Andy Kirkpatrick

Andy Kirkpatrick
Griffith University · Languages and Linguistics

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85
Publications
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3,301
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
2102 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
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This study explores the conversational humour of Asian multilinguals using English as a lingua franca ( ELF ) – specifically, their use of (im)politeness strategies to humorously maintain, neglect or affront their target’s face. The Asian ELF data come from the Asian Corpus of English ( ACE ), which comprises naturally occurring data of English bei...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the methodology adopted in this study. It describes the pilot study which was conducted and then goes on to describe the ways in which the schools and key stakeholders of the major part of the study were surveyed and how three cases studies in specific schools were undertaken.
Chapter
This chapter provides the description of the second case study school. The chapter describes the school’s demography, the background of its students and an overview of the school’s medium of instruction policies, illustrating which language is used to teach which subject and at which levels. The chapter also provides samples of lesson transcription...
Chapter
This chapter compares the three case study schools and their implementation of trilingual education based on the stakeholders’ views, namely the school principal, the teachers, the students and the parents, focusing on three issues. The first issue is their perceptions of the trilingual education model implemented in the schools, the second issue i...
Chapter
This chapter provides the description of the third case study school. The chapter describes the school’s demography, the background of its students and an overview of the school’s medium of instruction policies, illustrating which language is used to teach which subject and at which levels. The chapter also provides samples of lesson transcriptions...
Chapter
This chapter describes the pilot study, which incorporated a case study in one primary school. The views of various stakeholders (the principal, teachers, parents, and the students themselves) towards how trilingual education was being implemented in the school were collected, and classes taught in Cantonese, Putonghua and English were recorded and...
Chapter
This chapter provides the description of the first case study school. The chapter describes the school’s demongraphy, the background of its students and an overview of the school’s medium of instruction policies, illustrating which language is used to teach which subject and at which levels. The chapter also provides samples of lesson transcription...
Chapter
This chapter reports on the findings of the survey on how trilingual education was implemented in Hong Kong primary schools. A total of 155 Hong Kong primary schools participated in a questionnaire survey and the demongraphics of these schools and the students is described. The medium of instruction policies of the schools is also described. The fi...
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This chapter concludes the study by presenting guidelines for the successful implementation of trilingual education in Hong Kong’s primary schools. We list the limitations of the study and conclude it by arguing that individual schools are best judges of which model of trilingual education they should adopt, as they best know the specific contexts...
Book
This book focuses on Hong Kong as a multilingual society. It investigates how trilingual education is implemented in Hong Kong primary schools. Based on a large scale survey of 155 Hong Kong schools and in-depth case studies in 3 selected schools, the book gives an overview of trilingual education in Hong Kong primary schools, revealing the views o...
Article
After the handover back to Mainland China in 1997, the Hong Kong government adopted a ‘biliterate and trilingual’ policy to help Hongkongers develop an ability to read and write Chinese and English, and to speak and understand Cantonese, English and Putonghua. However, there are no clear government guidelines on how and when the three languages sho...
Chapter
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Ten nations make up the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and they officially adopted the ASEAN Charter in 2009. While Article 2 of the Charter urges ‘respect for the different languages of the peoples of ASEAN,’ Article 34 makes English the sole official working language. It states, simply, that, ‘the working language of ASEAN shall b...
Chapter
This chapter first provides a brief general review of the teaching and learning of English in Australian and Asian universities and shows that English is still primarily regarded as a native speaker product and that English, officially at any rate, is taught monolingually in English and English medium of instruction (EMI) classes and courses. The c...
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Hong Kong is linguistically complex and diverse with three principal languages: Cantonese, English and Putonghua. A substantial debate on the language policies governing the three principal languages has continued for more than two decades among policy-makers and educators. The political transition in 1997 has greatly affected Hong Kong society, in...
Article
The roles of English within and between the many of the countries which make up Southeast Asia are increasing, and English is constantly being used and negotiated as a mutual means of communication by Asian multilinguals for whom English is an additional language. It is timely, therefore, to consider ways in which these Englishes have been developi...
Article
Drawing on positioning theory, this paper investigates the identity issues involved in an English as Lingua Franca (ELF) interaction in a multicultural university in Hong Kong. The findings indicate that the ELF participants' institutional roles are culturally determined, and are not fixed but vary in different phases of the discourse. This study s...
Article
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This study identifies strategies used by speakers of ELF from Asia-Pacific countries for managing rapport in response to potentially face-threatening utterances in informal, non-hierarchical situations. The analysis, which draws on the Asian Corpus of English (ACE), reveals numerous points of contact with existing studies of English as a lingua fra...
Chapter
The major role that English plays throughout Asia is as a lingua franca. That is to say people throughout Asia primarily use English as a means of communication with each other, rather than with native speakers of English from inner circle countries. This means that multilingual Asians from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds are using Engl...
Article
Combining local, national and international languages — the last almost exclusively English in fact —is one of the most pressing issues facing educational professionals in today’s world. How and when can English be introduced to the school curriculum so that children still master literacy in local and national languages? Hong Kong’s language policy...
Article
The fears of Asian governments that the learning of English will lead to cultural and/or linguistic hegemony have been given theoretical support by a number of Western scholars, most notably Phillipson (1992). This paper will argue that these fears are misplaced, if not unfounded, and that the theoretical justification for them is flawed. The argum...
Article
Most Ministries of Education in East and Southeast Asia still see the acquisition of native-like proficiency as the goal for English language teaching. They thus promote the native speaker model as the classroom target and many have some form of 'native English teacher' scheme, whereby native speakers are brought in from overseas to teach in Asian...
Article
The major role of English in Asia today is as a lingua franca. English is the de facto lingua franca of the grouping of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and with the signing of the ASEAN Charter in February 2009 assumed official status as the sole working language of ASEAN. English is also the working language of the extended grouping...
Chapter
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In this chapter I shall consider the increasing shift to the use of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in East and Southeast Asia, with the focus on the university sector. I shall also discuss possible implications of the trend towards EMI in Asian universities for the Australian university sector. The chapter begins with a brief discussion o...
Article
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There has been a striking increase in the number of universities in the Asia-Pacific region that are moving to offer courses and programmes through English. In this article I shall consider the possible consequences of this increase in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) for staff and students for whom English is not a first language and for u...
Book
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BLURB: This volume provides a fascinating glimpse into the complex language ecologies of Southeast Asia. Adopting a relational perspective, it considers their significance for the region, its peoples, the policy and practice of language teaching, learning and assessment and the fate of local languages. It gives particular prominence to the relation...
Article
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The large influx of Chinese language learners into the People's Republic of China from different countries shapes the Chinese as a foreign language classroom as a multilingual and multinational domain. However, how Chinese language teachers perceive their choice of codes for teaching and communicating with international Chinese language learners re...
Chapter
The internationalization of higher education has led to a noticeable increase in the number of courses and degrees taught through the medium of English.Keywords:bilingualism;globalization;higher education;language planning;language policy;World Englishes
Chapter
While written English continues to hold fairly closely to international “centric” norms, the forms of spoken English which are evolving in Asia – varieties of Canagarajah’s “Lingua Franca English” – show properties which are more fluid, emergent, contingent and creative, and which are strongly influenced by many kinds of contextual factors for each...
Article
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The Charter of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was officially adopted in February 2009. Article 34 of the Charter states that, ‘The working language of ASEAN shall be English’. In this article, I first briefly trace the development of English in ASEAN and demonstrate that, even in those countries of the ASEAN group which were not...
Article
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The major issues confronting language policy makers in East and Southeast Asia typically include balancing the need for English as the international lingua franca and language of modernization, a local lingua franca as the national language for national unity, and local languages as languages of identity and community. Choices faced by policy maker...
Article
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Since 1997, the ‘biliterate and trilingual’ policy has been adopted by the Hong Kong government, and is now guiding the curriculum design in Hong Kong primary schools. This language policy aims to ensure that Hong Kong students become biliterate (written English and Chinese) and trilingual (spoken English, Cantonese and Putonghua). However, Hong Ko...
Article
The term maidan has become a common way of asking for the bill in Putonghua. In this paper we investigate whether this is the transfer of a Cantonese expression which has been re-interpreted as a Putonghua expression, and thus an example of language change being caused by a mistake or mishearing. The study surveyed Mainland Chinese in a number of s...
Book
Introduction, Andy Kirkpatrick and Roland Sussex .- World Englishes and Asian Englishes: A Survey of the Field, Kingsley Bolton .- EDUCATION . English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for Language Education, Andy Kirkpatrick . The Complexities of Re-reversal of Language-in-Education Policy in Malaysia, Saran Kaur Gill . English in...
Chapter
While written English in Asia is still cleaving reasonably closely to the norms of traditional, norm-based “citadel English”, spoken English is expanding, diverging and adapting to local conditions at an increasing rate, as can be seen from named varieties like Singlish (Singapore) and Taglish (Philippines). The roles of English are likewise multip...
Article
Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a system of prehospital trauma care designed for the combat environment. Needle decompression (ND) is a critical TCCC intervention, because previous data suggest that up to 33% of all preventable deaths on the battlefield result from tension pneumothoraces. There has recently been increased interest in perfor...
Article
The Research Centre for Language Education and Acquisition in Multilingual Societies (RCLEAMS) is one of four Institute-level Research Centres at the Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd). The principal aim of RCLEAMS is to study multilingual acquisition, language contact and the respective roles of different languages of education in contexts w...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Chapter
This chapter examines the development and roles of the English and the national language in several members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) including Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. In all these countries, except Burma and possibly Laos, English is playing an increasingly important role, especially as...
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief summary of the context in which the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration in August 1967 by the five founding member countries, and examines the role of the English language. It discusses the role of English language and other languages within the org...
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This chapter provides a historical description and comparison of the role of the English language in members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) that were previously colonies of English-speaking empires including Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. It suggests that the major motivation for language-education policies in Malaysi...
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This chapter examines the implications for language-education policy behind three questions concerning the English language. These include the questions about the introduction of English into school curriculums and the introduction of English either as a subject or as a medium of instruction. The chapter discusses the ways in which Association of S...
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This chapter examines the communicative strategies of English as lingua franca (ELF) speakers in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. It discusses different strategies, including lexical anticipation and lexical correction, from the perspectives of both speaker and listener. The chapter also suggests that the English-language c...
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This chapter examines the pedagogical implications of the multilingual model and the lingua franca approach in English Language Teaching (ELT) in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. It attempts to answer the questions concerning the teaching of English in schools and who should teach it. The chapter suggests that English shoul...
Chapter
This chapter describes a selection of the phonological and lexical features of English-language speakers in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. It discusses phonological features identified in ASEAN English lingua franca speech which appear to be shared by speakers from different countries, and considers the question of mutual...
Article
The concept of English as a lingua franca (ELF) has recently caused a great deal of controversy, much of it based on a misunderstanding of ELF. In this presentation, I shall first provide a brief history of lingua francas and then compare and contrast two major Asian lingua francas – Bahasa Indonesia and Putonghua – in order to show how different t...
Book
The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes constitutes a comprehensive introduction to the study of World Englishes drawing on the expertise of leading authors within the field. The Handbook is structured in nine sections covering historical perspectives, core issues and topics and new debates which together provide a thorough overview of the field...
Article
The lingua franca role of English, coupled with its status as the official language of ASEAN, has important implications for language policy and language education. These include the relationship between English, the respective national languages of ASEAN and thousands of local languages. How can the demand for English be balanced against the need...
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On the occasion of the 100th issue of English Today, scholars from around the world were invited to send their thoughts. Excerpts from messages received up to September 6th, 2009 are presented here.
Article
  This paper reports on an investigation into the international intelligibility of the English of educated Hong Kong speakers whose L1 is Cantonese. Samples of recordings of extended discourse obtained from three female and three male final-year English majors studying at the Hong Kong Institute of Education were played to groups of university stud...
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This paper provides a detailed description of the pronunciation of English by fifteen fourth-year undergraduates at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. First, the occurrence of American features of pronunciation is considered. Then there is an analysis of the pronunciation of initial TH, initial and final consonant clusters, L-vocalisation, confl...
Article
Many countries of Kachru's ‘expanding circle’ retain models of English which are based on native-speaker models; China, Japan and Korea provide good examples of this. The Hong Kong government has adopted the policy of making its citizens trilingual in Cantonese, Putonghua (Mandarin) and English and biliterate in Chinese and English. There is concer...
Article
In this article I first discuss a genre of writing, the Ars Dictaminis, which became popular in Europe from the 11th century and which flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. In particular I consider the arrangement of letters as advised in Ars Dictaminis treatises and show its influence from Cicero. I then briefly review key tenets of Chinese r...
Book
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This book represents a new publishing venture in terms of its range of concerns with regard to English in Southeast Asia. The chapters in the volume reflect the interests and themes of the annual Conferences on English in Southeast Asia held since 1996 among participating universities from nine countries: Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines, A...
Article
  An English lingua franca seems to be emerging in the ten ASEAN countries, and this paper investigates features of the pronunciation of this lingua franca. Twenty speakers, two from each of the ASEAN countries, were recorded while they were conversing in groups of three or four people, all from a different country. The speech that they used is ana...
Article
Chen Kui published the Wen Ze, The Rules of Writing) in 1170. Chinese scholars commonly describe this as the first systematic account of Chinese rhetoric. This paper will place the Wen Ze in its historical and rhetorical context and provide a translation and discussion of key extracts from the book. In providing a summary of the key points of The R...
Article
It is accepted that: there are currently more so-called non-native speakers of English than there are native speakers,that most current learners of English in the SE Asian region are more likely to use English with fellow learners from within the region than with people who speak native-speaker varieties, andthat English is increasingly used as a l...
Article
In this paper we shall first consider a selection of discourse and rhetorical norms of Modern Standard Chinese and then contrast them with a comparable selection of discourse and rhetorical norms of an ‘inner circle’ variety of English. As the transfer of discourse and rhetorical norms from a first to a second language commonly occurs, we predict t...
Article
Australian university students are characterised in some quarters, and by employer groups especially, as lacking a high facility with literacy skills. But what literacy skills do students actually need for tertiary study in Australia today? What expectations do students and teachers have about learning the particular literacy skills needed to acqui...
Article
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A recent study into tertiary literacy (Reid, Kirkpatrick, & Mulligan, 1998) found that many students have problems with comprehension and note-taking in lectures and that students from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) reported particular difficulty. Despite the increase in the number of international students attending Australian universitie...
Article
It has been argued that traditional Chinese text structures, in particular the four-part qi-cheng-zhuan-he and the ba gu wen (eight-legged essay) structures continue to influence the written English of Chinese students. In this article, the origins of these two traditional Chinese text structures will be described and examples of them given. In con...
Article
In this paper we first summarise how linguists have treated the notions of topic and comment in the context of Chinese sentence structure. We then review how a number of Chinese scholars have analysed sentence structure in Chinese. We then propose that certain sentences in MSC traditionally analysed as following a topic — comment sequence, particul...
Article
States that the difficult Asian languages such as modern standard Chinese, Japanese and Korean, should not be taught in primary or lower secondary schools to non-background speakers of those languages, that is, those whose mother tongue is related to the language being learned. Maintains that time should be spent in primary and secondary schools st...
Article
In this paper the way information is sequenced in rhetoric (persuasive argument) in Chinese is considered. After a brief review of the way certain scholars have classified persuasive argument in a number of Asian languages and cultures as somehow ‘inductive’, or ‘indirect’, persuasive argument in Chinese is then examined. This includes a discussion...
Article
The hypothesis presented in this paper is that the sequence of ‘modifier-modified’ is a fundamental unit of sequencing in Modern Standard Chinese (MSC). It is shown that this sequencing unit extends beyond word pairs such as adjective-noun to sentences with complex clauses and also that it constitutes a fundamental principle of sequencing at discou...
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This paper sets out to elucidate principles of sequencing in Modern Standard Chinese and to discover to what extent sequencing is an important variable in Modern Standard Chinese discourse. Data taken from a seminar and from three press conferences conducted in Modern Standard Chinese are analysed. The findings show that Modern Standard Chinese com...
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Introduction In this article I reflect on what adult Chinese learners of English may bring with them to the learning of academic writing in English. By Chinese, I am referring to speakers of Modern Standard Chinese (MSC -traditionally known as Mandarin) from the People's Republic of China. By academic writing, I mean the writing of argumentative te...

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This is a special issue in the European Journal of Language Policy. Studies reported in the Journal have so far mostly addressed language policy issues in European contexts. This special issue brings together six contributions addressing language policies in Asian contexts. The purpose is to join the discussion of language policies by bringing in Asian insights and experiences as well as from Asian perspectives. It is the hope of this special issue to enable the comparison of language policy research on the basis of the presumably East-West divide, so as to reveal overarching concerns beyond sociocultural and geo-political boundaries and to understand the convergence and/or divergence of language policy issues in different local representations in a wider context.