Angelo Marcelli

Angelo Marcelli
Università degli Studi di Salerno | UNISA · Department of Electrical and Information Engineering and Applied Mathematics (DIEM)

Ph.D.
Handwriting analysis for diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases; Neurocomputational model of motor learning and execution

About

164
Publications
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1,304
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Publications

Publications (164)
Preprint
Background: Reconstructing the trajectory from the static image of handwritten ink traces is useful in many practical applications envisaging handwriting analysis and recognition from off-line data, as it allows to use methods, algorithms and tools that deal with on-line data, achieving better results than those achieved on off-line data.Methods: I...
Preprint
Full-text available
The basal ganglia (BG) are part of a basic feedback circuit, regulating cortical function, such as voluntary movement control, via their influence on thalamocortical projections. BG disorders, namely Parkinson’s disease (PD), characterized by the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), involve the progressive loss of motor functions. The proc...
Preprint
The first model of the basal ganglia (BG) was conceived almost half a century ago. Since then, extensive research efforts have been carried out to further refine and understand the physiological and pathological BG behaviour and role. Currently, it is well-known that the BG are crucial in motor learning and motor diseases are associated to dysfunct...
Chapter
Nowadays, different automatic systems for writer identification and verification are available. On-line writer identification through automatic analysis of handwriting acquired with a tablet has been widely studied. Furthermore, the recent development of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) wearables with integrated inertial measurement units (IMUs) rec...
Article
Full-text available
The order in which the trajectory is executed is a powerful source of information for recognizers. However, there is still no general approach for recovering the trajectory of complex and long handwriting from static images. Complex specimens can result in multiple pen-downs and in a high number of trajectory crossings yielding agglomerations of pi...
Chapter
Nowadays, the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly sophisticated, mainly thanks to innovations in the medical field. As the effectiveness of care, strategies is enhanced by the early diagnosis, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in developing reliable, non-invasive, easy to administer, and cheap diagnostics t...
Article
In the last decades, early disease identification through non-invasive and automatic methodologies has gathered increasing interest from the scientific community. Among others, Parkinson's disease (PD) has received special attention in that it is a severe and progressive neuro-degenerative disease. As a consequence, early diagnosis would provide mo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a performance model for estimating the user time needed to transcribe small collections of handwritten documents using a keyword spotting system (KWS) that provides a number of possible transcriptions for each word image. The model assumes that only information obtained from a small training set is available, and establishes the...
Article
Full-text available
Digital libraries offer access to a large number of handwritten historical documents. These documents are available as raw images and therefore their content is not searchable. A fully manual transcription is time-consuming and expensive while a fully automatic transcription is cheaper but not comparable in terms of accuracy. The performance of aut...
Article
Full-text available
The tradeoff between speed and accuracy of human movements has been exploited from many different perspectives, such as experimental psychology, workspace design, human–machine interface. This tradeoff is formalized by Fitts’ law, which states a linear relationship between the duration and the difficulty of the movement. The bigger is the required...
Article
Full-text available
Time-optimal control of robotic manipulators along specified paths is a well-known problem in robotics. It concerns the minimization of the trajectory-tracking time subject to a constrained path and actuator torque limits. Calculus of variations reveals that time-optimal control is of bang-bang type, meaning that at least one actuator is in saturat...
Article
The paper proposes a performance model for estimating the improvement of the time needed to transcribe small collections of handwritten documents by using a keyword spotting system (KWS) with respect to the time for manually achieving the transcription. The proposed model assumes that no other information than those obtained from the samples and th...
Chapter
Full-text available
We address the problem of designing a machine learning tool for the automatic diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease that is capable of providing an explanation of its behavior in terms that are easy to understand by clinicians. For this purpose, we consider as machine learning tool the decision tree, because it provides the decision criteria in terms of...
Conference Paper
We propose a novel procedure to speed-up the content transcription of handwritten documents in digital historical archives when a keyword spotting system is used for the purpose. Instead of performing the validation of the system outputs in a single step, as it is customary, the proposed methodology envisaged a multi-step validation process to be e...
Article
This paper illustrates the development and the applicability of an Evolutionary Computation approach to enhance the treatment of Type-1 diabetic patients that necessitate insulin injections. In fact, being such a disease associated to a malfunctioning pancreas that generates an insufficient amount of insulin, a way to enhance the quality of life of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems for automatic diagnoses is increasingly in the clinical field, being a useful support for the identification of several diseases. Nonetheless, the acceptance of AI-based diagnoses by the physicians is hampered by the black-box approach implemented by most performing systems, which do not c...
Article
The theme of this special issue is "Graphonomics for the e-citizens: e-health, e-society and e-education". It aims to bring together the works of many experts in this multidisciplinary field that involves different competences and knowledge, which span from the study of the handwriting generation models to the development of machine learning techni...
Conference Paper
We propose a novel methodology to speed-up the content transcription of handwritten documents in digital historical archives when a keyword spotting system is used for the purpose. Instead of performing the validation of the system outputs in a single step, as it is customary, the proposed methodology envisaged a multi-step validation process. Afte...
Poster
Full-text available
We propose a novel methodology to speed-up the content transcription of handwritten documents in digital historical archives when a keyword spotting system is used for the purpose. Instead of performing the validation of the system outputs in a single step, as it is customary, the proposed methodology envisaged a multi-step validation process. Afte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Early disease identification through non-invasive and automatic techniques has gathered increasing interest by the scientific community in the last decades. In this context, Parkinsons disease (PD) has received particular attention in that it is a severe and progressive neurodegenerative disease and, therefore, early diagnosis would provide more prom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tracing complex and long handwritten signatures takes an important role in signature verification. Indeed, whether a dynamic signature could be inferred from its static counterpart , improvements would be expected during the automatic verification. An important factor in recovering the tracing of a thinned signature is the feasible and accurate pro...
Chapter
Most handwriting recognition systems need a mechanism for handling classification errors. These errors are typically caused by the large shape variability of the handwriting produced by different writers and by the segmentation errors, which occur when the word recognition process is performed by extracting and classifying single characters. In thi...
Article
Building upon findings in computational model of handwriting learning and execution, we introduce the concept of stability to explain the difference between the actual movements performed during multiple execution of the subject’s signature, and conjecture that the most stable parts of the signature should play a paramount role in evaluating the si...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lognormality has proven to be an effective way for handwriting modeling. It assumes that handwriting is a time superimposition of a sequence of commands issued by the central nervous system, each command producing a stroke, i.e. a movement with a lognormal velocity profile. Motor control theories, however, suggest that handwriting movements result...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a novel paradigm, aimed at emulating the early stage of handwriting learning in proficient writers, by asking them to produce a familiar shape through a novel (unfamiliar) motor plan. Handwriting of beginner writers is characterized by slower movements, reduced spatial precision, lower fluency and reduced force regulation compared to tho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article propose a complete framework to recover the dynamic properties (i.e. velocity and pressure) of an on-line Western signature from an image-based signature. The framework is based on classical approaches to recover the writing order of the strokes and a novel process to recover the kinematic properties from thinned trajectories. In order...
Data
Masquerade is a software for the analysis and the evaluation of morphological and dynamic features of handwriting. The software is tailored for handwriting experts, both from forensic and HR sectors, and is able to automatically measure handwriting features and reduce the time needed to produce a report.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using an extracellular medium with high potassium/low magnesium concentration with the addition of 4-AP we induced epileptiform activity in combined hippocampus/entorhinal cortex slices of the rat brain [1]. In this in vitro model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we observed the repeating sequences of interictal discharge (IID) regimes and seizure-like e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Handwritten signature is a biometric trait used for verifying a person’s identity. Automatic signature verification systems typically require a lot of specimens in order to model the signing habit of a subject but, in a real scenario, few signature samples are available. To overcome this problem, methods for creating human-like duplicated signature...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a method for writer identification that combines Forensic Handwriting Examination best practices with Pattern Recognition methodologies. The method is based upon a statistical characterization of the variability exhibited by a set of features that are meant to capture the distinctive aspects of document layout and handwriting. The featur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the motivations and the results of an investigation aimed at establishing to which extent bumps observed in the ink trace do not correspond necessarily to hesitation of the writing movements but can be observed in fluent handwriting as well. We will show by experiments that this latter case occurs very often and provide an explanation in...
Conference Paper
We propose a novel approach for helping content transcription of handwritten digital documents. The approach adopts a segmentation based keyword retrieval approach that follows query-by-string paradigm and exploits the user validation of the retrieved words to improve its performance during operation. Our approach starts with an initial training se...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation on "25th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS-2016 " BMC Neuroscience 17, 112-113 (2016).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ICGenealogy: towards a common topology of neuronal ion channel function and genealogy in model and experiment Ion channels are fundamental constituents determining the function of single neurons and neuronal circuits. To understand their complex interactions, the field of computational modeling has proven essential: since its emergence, thousands...
Article
We suggest a model of signature verification based upon handwriting generation studies and derive from it the characterization of the signing habits of a subject. Such characterization is given in terms of the signature’s stability regions, which are obtained by exploiting shape and temporal information conveyed by the genuine signatures captured b...
Conference Paper
We propose a quantitative approach to both feature evaluation and comparison that combines Forensic Handwriting Examination best practices with Pattern Recognition methodologies. The former provide a set of features that are meant to capture the distinctive aspects of handwriting, the latter the computational tools for the quantitative evaluation o...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the results of the ICDAR 2015 competition on signature verification and writer identification for on- and off-line skilled forgeries jointly organized by PRresearchers and Forensic Handwriting Examiners (FHEs). The aim is to bridge the gap between recent technological developments and forensic casework. Two modalities (signature...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The large majority of methods proposed in literature for handwriting recognition assume that words are produced drawing large parts of the ink without lifting the pen, other than horizontal bars and dots. This fundamental assumption, however, does not always hold: while some educational systems provide explicit training for producing continuous han...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a model of the spinal cord in controlling one degree-of-freedom arm movements. The model includes both neural and musculoskeletal functions in an integrated framework. The model has been implemented by an artificial neural network coupled with a computational model of muscle publicly available. The experimental results show that the mode...
Conference Paper
We propose an algorithm based on a model of visual perception that is meant to reflect the human judgment about the similarity of handwritten samples. The algorithm builds upon the Fuzzy Feature Contrast model and proposes an implementation of such a model in the domain of handwriting. The algorithm has been validated on the RIMES dataset, by compa...
Data
Full-text available
Poster Presentation of a tool for supporting forensic document examiners.
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a multiple classifier system that incorporates an Evolutionary Algorithm for dynamically selecting the set of classifiers to be included in the pool. The proposed technique is applicable when the classifiers provide both the class assigned to the input sample and a measure of thereliability of the classification. For each sample, the e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the ICDAR 2015 competition on signature verification and writer identification for on- and off-line skilled forgeries jointly organized by PRresearchers and Forensic Handwriting Examiners (FHEs). The aim is to bridge the gap between recent technological developments and forensic casework. Two modalities (signature...
Article
A novel definition of stability regions and a new method for detecting them from on-line signatures is introduced in this paper. Building upon handwriting generation and motor control studies, the stability regions is defined as the longest similar sequences of strokes between a pair of genuine signatures. The stability regions are then used to sel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce a tool for quantitative evaluation of handwriting features largely adopted during forensic examination of questioned documents. The tool is based on a model of handwriting generation and execution according to which handwriting is composed of elementary movements, called strokes, whose order and timing of execution has been learned and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The form processing systems commercially available include a verification step during which a human operator verifies the output provided by the system to ensure 100% accuracy. In order to reduce the time and the cost of such a stage, the OCR engine incorporated into the system provides a reliability measure of the classification to be used for imp...
Conference Paper
We present an experimental validation of a model of handwriting style that builds upon a neuro-computational model of motor learning and execution. We hypothesize that handwriting style emerges from the concatenation of highly automated writing movements, called invariants, that have been learned by the subject in correspondence to the most frequen...
Conference Paper
We present a method for finding the stability regions within a set of genuine signatures and for selecting the most suitable one to be used for online signature verification. The definition of stability region builds upon motor learning and adaptation in handwriting generation, while their selection exploits both their ability to model signing habi...
Conference Paper
We discuss the dynamics of signatures in the light of recent findings in motor learning, according to which a signature is a highly automated motor task and, as such, it is stored in the brain as both a trajectory plan and a motor plan. We then conjecture that such a stored representation does not necessarily include the entire signature, but can b...
Conference Paper
We propose a new method for detecting the stability regions in on-line signatures. Building upon handwriting generation and motor control studies, the stability regions are defined as the longest common sequences of strokes between a pair of genuine signatures. The stability regions are then used to select the most stable signatures, as well as to...
Article
Graphs are powerful and versatile data structures, useful to represent complex and structured information of interest in various fields of science and engineering. We present a system, called EvoGeneS, based on an evolutionary approach, for generating undirected graphs whose number of nodes is not a priori known. The method is based on a special da...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a study for modeling handwriting styles that derives from handwriting generation studies, according to which handwriting is a temporal sequence of elementary movements. Hence, handwriting style results from the way those movements are actually performed and sequentially executed to reach fluency. We conjecture that handwriting styles dep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Handwriting analysis, which requires the detection and examination of distinctive features within the ink traces representing the words, provides a valuable help in several research's fields. In medical field, handwriting analysis provides an useful complement to other clinical investigations in diagnosing many movement disorders, such as Parkinson...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The large majority of the methods proposed in literature for handwriting recognition assume that any word is produced without lifting the pen, other than horizontal bars and dots. This fundamental assumption, however, does not always hold: while some educational systems provide explicit training for producing continuous handwriting, minimizing the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of niching methods for solving real world optimization problems is limited by the difficulty to obtain a proper setting of the speciation parameters without any a priori information about the fitness landscape. To avoid such a difficulty, we propose a novel method, called Adaptive Species Discovery, that removes the basic assumption of perf...