Anibal Pauchard

Anibal Pauchard
University of Concepción · Facultad de Ciencias Forestales

PhD, Professor
Director Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB)

About

283
Publications
172,769
Reads
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10,862
Citations
Citations since 2017
134 Research Items
7452 Citations
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Introduction
My research is focused on the ecology of biological invasions and their impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functions. My collaborators and I have been studying alien plant invasions in protected areas in both south-central Chile and across mountain regions of the world. I advocate for the use of holistic observational approaches in ecology. Currently, I am one of the three co-chairs of the IPBES Assessment on Invasive Alien Species and their Control.
Additional affiliations
November 2006 - present
March 2003 - March 2020
Universidad de Concepción
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Tenure track - Assistant (2003), Associate (2008) and Full Profesor (2015)
Education
January 1999 - December 2002
The University of Montana
Field of study
  • Forest ecology
March 1993 - January 1998
Universidad de Concepción
Field of study
  • Forest Engineering

Publications

Publications (283)
Article
Aim To determine biotic and abiotic controls on pine invasion globally within six ecoregions that include both introduced and native ranges. Locations: Río Negro province, Argentina; Aysén and Araucanía Regions, Chile; South Island (two ecoregions), New Zealand; Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Methods We quantified tree abundance and size acr...
Article
Full-text available
Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop ‘Biosecurity in Mountains a...
Article
Full-text available
Significance This work provides a complete experimental answer to the longstanding question of which local factors determine the success (i.e., establishment, growth, and flowering) of common nonnative plant invaders at their coldest physiological limits. Using a multifactorial seed-addition experiment along repeated elevational gradients in two su...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging infectious diseases like COVID19 are driven by ecological and socioeconomic factors, and their rapid spread and devastating impacts mirror those of invasive species. Collaborations between biomedical researchers and ecologists, heretofore rare, are vital to limiting future outbreaks. Enhancing the cross-disciplinary framework offered by in...
Article
Biological invasions produce negative impacts worldwide, causing massive economic costs and ecological impacts. Knowing the relationship between invasive species abundance and the magnitude of their impacts (abundance-impact curves) is critical to designing prevention and management strategies that effectively tackle these impacts. However, differe...
Preprint
One of the tree species with the greatest invasive potential worldwide is Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loundon, which is characterized by producing a great number of individuals in short periods of time, generating different impacts on the ecosystems it invades. The genus Chusquea is present in a diverse number of ecosystems in South America. In the t...
Article
Full-text available
The Enemy Release Hypothesis (ERH) predicts that the escape from natural enemies, such as specialist herbivores, may explain the invasiveness of some invasive alien plants, maximizing their investment in growth and reproduction. This release from natural enemies might decrease the investment in expensive defense mechanisms (i.e., digestibility redu...
Article
Invasive alien species are a major driver of global environmental change. Escalating globalization processes such as international trade and long-distance transport have contributed to an increase in the ecological, economic, and sociocultural impacts of biological invasions. As a result, their management has become an increasingly relevant topic o...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Invasive alien species are one of the major threats to global biodiversity, ecosystem integrity, natures contribution to people and human health. While scenarios about potential future developments have been available for other global change drivers for quite some time, we largely lack an understanding of how biological invasions might unfold in...
Article
Full-text available
Global patterns of regional (gamma) plant diversity are relatively well known, but whether these patterns hold for local communities, and the dependence on spatial grain, remain controversial. Using data on 170,272 georeferenced local plant assemblages, we created global maps of alpha diversity (local species richness) for vascular plants at three...
Article
Aim Analysis of the shifts in the climatic space for invasive species between native and introduced areas is a powerful tool for understanding their distribution patterns and the factors influencing their spread into new areas. In this study, we explored the shift in climatic distribution between ranges for invasive woody legumes and how the functi...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Climate change is expected to impact mountain biodiversity by shifting species ranges and the biomes they shape. The extent and regional variation in these impacts are still poorly understood, particularly in the highly biodiverse Andes. Regional syntheses of climate change impacts on vegetation are pivotal to identify and guide research prio...
Chapter
Full-text available
As human communities become increasingly interconnected through transport and trade, there has been a concomitant rise in both accidental and intentional species introductions, resulting in biological invasions. A warming global climate and the rapid movement of people and vessels across the globe have opened new air and sea routes, accelerated pro...
Article
Full-text available
Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we...
Article
Wildfires are responsible for a substantial loss of forest ecosystem services globally and represent a major driving force of forest degradation across Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). The detrimental effect of forest fires is particularly relevant in regions where fire has been historically absent or has rarely occurred. Nowadays, there is...
Article
Full-text available
Perspectives in conservation are based on a variety of value systems. Such differences in how people value nature and its components lead to different evaluations of the morality of conservation goals and approaches, and often underlie disagreements in the formulation and implementation of environmental management policies. Specifically, whether a...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and other global change drivers threaten plant diversity in mountains worldwide. A widely documented response to such environmental modifications is for plant species to change their elevational ranges. Range shifts are often idiosyncratic and difficult to generalize, partly due to variation in sampling methods. There is thus a need...
Article
Full-text available
Formulating effective management plans for addressing the impacts of invasive non-native species (INNS) requires the definition of clear priorities and tangible targets, and the recognition of the plurality of societal values assigned to these species. These tasks require a multi-disciplinary approach and the involvement of stakeholders. Here, we d...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although South America is the fourth largest continent, it houses about 60% of the global terrestrial life and the highest number of plant species. Besides its great native biodiversity, there are an unknown number of introduced non-native plants and at least 2,677 known naturalized non-native plants in South America. Despite the growing knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
The factors that determine patterns of non-native species richness and abundance are context dependent in both time and space. Global change has significantly boosted plant invasions in mountains, therefore, understanding which factors determine the invasion and at what scale they operate are fundamental for decision-making in the conservation of m...
Preprint
Full-text available
While the role of environmental filters, usually described by elevation as proxy, and anthropogenic disturbance as drivers of non-native plant diversity and abundance in mountains have been extensively studied, the impact of herbivores are less explored. Livestock grazing can facilitate the introduction of non-native species by seed dispersal and r...
Article
Full-text available
Rano Raraku, the crater lake constrained by basaltic tuff that served as the primary quarry used to construct the moai statues on Rapa Nui (Easter Island), has experienced fluctuations in lake level over the past centuries. As one of the only freshwater sources on the island, understanding the present and past geochemical characteristics of the lak...
Article
Full-text available
Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, currently existing global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. Here, we use a novel participatory process to develop a diverse...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing biodiversity status and trends in plant communities is critical for understanding, quantifying and predicting the effects of global change on ecosystems. Vegetation plots record the occurrence or abundance of all plant species co‐occurring within delimited local areas. This allows species absences to be inferred, information seldom provid...
Article
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The small and remote Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has a complex and still partially unknown history of human colonization and interactions with the environment. Previous research from sedimentary archives collected in the three freshwater bodies of Rapa Nui document dramatic environmental changes over the last two millennia. Yet, the characteristics of...
Article
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The significant portion of global terrestrial biodiversity harbored in the mountains is under increasing threat from various anthropogenic impacts. Protecting fragile mountain ecosystems requires understanding how these human disturbances affect biodiversity. As roads and railways are extended further into mountain ecosystems, understanding the lon...
Article
Ecology must flourish globally, especially in a period of unprecedented anthropogenic global change. However, some regions dominate the ecological literature. Multiple barriers prevent global production and exchange of ecological knowledge. The first step towards solutions is acknowledging and diagnosing this inequality and embracing our geographic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change and other global change drivers threaten plant diversity in mountains worldwide. A widely documented response to such environmental modifications is for plant species to change their elevational ranges. Range shifts are often idiosyncratic and difficult to generalize, partly due to variation in sampling methods. There is thus a need...
Article
Full-text available
Invasion biology examines species originated elsewhere and moved with the help of humans, and those species’ impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. In a globalized world, the emergence and spread of many human infectious pathogens are quintessential biological invasion events. Some macroscopic invasive species themselves...
Article
The success of invasive plants is influenced by many interacting factors, but evaluating multiple possible mechanisms of invasion success and elucidating the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers is challenging, and therefore rarely achieved. We used live, sterile or inoculated soil from different soil origins (native range and introduc...
Article
Full-text available
Intentionally allowing or promoting invasion by non-native trees into areas characterized by treeless vegetation could contribute to climate-change mitigation by increasing carbon (C) sequestration. In some areas of the world, incentives exist to retain invasive non-native trees in natural systems as a mechanism for increasing ecosystem C storage a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research in environmental science relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature at around 2 meter above ground1-3. These climatic grids however fail to reflect conditions near and below the soil surface, where critical ecosystem functions such as soil carbon storage are controlled and most biodiversity resides4-8...
Article
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Aim: To compare genetic diversity and structure between Acacia dealbata populations sampled across the species’ native range in Australia and from its non-native ranges in Chile, Madagascar, New Zealand, Portugal, La Réunion island, South Africa and the United States, and to investigate the most likely introduction scenarios to non-native ranges. L...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, current global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. We used a novel participatory process to develop a diverse set of global b...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme abiotic conditions, geographic isolation, and low levels of disturbance have historically provided alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic regions with low input of and relative resistance to the introduction of new species. However, the climate is warming rapidly, concomitant with intense and diversified types of human influence in these cold enviro...
Article
Effective long-term management is needed to address the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) that cannot be eradicated. We describe the fundamental characteristics of long-term management policies for IAS, diagnose a major shortcoming, and outline how to produce effective IAS management. Key international and transnational management policies co...
Article
Full-text available
Effective long-term management is needed to address the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) that cannot be eradicated. We describe the fundamental characteristics of long-term management policies for IAS, diagnose a major shortcoming, and outline how to produce effective IAS management. Key international and transnational management policies co...
Article
Full-text available
Current analyses and predictions of spatially‐explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long‐term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate‐forcing factors that operate at fine spatiote...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits o...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits o...
Article
Plant associated mutualists can mediate invasion success by affecting the ecological niche of non-native plant species. Anthropogenic disturbance is also key in facilitating invasion success through changes in biotic and abiotic conditions, but the combined effect of these two factors in natural environments is understudied. To better understand th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Carpobrotus edulis is a South African perennial succulent plant that was intentionally introduced to many Mediterranean-climate coastal regions for gardening, and sand and dune stabilization. In the introduced ranges, C. edulis could benefit from reallocating the resources previously used to resist the attack of their specialist herbivores, to inst...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perspectives in conservation can be based on a variety of value systems and normative postulates. Perspectives also vary between cultures. Such differences in what and how people value nature, underlie many disagreements and conflicts during the formulation and implementation of environmental management policies. Specifically, whether an action int...
Article
Full-text available
AimsBiological invasions have historically been addressed mostly from an aboveground perspective, so little is known about the impacts of belowground invasions. We studied the impact of belowground invasions on growth of native tree species and test the possibility of novel interactions between native and non-native hosts and native and non-native...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present a multi-taxa inventory of naturalized alien species recorded on continental Chile and adjacent marine habitats, including eight taxonomic groups. We identified 1,122 species. These comprise 790 vascular plants (terrestrial and aquatic); 31 nonvascular plants [Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts) and Anthocerotophyta (hor...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive Alien Species (IAS) threaten biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services, modify landscapes and impose costs to national economies. Management efforts are underway globally to reduce these impacts, but little attention has been paid to optimising the use of the scarce available resources when IAS are impossible to eradicate, and therefo...
Article
Full-text available
In an era of profound biodiversity crisis, invasion costs, invader impacts, and human agency should not be dismissed.
Article
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Understanding the likely future impacts of biological invasions is crucial yet highly challenging given the multiple relevant environmental, socio‐economic and societal contexts and drivers. In the absence of quantitative models, methods based on expert knowledge are the best option for assessing future invasion trajectories. Here, we present an ex...
Article
Chile’s temperate forest is a global biodiversity hotspot. An upsurge in alien forest plantations has disturbed and fragmented the landscape, promoting biological invasions. The invasion process is not fully understood since monitoring large and inaccessible areas can be prohibitively expensive and logistically challenging using field-based methods...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are ex...
Article
Full-text available
Roadsides are major pathways of plant invasions in mountain regions. However, the increasing importance of tourism may also turn hiking trails into conduits of non-native plant spread to remote mountain landscapes. Here, we evaluated the importance of such trails for plant invasion in five protected mountain areas of southern central Chile. We ther...
Article
Full-text available
A critical aspect of predicting soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations is the lack of available soil information; where information on soil characteristics is available, it is usually focused on regions of high agricultural interest. To date, in Chile, a large proportion of the SOC data have been collected in areas of intensive agricultural or fo...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are a major driver of ecosystem change but causes of variation in their environmental impacts over space and time remain poorly understood. Most approaches used to quantify the impacts of non‐native species assume there are interactions among per capita (i.e., individual level) effects, species abundance and the area occupied b...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Los resultados presentados en este informe son parte del trabajo interdisciplinario que realiza el Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2. El (CR)2 es un centro de excelencia financiado por el programa FONDAP de CONICYT (Proyecto 15110009) en el cual participan cerca de 60 científicos asociados a la Universidad de Chile, la Universidad...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present a multi-taxa inventory of naturalized alien species recorded on continental Chile and adjacent marine habitats, including eight taxonomic groups. We identified 1,122 species. These comprise 790 vascular plants (terrestrial and aquatic); 31 nonvascular plants [Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts) and Anthocerotophyta (hor...
Article
Full-text available
A critical aspect of predicting soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations is the lack of available soil information; where information on soil characteristics is available, it is usually focused on regions of high agricultural interest. To date, in Chile, a large proportion of the SOC data have been collected in areas of intensive agricultural or fo...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade there has been a great interest in understanding the process of invasion of exotic plants in the ecosystems of the Andes mountain range, because they have a high diversity endemic species and are an important source of ecosystem services. Therefore, this review aims to assess the current state of knowledge about the invasion...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fire has historically shaped the dynamics of Araucaria araucana - Nothofagus pumilio forests in the Andean region of South America. Nevertheless, human disturbances and stronger drought events have resulted in increased occurrence and severity of wildfires. Regardless of their conservation relevance, the initial response to fire of Arauc...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade, there has been a great interest in understanding the process of invasion of exotic plants in the ecosystems of the Andes mountain range, because they have a high diversity endemic species and are an important source of ecosystem services. Therefore, this review aims to assess the current state of knowledge about the invasion...
Article
Full-text available
There is a link between the diversity of forest ecosystems and the evapotranspiration (ET) ecosystem process. However, there is little knowledge of this link in temperate forests of southern South America. Given the influence of ET in relevant ecosystem services, such as hydrological or climatic regulation, it is important to understand the effect...