Andy Crabtree

Andy Crabtree
Professor, School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham · All publications here: http://www.andy-crabtree.com

All publications here: www.andy-crabtree.com

About

223
Publications
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5,874
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Additional affiliations
January 2002 - present
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • http://www.mrl.nott.ac.uk

Publications

Publications (223)
Preprint
We consider a series of legal provocations emerging from the proposed European Union AI Act 2021 (AIA) and how they open up new possibilities for HCI in the design and development of trustworthy autonomous systems. The AIA continues the by design trend seen in recent EU regulation of emerging technologies. The AIA targets AI developments that pose...
Article
Full-text available
The home is a site marked by the increasing collection and use of personal data, whether online or from connected devices. This trend is accompanied by new data protection regulation and the development of privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) that seek to enable individual control over the processing of personal data. However, a great deal of the...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as an in principle means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is key to building consumer trust and is mandated by the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). We focus here on the external data subject accountability requirement specified by G...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the notion of accountability in ordinary action and how it applies to our understanding of privacy. It reflects findings from a range of ethnographic studies in the home that highlight that privacy is a matter of accountability management. This is organised through common-sense methods that exploit physical resources alongside...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores and unpacks the socially negotiated management of personal data in everyday life, particularly in a domestic context. It presents a study of the mundane reasoning involved in arriving at data sharing decisions; reveals that privacy is not the default for data management in the home; that when informational privacy is occasione...
Chapter
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This volume brings together a collection of interdisciplinary works that are in various ways concerned to address the societal challenge to privacy and security occasioned by the Internet of Things (IoT). The chapters in this volume cover legal, social science, systems, and design research perspectives. Taken together they seek to enable the broade...
Chapter
Full-text available
The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requires that developers exercise due diligence and implement Data Protection by Design and Default (DPbD). Data Protection Impact Assessments (DPIAs) are recommended as a general heuristic. However, developers are not well equipped to deal with legal texts. Privacy engineering shifts the emphasis...
Chapter
Full-text available
The digital transformation of the recording industry is one of the most well-known in recent times, with the Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) making new methods of music production available to amateurs and professionals in almost any setting beyond the traditional recording studio. However, the uptake of AI in this domain is seemingly impeded by DA...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from the deployment of a technology probe—the connected shower—and implications for the development of ‘living services’ or autonomous context-aware consumer-oriented IoT services that exploit sensing to gain consumer ‘insight’ and drive personalised service innovation. It contributes to the literature on water sustaina...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
UbiComp has been envisioned to bring about a future dominated by calm computing technologies making our everyday lives ever more convenient. Yet the same vision has also attracted criticism for encouraging a solitary and passive lifestyle. The aim of this paper is to explore and elaborate these tensions further by examining the human values surroun...
Preprint
Full-text available
UbiComp has been envisioned to bring about a future dominated by calm computing technologies making our everyday lives ever more convenient. Yet the same vision has also attracted criticism for encouraging a solitary and passive lifestyle. The aim of this paper is to explore and elaborate these tensions further by examining the human values surroun...
Chapter
This chapter outlines some key approaches towards understanding the unremarkable. It focuses first on a sociological orientation to the everyday world as key to the enterprise, and then on a variety of complimentary approaches for elaborating or surfacing the unremarkable character of everyday life. It considers the kinds of data resources that are...
Chapter
Over recent years the term ‘in the wild’ has increasingly appeared in publications within the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The phrase has become synonymous with a range of approaches that focus upon carrying out research-based studies reporting on user behaviour in ‘natural’, ‘situated’ contexts, in distinction to lab-based studies. T...
Article
Full-text available
The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has recently come into effect and insofar as Internet of Things (IoT) applications touch EU citizens or their data, developers are obliged to exercise due diligence and ensure they undertake Data Protection by Design and Default (DPbD). GDPR mandates the use of Data Protection Impact Assessments (D...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lay and professional reasoning has it that newly introduced data protection regulation in Europe-GDPR-mandates a 'right to an explanation'. This has been read as requiring that the machine learning (ML) community build 'explainable machines' to enable legal compliance. In reviewing relevant accountability requirements of GDPR and measures developed...
Article
Full-text available
The domestic environment is a key area for the design and deployment of autonomous systems. Yet research indicates their adoption is already being hampered by a variety of critical issues including trust, privacy and security. This paper explores how potential users relate to the concept of autonomous systems in the home and elaborates further poin...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the importance of accountability to data protection (DP), and how it can be built into the Internet of Things (IoT). The need to build accountability into the IoT is motivated by the opaque nature of distributed data flows, inadequate consent mechanisms and lack of interfaces enabling end-user control over the behaviours of In...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce Zest (REST over ZeroMQ), a middleware technology in support of an Internet of Things (IoT). Our work is influenced by the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) but emphasises systems that can support fine-grained access control to both resources and audit information, and can provide features such as asynchronous commu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research indicates that personal adoption of emerging ubicomp technologies is being notoriously hampered by a variety of critical issues including trust, privacy and security. Issues such as these cannot be studied and understood by evaluating computer systems in isolation, but rather by taking a 'big picture' approach and examining their synergy w...
Data
Video showcase to be presented at the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Glasgow UK. Also available at https://vimeo.com/316738022
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines ‘the routine shop’ as part of a project that is exploring automation and autonomy in the Internet of Things. In particular we explicate the ‘work’ involved in anticipating need using an ethnomethodological analysis that makes visible the mundane, ‘seen but unnoticed’ methodologies that household members accountably employ to org...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Occupancy modelling for efficient energy management of indoor spaces has gained significant recent attention. Unfortunately, many such models rely on copying sensor data to the cloud for third-party services to process, creating risks of privacy breach. Such matters have become particularly pertinent for companies handling data of EU citizens due t...
Conference Paper
In the domestic IoT domain, data is often collected by physical sensors and actuators embedded in the household and used to provide contextually relevant services to end users. Given that this data is often personal, the EU's General Data Protection Regulation can implicate IoT app developers, requiring them to adhere to "data protection by design...
Chapter
We present an overview of the Databox application development environment or SDK as a means of enabling trusted IoT app development at the network edge. The Databox platform is a dedicated domestic platform that stores IoT, mobile and cloud data and executes local data processing by third party apps to provide end-user control over data flow. Key c...
Preprint
Full-text available
The domestic environment is a key area for the design and deployment of autonomous systems. Yet research indicates their adoption is already being hampered by a variety of critical issues including trust, privacy and security. This paper explores how potential users relate to the concept of autonomous systems in the home and elaborates further poin...
Conference Paper
The turn towards personal data to drive novel media experiences has resulted in a shift in the priorities and challenges associated with media creation and dissemination. This paper takes up the challenge of explicating this novel and dynamic scenario through an interview study of employees delivering diverse personal data driven media services wit...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the Databox application development environment or SDK as a means of enabling trusted IoT app development at the network edge. The Databox platform is a dedicated domestic platform that stores IoT, mobile and cloud data and executes local data processing by third party apps to provide end-user control over data flow and enable data minim...
Article
Open Access Link - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00779-017-1066-5. . . . . . . . . When we initially thought about running a special theme on the Internet of things, we were motivated; as many are e.g. [11, 9, 15, 10], by a concern with the threat to privacy that accompanies the widespread rollout of connected devices. Edith Ramire...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this paper is upon how people handle the sharing of personal data as an interactional concern. A number of ethnographic studies of domestic environments are drawn upon in order to articulate a range of circumstances under which data may be shared. In particular a distinction is made between the in situ sharing of data with others aroun...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as a means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is a key to building consumer trust and is mandated by the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). We focus here on the ‘external’ data subject accountability requirement specified by GDPR and ho...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as a means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is a key to building consumer trust and is mandated by the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). We focus here on the “external” data subject accountability requirement specified by GDPR and ho...
Article
Full-text available
Internet-connected devices are increasingly present in our homes, and privacy breaches, data thefts, and security threats are becoming commonplace. In order to avoid these, we must first understand the behaviour of these devices. In this work, we analyse network traces from a testbed of common IoT devices, and describe general methods for fingerpri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to enable applications that foster a more efficient, sustainable, and healthy way of life. If end-users are to take full advantage of these developments we foresee the need for future IoT systems and services to include an element of autonomy and support the delegation of agency to software processes and connec...
Article
Full-text available
We present fieldwork findings from the deployment of an interactive sensing system that supports the work of energy advisors who give face-to-face advice to low-income households in the UK. We focus on how the system and the data it produced are articulated in the interactions between professional energy advisors and their clients, and how they col...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we examine the notion of privacy as promoted in the digital economy and how it has been taken up as a design challenge in the fields of CSCW, HCI and Ubiquitous Computing. Against these prevalent views we present an ethnomethodological study of digital privacy practices in 20 homes in the UK and France, concentrating in particular upo...
Conference Paper
We present fieldwork findings from the deployment of an interactive sensing system that supports the work of energy advisors who give face-to-face advice to low-income households in the UK. We focus on how the system and the data it produced are articulated in the interactions between professional energy advisors and their clients, and how they col...
Article
...While current industry solutions largely put emphasis on encryption as a privacy-preserving measure, there is more to privacy than the confidentiality of data at rest or in motion [7]. Furthermore, encryption often will not stop industry accessing personal data [13], and metadata can be as or more revealing than data itself [1]. Thus, in conside...
Conference Paper
Media researchers are adopting personalisation in diverse ways to deliver increasingly context-sensitive and customised media experiences. This paper explores user attitudes towards a personalised Electronic Programme Guide which tailors media recommendations based on users’ personal data. We used scenario based exploration enabled by the use of pr...
Conference Paper
Games that revolve around user-generated content have been explored mainly from a ludic perspective, leaving the work practices that are entailed in content production underexplored. What we argue in this paper is that there is an underlying economy in Minecraft’s community, which plays a significant role in the game’s current form. Our ethnographi...
Conference Paper
This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as a means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is a key to building consumer trust and mandated in data protection legislation. We briefly outline the ‘external’ data subject accountability requirement specified in actual legislation in Europe and proposed legis...
Article
This paper explores the importance of accountability to data protection, and how it can be built into the Internet of Things (IoT). The need to build accountability into the IoT is motivated by the opaque nature of distributed data flows, inadequate consent mechanisms, and lack of interfaces enabling end-user control over the behaviours of internet...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to generate large amounts of heterogeneous data from diverse sources including physical sensors, user devices, and social media platforms. Over the last few years, significant attention has been focused on personal data, particularly data generated by smart wearable and smart home devices. Making personal da...
Conference Paper
We are all increasingly the subjects of data collection and processing systems that use data generated both about and by us to provide and optimise a wide range of services. Means for others to collect and process data that concerns each of us -- often referred to possessively as "your data" -- are only increasing with the long-heralded advent of t...
Conference Paper
We are all increasingly the subjects of data collection and processing systems that use data generated both about and by us to provide and optimise a wide range of services. Means for others to collect and process data that concerns each of us – often referred to possessively as “your data” – are only increasing with the long-heralded advent of the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper offers a sociological perspective on data protection regulation and its relevance to design. From this perspective, proposed regulation in Europe and the USA seeks to create a new economic actor—the consumer as personal data trader—through new legal frameworks that shift the locus of agency and control in data processing towards the indi...
Chapter
We have moved from a world where computing is siloed and specialised, to a world where computing is ubiquitous and everyday. In many, if not most, parts of the world, networked computing is now mundane as both foreground (e.g., smartphones, tablets) and background (e.g., road tra c management, financial systems) technologies. This has permitted, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, we have experienced the proliferation of videogames that have, as their main mode of play, the creation of in-game content. Even though existing literature has looked into various characteristics of these games, one of their aspects that warrants further exploration is the monetisation practices that can emerge in their context. Th...
Article
Full-text available
This series of studies make it clear that a wide range of both physical and digital resources are involved in domestic music consumption. The selection of digital resources is particularly evident, and it can be observed that domestic music consumption is a fragmented business, taking advantage of many different "channels'' for getting, using and p...
Conference Paper
This paper presents findings from a co-design project that aims to augment the practices of professional energy advisors with environmental data from sensors deployed in clients’ homes. Premised on prior ethnographic observations we prototyped a sensor platform to support the work of tailoring advice-giving to particular homes. We report on the dep...
Conference Paper
This paper offers a sociological perspective on data protection regulation and its relevance to the design of digital technologies that exploit or ‘trade in’ personal data. From this perspective, proposed data protection regulations in Europe and the US seek to create a new economic actor – the consumer as personal data trader – through new legal f...
Conference Paper
This paper is about human interaction with things in the home. It is of potential relevance to developers of the Internet of Things (IoT), but it is not a technological paper. Rather, it presents a preliminary observational study of a day in a life of things in the home. The study was done out of curiosity - to see, given the emphasis on ‘things’ i...
Conference Paper
Notions like ‘Big Data’ and the ‘Internet of Things’ turn upon anticipated harvesting of personal data through ubiquitous computing and networked sensing systems. It is largely presumed that understandings of people’s everyday interactions will be relatively easy to ‘read off’ of such data and that this, in turn, poses a privacy threat. An ethnogra...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This paper reports on a study of 4CG, a coop- erative enterprise located in rural Wales. 4CG operates for the good of the local economy and seeks to diversify its commercial portfolio through the creation of an online shop retailing goods and services from local suppliers. The paper compliments prior field studies focusing on rural enterpr...
Conference Paper
Human Data Interaction (HDI) is an emerging field of research that seeks to support end-users in the day-to-day management of their personal digital data. This is a programmatic paper that seeks to elaborate foundational challenges that face HDI from an interactional perspective. It is rooted in and reflects foundational lessons from social studies...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-report methods such as experience sampling provide an important means of understanding individual behaviors. The arrival of wearable camera technologies opens up research opportunities to provoke and explore in-depth contextual self-reflection on individual behaviors. Studies with wearable cameras have the potential to extend or/and complement...
Article
We draw on ethnographic studies to understand the collaborative nature of network policies or rules in domestic settings. We outline the technical nature of network policy in enterprise domains and how this contrasts with the social or collaborative nature of rules in everyday life. We then consider the deployment of network control and policy syst...
Chapter
In this chapter we take a closer look at the workings of ethnography in social science, in particular in anthropology, to understand better the work it has traditionally done as pointed to in Chap. 2. As an introduction to this matter we explore how the rise of ubiquitous computing in systems design has generated calls for ‘new’ ways of handling th...
Chapter
We have argued that ‘new’ approaches to ethnography in systems design return ethnography to its old remit of providing interpretations of and giving meaning to social and cultural matters. Something that features strongly within calls for ‘new’ approaches is the fundamental assertion that observations are always theory laden and that ethnography is...
Chapter
This chapter lays out some necessary context for the book by examining how the problem it addresses first came about as systems design encountered the need to engage more concretely with the social. We start by looking at the interdisciplinary character of work in systems design and how Human Computer Interaction (HCI) arose as an area of interest...
Chapter
In this chapter we bring together different threads of our argument to consider the difference between ethnomethodology and traditional forms of social science that make use of ethnography. Ethnomethodology provides for a complete respecification of how the social should be apprehended through the study of the ways in which people achieve the order...
Chapter
In this final chapter we offer a demonstration of the proposition that design can be systematically anchored in the social through the study of members’ methodologies. We start by reviewing Suchman’s foundational studies of human-machine communication before moving on to consider Dourish and Button’s reflections on accountability as a resource for...
Chapter
In this chapter we inspect how the movement of the computer away from the desktop and the workplace has led to calls for ‘new’ approaches to ethnography within systems design, with the accompanying suggestion that ethnography should now be used to provide an understanding (rather than an explication) of culture and the meaning that technology has f...
Chapter
In this chapter we look at how various kinds of ethnographic studies done within social science and systems design have tended to generate ‘scenic descriptions’ of action and interaction. Scenic description orients us to grossly observable features of action and interaction without examining the ‘just how’ of its doing, i.e., just how what was done...