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Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos

Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos
KU Leuven & Utrecht University

PhD in Psychology

About

65
Publications
20,685
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1,272
Citations

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distil key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is acquired and maintained. We highlight clinical impli...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional theoretical models hold that avoidance reflects the interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Here we suggest that avoidance tendencies to intrinsically neutral cues may be established by mere Pavlovian association. Following fear conditioning, in which pictures of one object were paired with shock (CS+) whereas pictures of anot...
Article
Full-text available
The principal goals of experimental psychopathology (EPP) research are to offer insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of mental disorders and to provide a stable ground for the development of clinical interventions. The main message of the present article is that those goals are better served by the adoption of Bayesian statistics than by the con...
Article
Full-text available
Data analysis in psychopathology research typically entails multiple stages of data preprocessing (e.g., coding of physiological measures), statistical decisions (e.g., inclusion of covariates), and reporting (e.g., selecting which variables best answer the research questions). The complexity and lack of transparency of these procedures have result...
Article
Full-text available
Excessive avoidance towards innocuous cues is a central diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Relevant laboratory paradigms typically include instrumental learning procedures, where the presentation of an aversive cue (e.g., a shock) can be prevented by executing an experimenter-defined response (e.g., a button press) during the pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
{PREPRINT} Questionable Research Practices (QRPs), such as p-hacking (i.e., the inappropriate manipulation of data analysis to find statistical significance) and post-hoc hypothesizing, are threats to replicability of research findings. One key solution to the problem of QRPs is pre- registration. This refers to time-stamped documentation that desc...
Article
Full-text available
When making behavioural decisions, individuals need to balance between exploiting known options or exploring new ones. How individuals solve this exploration-exploitation dilemma (EED) is a key research question across psychology, leading to attempting to disentangle the cognitive mechanisms behind it. A potential predictive factor of performance i...
Preprint
Full-text available
When making behavioural decisions, individuals need to balance between exploiting known options or exploring new ones. How individuals solve this exploration-exploitation dilemma (EED) is a key research question across psychology, leading to attempting to disentangle the cognitive mechanisms behind it. A potential predictive factor of performance i...
Article
When making behavioral decisions, individuals need to balance between exploiting known options or exploring new ones. How individuals solve this exploration-exploitation dilemma (EED) is a key research question across psychology, leading to attempting to disentangle the cognitive mechanisms behind it. A potential predictive factor of performance in...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N = 10, 535 participants from 24 countries...
Article
Safety behaviors can prevent or minimize a feared outcome. However, in relatively safe situations, they may be less adaptive, presumably because people will misattribute safety to these behaviors. This research aimed to investigate whether safety behaviors in safe situations can lead to increased threat beliefs. In Study 1, we aimed to replicate a...
Article
Full-text available
Generalization of conditioned fear is adaptive in some situations but maladaptive when fear excessively generalizes to innocuous stimuli with incidental resemblance to a genuine threat cue. Recently, empirical interest in fear generalization as a transdiagnostic explanatory mechanism underlying anxiety-related disorders has accelerated. As there ar...
Article
Full-text available
There is heterogeneity in and a lack of consensus on the preferred statistical analyses in light of a multitude of potentially equally justifiable approaches. Here, we introduce multiverse analysis for the field of experimental psychopathology research. We present a model multiverse approach tailored to fear conditioning research and, as a secondar...
Preprint
Objective: Generalization of conditioned fear is adaptive in some situations but maladaptive when fear excessively generalizes to innocuous stimuli with incidental resemblance to a genuine threat cue. Recently, empirical interest in fear generalization as a transdiagnostic explanatory mechanism underlying anxiety-related disorders has accelerated....
Chapter
Full-text available
Questionable research practices (QRPs), such as p-hacking (i.e., the inappropriate manipulation of data analysis to find statistical significance) and post hoc hypothesizing, are threats to the replicability of research findings. One key solution to the problem of QRPs is preregistration. This refers to time-stamped documentation that describes the...
Article
Full-text available
Freezing to impending threat is a core defensive response. It has been studied primarily using fear conditioning in non-human animals, thwarting advances in translational human anxiety research that has used other indices, such as skin conductance responses. Here we examine postural freezing as a human conditioning index for translational anxiety r...
Article
Full-text available
Research has demonstrated that disgust can be installed through classical conditioning by pairing neutral conditioned stimuli (CSs) with disgusting unconditioned stimuli (USs). Disgust has been argued to play an important role in maintaining fear-related disorders. This maintaining role may be explained by conditioned disgust being less sensitive t...
Article
Full-text available
In this crowdsourced initiative, independent analysts used the same dataset to test two hypotheses regarding the effects of scientists' gender and professional status on verbosity during group meetings. Not only the analytic approach but also the operationalizations of key variables were left unconstrained and up to individual analysts. For instanc...
Article
Full-text available
Daily life consists of a chain of decisions. Typically, individuals may choose to pursue what they already know (exploitation), or to search for other options (exploration). This exploration-exploitation dilemma is a topic of interest across multiple scientific fields. Here we propose that investigating how individuals solve this dilemma may improv...
Preprint
Freezing to impending threat is a core defensive response. It has been studied primarily using fear-conditioning in non-human animals, thwarting advances in translational human anxiety-research. Here we examine postural freezing as a human conditioning-index for translational anxiety-research. We show (n=28) that human freezing is highly sensitive...
Preprint
There is heterogeneity in and a lack of consensus on the preferred statistical analyses foranalyzing fear conditioning effects in light of a multitude of potentially equally justifiablestatistical approaches. Here, we introduce the concept of multiverse analysis for fearconditioning research. We also present a model multiverse approach specifically...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research findings indicate that human fear conditioning is affected by instructions, particularly those concerning the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). However, whether or not such instructions were provided to participants often remains unsaid in fear conditioning studies. In the current...
Preprint
Full-text available
Avoidance towards innocuous stimuli is a key characteristic across anxiety-related disorders and chronic pain. Insights into the relevant learning processes of avoidance are often gained via laboratory procedures, where individuals learn to avoid stimuli or movements that have been previously associated with an aversive stimulus. Typically, statist...
Article
Individual differences in fear learning are a crucial prerequisite for the translational value of the fear-conditioning model. In a representative sample (N=936), we used latent class growth models to detect individual differences in associative fear learning. For a series of subsequent test phases varying in ambiguity (i.e., acquisition, extinctio...
Article
Full-text available
Avoidance towards innocuous stimuli is a key characteristic across anxiety-related disorders and chronic pain. Insights into the relevant learning processes of avoidance are often gained via laboratory procedures, where individuals learn to avoid stimuli or movements that have been previously associated with an aversive stimulus. Typically, statist...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives Maladaptive avoidance is a core characteristic of anxiety-related disorders. Its reduction is often promoted using extinction with response prevention (ExRP) procedures, but these effects are often short-lived. Research has shown that pairing a feared stimulus with a stimulus of an incompatible valence (i.e., countercondit...
Article
Full-text available
Pavlovian-to-Instrumental transfer (PIT) refers to the effect of stimuli that have been associated with a pleasant or aversive event to on instrumental behaviors. Given that Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) is linked to excessive compulsions, which in the laboratory can be tested via testing instrumental responses, we assessed PIT effects in ind...
Article
There is a growing interest on how mental imagery may be involved in the onset and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders. Here, we used an experimental design to investigate whether a key symptom across anxiety-related disorders, namely avoidance, can be induced via mental imagery. Healthy participants first learned that one neutral stimulus (A)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human fear conditioning is often seen as the result of a highly automatic process that is independent of higher cognitive functions and verbal instructions. However, cumulative research findings call this view into question. In the current preregistered study (N = 102), we investigated whether the number of participants who successfully show condit...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increased interest in how excessive avoidance can diminish. Avoidance reduction is typically tested by using Extinction with Response Prevention (ExRP) protocols, where feared stimuli are presented without any aversive outcome while avoidance is prevented. These e↵ects, however, often do not persist. Here, we tested whether pairing an a...
Article
Full-text available
Since the seminal ‘Little Albert’ study by Watson and Rayner (1920), fear conditioning has become one of the most commonly used paradigms for studying the etiology of anxiety-related disorders. In a fear conditioning procedure, a (neutral) conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in fear-related co...
Article
Full-text available
Background Extinction-based procedures are often used to inhibit maladaptive fear responses. However, because extinction procedures show efficacy limitations, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested as a promising add-on enhancer. Objective In this study, we tested how cathodal tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal...
Article
Full-text available
The preregistration of a study’s hypotheses, methods, and data-analyses steps is becoming a popular psychological research practice. To date, most of the discussion on study preregistration has focused on the preregistration of studies that include the collection of original data. However, much of the research in psychology relies on the (re-)analy...
Preprint
Full-text available
The preregistration of a study's hypotheses, methods, and data-analyses steps is becoming a popular psychological research practice. To date, most of the discussion on study preregistration has focused on the preregistration of studies that include the collection of original data. However, much of the research in psychology relies on the (re-)analy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Excessive avoidance is a key diagnostic criterion across mental disorders. Theoretical modelsargue that such avoidance is acquired via direct experience, instructions, or social observation.Here, we investigated whether avoidance can also be acquired via mental imagery. Participantslearned to associate a neutral stimulus (A+) with a shock and two o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Extinction-based procedures are used to inhibit maladaptive fear responses. However, due to extinction efficacy limitations, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been studied as a promising add-on enhancer. Previous fundamental research found anodal tDCS to have an adverse effect in increasing generalization of the fear res...
Preprint
Avoidance towards innocuous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Importantly, the most effective intervention for anxiety-related disorders, exposure therapy with response prevention, sometimes does not prevent the relapse of anxiety’s symptomatology. We tested whether extinction effects, the experimental proxy of ex...
Preprint
Extinction-based procedures are often used to inhibit maladaptive fear responses. However, because extinction procedures show efficacy limitations, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested as a promising add-on enhancer. In this study, we tested the effect of cathodal tDCS over extinction, to unveil the processes at play th...
Article
Full-text available
Avoidance towards innocuous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Importantly, the most effective intervention for anxiety-related disorders, exposure therapy with response prevention, sometimes does not prevent the relapse of anxiety's symptomatology. We tested whether extinction effects, the experimental proxy of ex...
Article
Full-text available
For many years the Diffusion Decision Model (DDM) has successfully accounted for behavioral data from a wide range of domains. Important contributors to the DDM’s success are the across-trial variability parameters, which allow the model to account for the various shapes of response time distributions encountered in practice. However, several resea...
Article
Full-text available
Signaled active avoidance (SigAA) is the key experimental procedure for studying the acquisition of instrumental responses toward conditioned threat cues. Traditional analytic approaches (e.g., general linear model) often obfuscate important individual differences, although individual differences in learned responses characterize both animal and hu...
Preprint
Data analyses in psychopathology research typically entail multiple stages of data preprocessing (e.g., coding of physiological measures), statistical decisions (e.g., inclusion of covariates), and reporting (e.g., select which variables best answer the research questions). Thecomplexity and lack of transparency of these procedures has at least two...
Article
Full-text available
There is strong evidence that executing eye-movement (EM) tasks that load working memory (WM) while thinking of an emotional memory reduces the emotionality and vividness of this memory. According to WM theory, EM tasks that load WM more should be more effective to devalue emotional memories. In this study, we compared three EM tasks: dot tracking,...
Article
Full-text available
The blocking effect has inspired numerous associative learning theories and is widely cited in the literature. We recently reported a series of 15 experiments that failed to obtain a blocking effect in rodents. Based on those consistent failures, we claimed that there is a lack of insight into the boundary conditions for blocking. In his commentary...
Preprint
For many years the Diffusion Decision Model (DDM) has successfully accounted for behavioral data from a wide range of domains. Important contributors to the DDM’s success are the between-trial variability parameters, which allow the model to account for the various shapes of response time distributions encountered in practice. However, several rese...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Excessive avoidance towards non-dangerous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Despite current therapies being successful in reducing such avoidance, relapse rates remain high. Based on recent findings, according to which learned fear responses were reduced after the presentation of the fea...
Article
Full-text available
Most data analyses rely on models. To complement statistical models, psychologists have developed cognitive models, which translate observed variables into psychologically interesting constructs. Response time models, in particular, assume that response time and accuracy are the observed expression of latent variables including 1) ease of processin...
Article
Full-text available
Threat conditioning procedures have allowed the experimental investigation of the pathogensis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The findings of these procedures have also provided sta- ble foundations for the development of relevant intervention programs (e.g., exposure therapy). Statistical inference of threat conditioning procedures is commonly...
Article
Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g., preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide be...
Article
Full-text available
Defensive reactions need to be quick and appropriate to ensure survival. Thus, it is crucial that threats trigger immediate action upon detection, even in the absence of awareness. In addition, the form of such action should be appropriate to the imminence of the threat. Thus, attention should be guided by signals of increasing threat imminence. We...
Article
Full-text available
With the discovery of the blocking effect, learning theory took a huge leap forward, because blocking provided a crucial clue that surprise is what drives learning. This in turn stimulated the development of novel association-formation theories of learning. Eventually, the ability to explain blocking became nothing short of a touchstone for the val...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in fear generalisation have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology and/or maintenance of anxiety disorders, but few data are available to directly support that claim. The research that is available has focused mostly on generalisation of peripheral and central physiological fear responses. Far less is known about the g...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives Exposure therapy for anxiety involves confronting a patient with fear-evoking stimuli, a procedure based partially on Pavlovian extinction. Exposure and other extinction-based therapies usually lead to (partial) reduction of fear symptoms, but a substantial number of patients experience a return of fear after treatment. H...
Article
Full-text available
Common methods for analyzing response time tasks, frequently used across different disciplines of psychology, suffer from a number of limitations such as the failure to directly measure the underlying latent processes of interest and the inability to take into account the uncertainty associated with each individual’s point estimate of performance....
Article
Full-text available
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discrimina...
Article
Full-text available
Fear conditioning is one of the prime paradigms of behavioural neuroscience and a source of tremendous insight in the fundamentals of learning and memory and the psychology and neurobiology of emotion. It is also widely regarded as a model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders in a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology. Starting from the ap...
Article
Full-text available
In a classic 1978 Memory & Cognition article, Geoff Loftus explained why noncrossover interactions are removable. These removable interactions are tied to the scale of measurement for the dependent variable and therefore do not allow unambiguous conclusions about latent psychological processes. In the present article, we present concrete examples o...
Article
Full-text available
Response inhibition is a hallmark of executive control and crucial to support flexible behavior in a constantly changing environment. Recently, it has been shown that response inhibition is influenced by the presentation of emotional stimuli (Verbruggen and De Houwer, 2007). Healthy individuals typically differ in the degree to which they are able...
Article
Full-text available
When people repeatedly practice the same cognitive task, their response times (RT) invariably decrease. Dutilh, Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, and Wagenmakers (2009) argued that the traditional focus on how mean RT decreases with practice offers limited insight; their diffusion model analysis showed that the effect of practice is multifaceted, involvi...

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Projects (3)
Project
Both laboratory and clinical evidence indicates that executing dual-tasks while recollecting emotional memories or thinking of mental images interferes with vividness, emotionality and objective recollection of the memories and images. This project bundles laboratory-based empirical studies and meta-analytic assessment of this phenomenon.
Project
A series of articles on the acquisition and reduction of avoidance learning. This includes all the articles in which I was involved in as main author or a co-author.