Andy Gibbs

Andy Gibbs
South African Medical Research Council | MRC · Gender and Health Research Unit

PhD (UKZN)

About

188
Publications
24,859
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,578
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
University of KwaZulu-Natal
September 2006 - December 2006
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2006 - August 2007
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Field of study
  • Health, Community and Development (Social Psychology)

Publications

Publications (188)
Article
Full-text available
Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidem...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men’s masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal sett...
Article
Full-text available
Participatory interventions with men and boys to transform masculinities are increasingly common to improve health and reduce intimate partner violence and HIV-related risk. Yet, despite this, there has been little consideration of how facilitators’ own masculinities shape interventions. In this analysis of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures, a g...
Article
Full-text available
Gender-based violence and HIV are highly prevalent in the harsh environment of informal settlements and reducing violence here is very challenging. The group intervention Stepping Stones has been shown to reduce men's perpetration of violence in more rural areas, but violence experienced by women in the study was not affected. Economic empowerment...
Article
Full-text available
Little research has assessed the impact of emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) and economic IPV on women’s mental health. Using cross-sectional data from the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention trial baseline, in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa we assess three questions. First, whether emotional IPV and economic IPV make in...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern amongst young people. Consequently, prevention efforts in the form of participatory interventions have been implemented, mainly in face-to-face settings. However, in recent years, there has been a growing interest to deliver participatory IPV prevention interventions online, and this...
Article
Informal settlements (high population density areas at the outskirts of urban areas characterized by lack basic amenities) in South Africa are consequences of apartheid regime’s discriminatory migrant labour and spatial policy and continue to grow. Living in informal settlements accompanies a mire of social/health challenges that threatens upward m...
Article
Full-text available
Background Evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown remains at an early stage. There is limited research about the impact of hard lockdown restrictions on families, specifically how these restrictions impact on women and children’s experiences of domestic violence, including intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse in South Africa. We...
Article
Background: Sexual relationship power (SRP) inequities, including having a controlling partner, have not been widely examined among women living with HIV (WLWH). We measured prevalence, and key outcomes of relationship control among WLWH in Canada. Methods: Baseline data from WLWH (≥16 years), reporting consensual sex in the last month enrolled...
Article
Full-text available
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is pervasive throughout the world, with profound consequences for women’s health. Research to understand the extent, causes and consequences of IPV relies on self-reported data on violence, and yet there is a paucity of research into the consistency with which women report lifetime IPV over t...
Article
Full-text available
Prospective studies assessing women’s experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use have shown mixed results and all are from high-income countries. Using longitudinal data from young women in South Africa we assess whether changes in physical IPV impact alcohol use, and whether changes in alcohol use impact physical IPV experience....
Article
Full-text available
Background: The impact of school closures due to COVID-19 raised widespread concerns about children's health and well-being. We examine the impact on the sexual health needs of learners in the context of COVID-19 related lockdowns in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: In july-November 2020 and August-November 2021 we conducted 24 in-depth i...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate associations and potential pathways between women’s lifetime exposure to traumatic events and their recent experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). Setting South African informal settlements near Durban. Participants 677 women, living in informal settlements, aged 18–30 years, currently out of school or formal emp...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the possibility of delivering violence prevention interventions online. This interest has been intensified by the ‘stay at home’ mandates brought about by COVID-19, which has pushed violence prevention practitioners to find innovative ways to deliver violence prevention interventions during the pandemic. Our study so...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global concern. Interventions designed to prevent IPV are often participatory in nature, implemented in face-to-face settings and seek to create 'safe social spaces'. We however do not fully understand how safe social spaces can be created in online spaces. Our study sought to understand the possibility of creat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human rights violation with social, economic, and health consequences for survivors, perpetrators, and society. Robust evidence on economic, social, and health impact, plus the cost of delivery of VAWG prevention, is critical to making the case for investment, particularly in low- and middle-i...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 1 in 3 women and poses a major human rights threat and public health burden, yet there is great variation in risk globally. Whilst individual risk factors are well-studied, less research has focussed on the structural and contextual drivers of IPV and how these co-occur to create contexts of hig...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 1 in 3 women and poses a major human rights threat and public health burden, yet there is great variation in risk globally. Whilst individual risk factors are well-studied, less research has focussed on the structural and contextual drivers of IPV and how these co-occur to create contexts of hig...
Chapter
This chapter takes a global focus on reviewing sexual assault prevention programs that engage boys and men across the globe. The international burden of sexual violence is discussed, with a special focus on studies within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Drawing mainly from work in LMICs, efforts made there to support international program...
Article
Full-text available
In low- and middle-income countries, group-based interventions to address intimate partner violence (IPV) working with men, whether or not they are violent themselves, are increasingly common. Stepping Stones and Creating Futures (SSCF) is one intervention demonstrating reductions in men's perpetration of IPV through working with men around gender...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a large and sustained impact on women's mental health, and so effective prevention is critical. A review of 96 rigorous evaluations of interventions for their impact on violence against women and girls (mostly IPV) found that several intervention approaches were effective. However, not every evaluation of a 'succ...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the potential to deliver participatory HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention interventions via digital platforms, though the majority of mHealth interventions have been didactic in approach. We undertook 10 in-depth interviews with male Peer Navigators (PNs) who had been extensively trained and working o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) may impact on the HIV-treatment cascade. Setting: Four high HIV-prevalence DREAMS health districts in South Africa. Methods: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected March 2017-June 2018, using random household sample of young (12-24 years) girls and women. Face-to-face interviews assesse...
Article
Full-text available
Cellphones have impacted on people's intimate sexual relationships. Using the framework of relationship formation, maintenance and ending, we explore how cellphones and attendant social media have impacted on relationships among a group of young women living in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa. We conducted in-depth repeat intervi...
Article
Full-text available
Children who experience violence from a parent are more likely to experience and perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) later in life. Drawing on cross-sectional data among married women enrolled in the baseline of a randomized control trial in Afghanistan, we assess risk factors for women’s use of violence against their children, focused on wo...
Article
Full-text available
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common globally, particularly among young people, but limited research has been done on the risk factors for GAD, particularly in low-income settings. We sought to understand risk factors for GAD among young (ages 18–32) women and men from urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa, enrolled in an inter...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To test associations between men’s past year alcohol use and patterns of drinking, and their perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual violence (NPSV). To test the associations between women’s reports of partner alcohol use and their experience of IPV, in three countries in Africa. Design Pooled analysis of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and workplace violence (WPV) against women are widespread globally, and we set out to establish whether an intervention on gender-transformative programming delivered to Bangladeshi garment factory workers could reduce women’s experience of IPV and WPV. We developed and tested an intervention, HERrespect...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the drivers of intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrated by men and experienced by women, is a critical task for developing effective prevention programmes. Objectives: To provide a comprehensive assessment of the drivers of IPV. Methods: A comprehensive review of the drivers of IPV, at the end of a six-year programme o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are a gold standard for evaluations in public health, economics and social sciences, including prevention of violence against women (VAW). They substantially reduce bias, but do not eliminate measurement error. Control arms often show change, but this is rarely systematically examined. Objective: We p...
Article
Gender inequity, including low sexual relationship power (SRP), is an important determinant of intimate partner violence (IPV) and negative sexual, reproductive, and mental health. Different versions of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) are commonly used within youth studies to examine how gender inequities, including controlling behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Multiple masculinities have been explicated through latent class analysis (LCA) in South Africa, and a question arises as to whether men can be similarly grouped by their behaviour in very different cultural contexts, and whether an analysis would point to similar origins to men's use of violence against women. The UN Multi-country Stu...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Women with disabilities experience higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than women without disabilities. There remains limited evidence about whether IPV prevention interventions for the general population have benefits for women with disabilities that compare to those for women without disabilities. Using data from IPV prev...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Informal settlements have high rates of poor mental health, yet little research has looked at PTSD-depression co-occurrence in these settings. We investigated the prevalence of depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD-depression amongst a non-clinical sample of 18-30 year old women, in informal settlements in South Africa. Methods: Cross-sec...
Article
Full-text available
Background Providing viral load (VL) results to people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in low and middle-income countries. Point-of-care (POC) VL testing could improve ART monitoring and the quality and efficiency of differentiated models of HIV care. We assessed the acceptability of POC VL testing within...
Article
War and conflict impact on women’s mental health and experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), including in the occupied Palestinian Territories (oPT). Drawing on a cross-sectional population representative sample (n=534) collected in February 2017 in the oPT, we sought to (i) characterise the patterning of occupation-related events among wom...
Article
Adolescent dating violence negatively affects millions of young people worldwide. Through a global systematic review, we synthesised evidence from rigorous studies of prevention programmes for adolescent dating violence. Our aims were to: (1) describe the breadth of research in this area and evidence of programme effects, and (2) identify gaps in t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This innovative three year project (2020-2023), funded by the UK Research and Innovation's (UKRI) Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF), seeks to understand how contextual factors shape young South African's agency and their HIV-acquisition risk, as part of a syndemic of intimate partner violence (IPV), poor mental health, and substance misuse. Mo...
Article
Full-text available
Working with men to prevent their perpetration of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence is increasingly recognised as effective. However, in any given context there are a multiplicity of masculinities, each of which has a different association with violence perpetration. There remains lack of clarity about whether such intervent...
Article
Full-text available
A critical component of evaluations of the effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programmes involves understanding pathways of change among individuals who participate in such programmes, and the intervention or contextual elements that support or hinder these. This paper draws on qualitative evaluations of four intimate partner vio...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate toilet facilities may increase women's risk of experiencing non-partner sexual violence. We sought to assess the association between young (18-24 year-olds) women's access to toilets and past year non-partner rape experience, in deprived communities in South Africa. Data came from cross-sectional, population-based survey from poor commun...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the impact of the Stepping Stones Creating Futures (SSCF) intervention on young women in informal settlements in eThekwini, South Africa. Specifically, whether following participation in the intervention the young women experienced a reduction in intimate partner violence, strengthened agency and shifted gender relations. Wh...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, most efforts to evaluate programmes designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) assume that they affect all people similarly. Understanding whether interventions are more or less effective for different subgroups of individuals, however, can yield important insights for programming. In this study, we conducted subgroup analyses to...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the independent association between intimate partner violence (IPV) severity and all-cause mortality among women living with HIV (WLHIV). Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire linked to longitudinal vital statistics data. Methods: We examined the lifetime prevalence of IPV and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates by...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol and drug misuse (ADM) pose a significant disease burden globally. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding risk factors associated with women’s ADM, particularly those in marginalised settings. We investigated risk factors associated with ADM amongst young women in urban informal settlements in South Africa. Bivariate and multivariable log...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) for millions of people living with HIV requires efficient, client-centred models of differentiated ART delivery. In South Africa, the Centralised Chronic Medication Dispensing and Distribution (CCMDD) programme allows over 1 million people to collect chronic medication, including ART, from commun...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Emerging evidence suggests working with men to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration can be effective. However, it is unknown whether all men benefit equally, or whether different groups of men respond differentially to interventions. Methods We conducted trajectory modelling using longitudinal data from men enrolled in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores reproductive decision-making among young women in South Africa’s informal settlements and considers whether and how agency and social norm theory inform their decisions. Understanding whether, when and how young women make decisions about conception and motherhood is critical for supporting women to avoid unplanned, early mother...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Emotional and economic intimate partner violence (IPV) are common. There remain outstanding questions: 1) whether the patterning of emotional and economic IPV varies across contexts, and whether the current indicators adequately capture this variation; 2) whether simply binary or more complex modelling strategies are appropriate; 3) wh...
Article
Full-text available
To assess i) whether there is an independent association between HIV-prevalence and settlement types (urban formal, urban informal, rural formal, rural informal), and, ii) whether this changes over time, in South Africa. We draw on four (2002; 2005; 2008; 2012) cross-sectional South African household surveys. Data is analysed by sex (male/female),...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction We assessed whether the Women for Women International (WfWI) economic and social empowerment programme could reduce women’s experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression in Afghanistan. Methods We conducted a two-arm individually randomised controlled trial in six urban and peri-urban communities. Communities were sele...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The high burden of disease in South Africa presents challenges to public health services. Point-of-care (POC) technologies have the potential to address these gaps and improve healthcare systems. This study ascertained the acceptability and impact of POC CD4 testing on patients' health and clinical management. Methods: We conducted a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Young women in sub-Saharan Africa remain at the epicentre of the HIV epidemic, with surveillance data indicating persistent high levels of HIV incidence. In South Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) account for a quarter of all new HIV infections. Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe (DREAMS) is a...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) is extremely common and has significant health and social consequences, yet typically receives much less attention in research and programming than physical and sexual IPV. This limits our understanding of how women experience and understand emotional IPV in different settings, which is required to inform e...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Young people, not in formal employment or education, face exceedingly high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluated whether Stepping Stones and Creating Futures, compared with a wait-list control, can reduce IPV and strengthen livelihoods. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial with 34 clusters in urban informal s...
Article
Full-text available
Men whose sexual behaviors place them at risk of HIV often exhibit a "cluster" of behaviors, including alcohol misuse and violence against women. Called the "Substance Abuse, Violence and AIDS (SAVA) syndemic," this intersecting set of issues is poorly understood among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to determine cross-sectional asso...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Measures used to assess equitable relationship dynamics, including the sexual relationship power scale (SRPS) have previously been associated with lower HIV-risk among young women, and reduced perpetration of intimate partner violence among men. However, few studies describe how the SRPS has been adapted and validated for use within...
Article
Understanding factors shaping attendance at behavioural interventions is critical for programmatic planning. Through the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention trial amongst young (18-30) women and men to reduce intimate partner violence and strengthen livelihoods, we prospectively assessed factors associated with intervention attendance...
Article
Full-text available
'Honour killing', the murder of women to preserve family reputation, is well recognised but infrequently systematically researched. This paper has three hypotheses. First, in families where women report an 'honour killing' there is more violence against women and girls, second these women are more likely to report more patriarchal gender attitudes...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Adolescent girls and young women aged 15 to 24 years have some of the highest HIV incidence rates globally, with girls two to four times more likely to be living with HIV than their male peers. High levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by this age group is a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition. While behaviou...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the factors associated with the cultural phenomenon of bacha posh in Afghanistan (in which girls are dressed and raised as boys), which occurs against a background of rigid gender norms and the male-centric nature of Afghan families. Survey data were collected from 1463 women in two provinces of Afghanistan, Kabul and Nangarhar....