walls with alternative dissipation mechanisms were among the next generation candidates for a damage avoidance design of structures while being cost effective. However, the...
Article
Numerous buildings have been severely damaged during hurricanes and tsunamis due to impact of water-borne massive objects such as barges, boats, heavy vehicles, and shipping containers. Failure of columns which are the primary load-carrying members of a building due to such impact loads, could significantly affect the performance of a building. Thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of near-fault ground motions and seismic pounding on the response of a code-designed 4-story base-isolated reinforced concrete (RC) building. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses were carried out considering bounding values of isolator properties. One-sided as well as two-sided pounding of the buil...
Article
In the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, buildings without in-fill walls in the first story, which allow the unimpeded flow of tsunami waves, have been constructed in the regions of low seismic risk. However, columns in such buildings could be susceptible to impact of tsunami water-borne massive objects. In the present stu...
Article
The dispersive behavior of small amplitude waves propagating along a non-principal direction in a pre-stressed, compressible elastic layer is considered. One of the principal axes of stretch is normal to the elastic layer and the direction of propagation makes an angle θ with one of the in-plane principal axes. The dispersion relations which relate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) simulation of seismic pounding between reinforced concrete (RC) moment-resisting frame buildings is presented considering material as well as geometric nonlinearities. The building configuration considered consists of 8-story and 10-story buildings designed according to the 2006 International Building Code (IBC...
Article
The dispersive behaviour of time-harmonic waves propagating along a principal direction in a perfectly bonded pre-stressed compressible elastic bi-material laminate is considered. The dispersion relation which relates wave speed and wavenumber is obtained by formulating the incremental boundary value problem and the use of the propagator matrix tec...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the different issues and facets involved in introducing English into the Civil and Environmental Engineering undergraduate education environment at Tokyo Tech are discussed. Over the last several years certain initiatives have been developed to help students improve their English abilities during the four year undergraduate program. H...
Article
In the present analysis harmonic extensional wave propagation in a pre-stressed, incompressible, symmetric layered composite is considered. The bi-material composite consists of two isotropic elastic materials. The imperfect interface is simulated by a shear spring type resistance model that can accommodate the extreme cases of perfect bonding or a...
Article
In this paper an analysis of seismic pounding of reinforced concrete buildings with non-equal story heights including soil-structure interaction is presented. Two building configurations, configuration A: 10-story and 9-story buildings and configuration B: two 5-story buildings, are considered. The discrete model is used to incorporate foundation-s...
Article
During earthquakes, adjacent buildings having different dynamic characteristics may vibrate out of phase and collide, if the separation between them is insufficient. Because of rapid increase in urban development and the associated increase in real-estate values, in the past, especially in urban areas many buildings were constructed even up to thei...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamic motion of a prestressed compressible elastic layer having constrained boundaries is considered. The dispersion relations which relatewave speed and wave number are obtained for both symmetric and antisymmetric motions. Both motions can be considered by formulating the incremental boundaryvalue problem based on the theory of incremental...
Article
In this paper, Saint-Venant end effects for plane deformations of transversely isotropic piezoelectric materials are investigated. The stress decay rates in linear piezoelectric strips that are traction free with two kinds of electrical boundary conditions are considered. The characteristic equations for decay rate are obtained for symmetric and an...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic pounding between adjacent non-identical buildings may occur during earthquakes, if the separation between them is insufficient. This paper deals with the seismic pounding between three typical reinforced concrete moment resisting frame buildings in a row, where a 10-story building is located between two identical 9-story buildings, consider...
Chapter
The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affect...
Chapter
Full-text available
The wave function expansion method is utilized in the present study to investigate a spherical inclusion excited by an incident plane P-wave. The spherical obstacle is considered rigid while the exterior infinite medium is considered to be a homogenous, isotropic, elastic material. The imperfect interface is simulated by a spring type resistance mo...