Andrzej Klimczuk

Andrzej Klimczuk
Warsaw School of Economics | SGH · Department of Public Policy

PhD

About

419
Publications
115,518
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Citations
Introduction
Andrzej Klimczuk, PhD, a sociologist and public policy expert, assistant professor in the Department of Public Policy of the Collegium of Socio-Economics at the Warsaw School of Economics, Poland. Author of many scientific papers in the field of gerontology and social policy.
Additional affiliations
February 2020 - present
Warsaw School of Economics
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Assistant Professor in the Department of Public Policy of the Collegium of Socio-Economics at the Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
September 2011 - December 2011
Białostocka Fundacja Kształcenia Kadr
Position
  • Project: Startery podlaskiej gospodarki. Analiza gospodarczych obszarów wzrostu i innowacji województwa podlaskiego (Podlasie economy starters. Analysis of economic growth and innovation areas of Podlaskie Voivodeship)
March 2011 - March 2012
Białystok Technical University
Position
  • Project: Foresight Technologiczny „NT FOR Podlaskie 2020” Regionalna strategia rozwoju nanotechnologii (Technology Foresight project „NT FOR Podlaskie 2020” Regional strategy for the development of nanotechnology)
Education
October 2012 - October 2013
Cracow University of Economics
Field of study
  • Cracow University of Economics
October 2009 - July 2012
October 2003 - October 2008

Publications

Publications (419)
Presentation
Full-text available
27 maja 2022 r. odbyło się hybrydowe seminarium (w miejscu i online) zorganizowane z inicjatywy Katedry Polityki Publicznej SGH w ramach europejskiego projektu badawczego DIRECT II. Spotkanie poświęcone było problematyce kształtowania dobrego klimatu w miejscach pracy w obliczu zagrożeń psychospołecznych. Szersze tło dyskusji stanowiło zagadnienie...
Preprint
Full-text available
The report illustrates the state of the art of the most successful AAL applications and functions based on audio and video data, namely (i) lifelogging and self-monitoring, (ii) remote monitoring of vital signs, (iii) emotional state recognition, (iv) food intake monitoring, activity and behaviour recognition, (v) activity and personal assistance,...
Book
Full-text available
The book "Creativity and Innovation Affairs: Are they or are they not…?" is dedicated to clarify ambiguous concepts from the world of creativity and innovation. One of the initial triggers for the development of the book was the perceived ambiguity of the binomials Design vs. Design Thinking and Innovation vs. Invention. Frequently, designers and i...
Book
Full-text available
Social innovations are usually understood as new ideas, initiatives, or solutions that make it possible to meet the challenges of societies in fields such as social security, education, employment, culture, health, environment, housing, and economic development. On the one hand, many citizen science activities serve to achieve scientific as well as...
Technical Report
Full-text available
It is a matter of fact that Europe is facing more and more crucial challenges regarding health and social care due to the demographic change and the current economic context. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has stressed this situation even further, thus highlighting the need for taking action. Active and Assisted Living (AAL) technologies come as a vi...
Article
Full-text available
The presented Research Topic explores the potential of citizen science to contribute to the development of social innovations. It sets the ground for analysis of mutual relations between two strong and embedded in the literature concepts: citizen science and social innovation. Simultaneously, the collection opens a discussion on how these two ideas...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book considers the development of the sharing and collaborative economy with a European focus, mapping across economic sectors, and country-specific case studies. It looks at the roles the sharing economy plays in sharing and redistribution of goods and services across the population in order to maximise their functionality, moneta...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to analyse approaches to the sharing economy from the perspective of public policy science. In the first part of the text, attention is paid to perceiving the development of the emerging sharing economy not only as phenomenon with positive economic effects but also as a set of public problems (e.g., on the labour mark...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter is the final one in the volume of collected papers aiming to discuss the sharing economy in Europe. The idea of the book emerged within the research network created by the COST Action CA16121 ‘From Sharing to Caring: Examining Socio-Technical Aspects of the Collaborative Economy.’ The authors of the chapter sum up theoretical and empiri...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explains the rationale behind the book. It provides basic definitions of the concept of the sharing economy as well as the primary meanings related to the subject of the analysis undertaken in the subsequent chapters. This Introduction also includes a description of the main benefits of the analysis of the sharing economy from a Europe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of Working Group (WG) 4 of the COST Action NET4Age-Friendly is to examine existing policies, advocacy, and funding opportunities and to build up relations with policy makers and funding organisations. Also, to synthesize and improve existing knowledge and models to develop from effective business and evaluation models, as well as to g...
Book
Full-text available
This encyclopedia brings together a comprehensive collection of work highlighting established research and emerging science in all relevant disciplines in gerontology and population aging. It covers the breadth of the field, gives readers access to all major sub-fields, and illustrates their interconnectedness with other disciplines. With more than...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressin...
Research
Full-text available
Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressin...
Book
Full-text available
Demographic Analysis - Selected Concepts, Tools, and Applications presents basic definitions, practical techniques, and methods, as well as examples of studies based on the usage of demographic analysis in various institutions and economic entities. The volume covers studies related to population distribution, urbanization, migration, population ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a "society for all ages" concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Demography is typically defined as the study of human populations and the changes in their quantity associated with migration, fertility, and mortality. The term demography comes from Greek word and means “describing people.” Thus, this discipline deals with the characteristics of the population, taking into account features such as, sex ratio, age...
Chapter
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The term collaborative economy (CE) itself is relatively new, and according to the European Commission, the term is used interchangeably with the term sharing economy (SE). The term SE was frequently used when early models, such as Airbnb or ZipCar, appeared and gained popularity, especially in the United States, but it was afterwards substituted w...
Book
Full-text available
The book titled The Collaborative Economy in Action: European Perspectives is one of the important outcomes of the COST Action CA16121, From Sharing to Caring: Examining the Socio-Technical Aspects of the Collaborative Economy (short name: Sharing and Caring; sharingandcaring.eu) that was active between March 2017 and September 2021. The Action was...
Technical Report
Full-text available
ICTs, personal data, digital rights, the GDPR, data privacy, online security… these terms, and the concepts behind them, are increasingly common in our lives. Some of us may be familiar with them, but others are less aware of the growing role of ICTs and data in our lives - and the potential risks this creates. These risks are even more pronounced...
Chapter
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The paper presents the concept of the "silver economy" as an economic system related to population aging and underlines the features of this policy idea. The study first introduces the discourse and stages of the process of constructing this system by international and national actors of the public policy on aging. Next, a critical analysis of the...
Book
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Opracowanie ma charakter poglądowo-teoretyczny, powstało bowiem na podstawie przeglądu dostępnej literatury przedmiotu (polskiej i zagranicznej). Publikacja skierowana jest zarówno do naukowców jak i studentów zajmujących się tematyką starzenia się ludności, starości i osób starszych oraz do coraz szerszego grona zainteresowanych tymi zagadnieniami...
Chapter
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Artykuł zawiera przegląd wybranych powiązań pandemii COVID-19 z teoriami ryzyka. W pierwszej kolejności przedstawiono podstawowe pojęcia dotyczące przygotowania i mobilizowania sieci podmiotów polityki publicznej do wspólnych działań w warunkach niepewności. W dalszej części omówiono zagadnienie gotowości na ryzyko wystąpienia pandemii i jej zwalcz...
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Strategiczne szanse i zagrożenia - Polska w Unii Europejskiej w okresie 2021-2027, Gazeta SGH, 15.03.2021, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/strategiczne-szanse-i-zagrozenia-polska-w-unii-europejskiej-w-okresie
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Cykl seminarium online "Polityka publiczna oparta na wiedzy i faktach": Pandemia a polityka gospodarcza wobec MŚP, Gazeta SGH, 15.03.2021, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/cykl-seminarium-online-polityka-publiczna-oparta-na-wiedzy-i-faktach
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Polityka publiczna oparta na wiedzy i faktach: Fakty i mity pandemii COVID-19, Gazeta SGH, 19.01.2021, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/polityka-publiczna-oparta-na-wiedzy-i-faktach-fakty-i-mity-pandemii
Chapter
Full-text available
This book is the culmination of the COST Action CA15212 Citizen Science to Promote Creativity, Scientific Literacy, and Innovation throughout Europe . It represents the final stage of a shared journey taken over the last 4 years. During this relatively short period, our citizen science practices and perspectives have rapidly evolved. In this chapte...
Article
Full-text available
Artykuł zawiera przegląd wybranych powiązań pandemii COVID-19 z teoriami ryzyka. W pierwszej kolejności przedstawiono podstawowe pojęcia dotyczące przygotowania i mobilizowania sieci podmiotów polityki publicznej do wspólnych działań w warunkach niepewności. W dalszej części omówiono zagadnienie gotowości na ryzyko wystąpienia pandemii i jej zwalcz...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a “society for all ages” concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the...
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a “society for all ages” concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social entrepreneurship is usually understood as an economic activity which focuses at social values, goals, and investments that generates surpluses for social entrepreneurs as individuals, groups, and startups who are working for the benefit of communities, instead of strictly focusing mainly at the financial profit, economic values, and the bene...
Chapter
Full-text available
An area agency on aging (AAA) is a public or private nonprofit organization designated by the state to address the needs and concerns of all older persons at the regional and local levels in the United States (Administration for Community Living (ACL) 2019). AAAs have a successful history of developing, coordinating, and implementing comprehensive...
Chapter
Full-text available
Financial gerontology can be defined as investigating relations between finances and aging. Authors such as Neal E. Cutler, Kouhei Komamura, Davis W. Gregg, Shinya Kajitani, Kei Sakata, and Colin McKenzie (Kajitani et al. 2017) affirm that financial literacy is an effect of aging with concern about the issue of finances, as well as stating that it...
Chapter
Full-text available
Consumers are increasingly aware of the health- and safety-related implications of the food which they can buy in the market. At the same time, households have become more aware of their environmental responsibilities. Regarding the production of food, a crucial and multifunctional role is played by agriculture. The way vegetables, fruits, and othe...
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Seminarium online: Polska i świat po pandemii: nastroje społeczno-gospodarcze, Gazeta SGH, 27.05.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/seminarium-line-polska-i-swiat-po-pandemii-nastroje-spoleczno.
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Seminarium online: Polska i świat po pandemii: Rozwój i kultura, Gazeta SGH, 08.06.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/seminarium-line-polska-i-swiat-po-pandemii-rozwoj-i-kultura.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this workshop was to ask potential end-users of the citizens’ information pack on legal and ethical issues around ICTs (i.e. citizens and citizens’ groups) the following questions: What is your knowledge of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and what actions have you taken in response to these regulations? What challenge...
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Nastroje społeczne w dół. Czego w postpandemicznej rzeczywistości obawiamy się najbardziej?, Gazeta SGH, 27.05.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=meritum/nastroje-spoleczne-w-dol-czego-w-postpandemicznej-rzeczywistosci-obawiamy-sie-najbardziej.
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Seminarium online: Polska i świat po pandemii: koszty społeczne i solidarność społeczna, Gazeta SGH, 04.05.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/seminarium-line-polska-i-swiat-po-pandemii-koszty-spoleczne-i.
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Seminarium online: Polska i świat po pandemii: Czy polski system ochrony zdrowia da się uzdrowić?, Gazeta SGH, 03.06.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/seminarium-line-polska-i-swiat-po-pandemii-czy-polski-system-ochrony.
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Seminarium online: Polska i świat po pandemii: kryzys edukacyjny – oświata i szkolnictwo wyższe, Gazeta SGH, 18.05.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/seminarium-line-polska-i-swiat-po-pandemii-kryzys-edukacyjny-oswiata-i.
Presentation
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Seminarium online: Polska i świat po pandemii: sprawne zarządzanie państwem i społeczeństwem, Gazeta SGH, 11.05.2020, https://gazeta.sgh.waw.pl/?q=konferencje-debaty-spotkania/seminarium-line-polska-i-swiat-po-pandemii-sprawne-zarzadzanie-panstwem.
Book
Full-text available
In recent years we may observe increasing interest in the development of social innovation both regarding theory as well as the practice of responding to social problems and challenges. One of the crucial challenges at the beginning of the 21st century is population ageing. Various new and innovative initiatives, programs, schemes, and projects to...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW Gerontology together with its subfields, such as social gerontology (sociology of ageing), geragogy, educational gerontology, political gerontology, environmental gerontology, and financial gerontology, is still a relatively new academic discipline that is currently intensively developing, expanding research fields and combining various th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Globally, the population is ageing, which has serious consequences for businesses. The prosperity of companies is crucially dependent on the ability to effectively manage their employees, including older workers. Best practice in age management is defined as those measures that combat age barriers and/or promote age diversity. These measures may en...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Author's Comments: Economic Foundations for Creative Ageing Policy, Volume II, "Newsletter of the Research Network Ageing in Europe", Winter 2019, Issue 24, pp. 3-4, https://www.ageing-in-europe.net/images/newsletter24.pdf.
Chapter
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Core-periphery imbalances and regional disparities figure prominently on the agenda of several disciplines, which result from their enormous impact on economic and social development around the world. In sociology, international relations, and economics, this concept is crucial in explanations of economic exchange. There are few countries that play...
Chapter
Full-text available
Trust is important in the food sector. This is primarily because households entrust some of the tasks related to food preparation to food processors. The public is concerned about pesticides, food additives, preservatives, and processed foods that may harbor unwanted chemicals or additives. After numerous food scandals, consumers expect food proces...
Chapter
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Innovation means change. In a case of food and agriculture, it can be the application of new proposals for raw material processing technology, packaging of products, new food additives, and new agricultural technologies. Innovation may lead to reducing or preventing adverse changes caused by microorganisms, oxidation of food ingredients, and enzyma...
Chapter
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Consumers are becoming increasingly more informed about food systems and are interested not only in healthy, safe, and tasty food but also sustainable production, animal welfare, climate changes, and food waste. Consumers are also more focused on changing their lifestyle related to improved health knowledge and nutrition education (Timmer 2005). Ma...
Book
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We provide to readers the 11th volume of the “Czech-Polish-Slovak Studies in Andragogy and Social Gerontology” series. We are delighted to announce that the presented study is the result of the work of scientists from seven countries: Austria, China, Ghana, Hungary, Japan, Poland, and Russia. This international collection of texts is part of the gl...
Article
Full-text available
A. Klimczuk, Creativity, an Essential Condition for the Development of Smart and Age-friendly Cities and Communities, Journal of Brief Ideas, 04.02.2019, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3236948
Article
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Artykuł ma na celu przybliżenie różnych podejść do analizy polityki publicznej dotyczącej starzenia się ludności. Opracowanie zawiera krótkie opisy wybranych teorii formułowania i wdrażania odpowiedzi na wyzwania związane z kwestiami i problemami istotnymi dla osób starszych i starzejących się. Omawia wybrane pojęcia, m.in. upolitycznienie starzeni...
Article
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Poniższa dyskusja odbyła się we wrześniu 2018 w Szkole Głównej Handlowej w Warszawie. Skupiła zarówno badaczy problematyki polityki senioralnej, ekspertów, analityków. Dyskusję moderował i zaplanował Andrzej Klimczuk, związany z SGH, natomiast zaproszenie do dyskusji przyjęli: Barbara Szatur-Jaworska, polityk społeczny i gerontolog z Uniwersytetu W...
Article
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This book focuses on improving community organizing through interpersonal skills and basic social work concepts, including cultural competency, engagement, dialog, empowerment, and group process. The use of these skills could lead to better engagement with volunteers, better collaboration with diverse local organizations and groups, facilitation of...
Technical Report
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Research within the H2020 PROGRESSIVE project (http://platform.progressivestandards.org/) has identified good practices in user co-production strategies and methodologies. Early findings from research in the PROGRESSIVE project were shared with relevant stakeholders outside the consortium for consultation and review. The outcomes of that initial in...
Article
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Niektórzy ludzie twierdzą, że przemysły kreatywne mają niewiele wspólnego ze starzeniem się i starością. Słowa „kreatywność” i „twórczość” są coraz częściej stosowane niemal jako synonimy cech ludzi młodych i młodości jako etapu życia. Tymczasem wszyscy korzystamy z pewnych stworzonych przez innych ludzi technologii do wykonywania różnorodnych codz...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on sociological and gerontological approaches to ageing, creativity, and differences between “third age” and “fourth age.” Discussed theories include the modernization theory of ageing, the political economy of ageing theory, and main assumptions of the critical gerontology.
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on introducing ideas of the creative ageing policy in the context of international and national strategies. It also overviews the best practices at regional and local levels. The chapter suggests that the roots of the creative ageing policy are derived mainly from the countries characterized by Anglo-Saxon capitalism and the li...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the concepts of ageing policy that prepare individuals and communities to old age. The old age and ageing are generally described in the literature in various terms as “socioeconomic challenges,” “problems,” or “issues.” This chapter explores how various policy concepts both as theories (descriptive models) and as ideologies or...
Chapter
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This chapter provides a critical introduction to various approaches to the analysis of ageing policies. The chapter includes brief descriptions of selected theories in the context of the creativity of older adults and an ageing population. Discussed approaches include the framework of the stages of the policy design cycle and theories of public pol...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on the aims and challenges of the creative ageing policy. It tries to provide an integrated summary of discussions undertaken in the field of the arts and ageing. The chapter also underlines associations of this discourse with health care, social services, and other topics such as social and technological innovations for ageing...
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This chapter draws attention to the principles, governance, and coproduction of the creative ageing policy. It shows possibilities of using alternative solutions and interventions within the one policy concept. The chapter also underlines the opportunities related to experimentation in policy design.
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This chapter discusses the issues and explanations related to the political significance of population ageing. It draws attention mainly to the socioeconomic challenges of ageing populations.
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This chapter aims to combine the general framework of social investment with organizational forms and possible organizational changes. This chapter underlines mixed specifics of the contributions of various entities of the public sector, the private sector, the non-governmental sector, the informal sector, and hybrid organizations to the implementa...
Book
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This volume—“Selected Contemporary Challenges of Aging Policy”—is the most international of all published monographs from the series “Czech-Polish-Slovak Studies in Andragogy and Social Gerontology.” Among the scholars trying to grasp the nuances and trends of social policy, there are diverse perspectives, resulting not only from the extensive know...
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Gerações, relações intergeracionais, política geracional. Um compêndio multilíngue - Edition 2017
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Generații. Politici generaționale și relații intergeneraționale. Un compendiu multilingvistic - Edition 2017
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Kuşaklar, kuşaklararası ilişkiler, kuşak politikasi. Çok dilli bir Rehber - Edition 2017
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Generacije, međugeneracijski odnosi, generacijska politika. Višejezični kompendium - Edition 2017
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Покоління (генерації), міжгенераційні відносини, політика міжгенераційних відносин. Багатомовний компендіум - Edition 2017
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Generaciones, relaciones intergeneracionales, política generacional. Un compendio multilingüe - Edition 2017
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Generacije, medgeneracijski odnosi, medgeneracijska politika. Kompendij v več jezikih - Edition 2017
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Generazioni, relazioni intergenerazionali, politica generazionale. Un compendio multilingue - Edition 2017
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Nemzedékek, nemzedékek közötti kapcsolatok, nemzedéki politika. Többnyelvű kompendium - Edition 2017
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Generationer, relationer mellan generationer, generationspolicy. Ett mångspråkigt kompendium - Edition 2017
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Kartos, kartų santykiai, kartų politika. Daugiakalbis kompendiumas - Edition 2017
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Pokolenia, relacje międzypokoleniowe, polityka relacji międzypokoleniowych. Wielojęzyczne kompendium - Edition 2017
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Поколения, межпоколенческие отношения, межпоколенческая политика. Многоязыковой компендиум - Edition 2017
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代,代际关系,代际政策. 多语言版本 - Edition 2017
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Bronisław Kasper Malinowski was a Polish anthropologist, ethnographer, and sociologist. Malinowski is often considered as a pioneer in the ethnographic field research methods, such as participant observation, interviews, and statistics. His studies focused on beliefs and forms of social organization. Malinowski is often recognized as one of the fou...
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In a market economy, human work is offered and sought in the labor market. It is valued because of the level of demand for it and the rarity of the required qualifications. At the same time, because of the different contexts and conditions, there are many labor markets that are defined as the professional labor markets, local labor markets, dual la...
Article
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The popularisation of drawing up codes that are addressed to various social groups is one of the features of the modern world. However, researchers of the phenomenon have not yet reached a consensus about the moral validity and utility of this activity. The article thoroughly reviews the Polish literature on the subject with regard to the reasons f...
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Generacja sandwicz - grupa osób w wieku średnim, która ze względu na swoją centralną pozycję (status) w strukturze wieku i w związanej z nią stratyfikacji wiekowej stanowi generację (pokolenie), które jednocześnie opiekuje się osobami starszymi (przeważnie swoimi rodzicami) i osobami młodszymi (przeważnie swoimi dziećmi). Zjawisko to określane jest...
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Gerontologia kreatywna - dział gerontologii społecznej postulowany przez Anitę Stefańską i Martę Szabelską-Holeksę (2013, s. 155-165). Docelowo subdyscyplina ta ma zajmować się problematyką twórczości i kreatywności osób starszych. Gerontologia kreatywna jest przede wszystkim związana z psychologią twórczości, a szczególnie z akmeologią kreatywną,...
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Integracja wiekowa - termin stosowany w gerontologii społecznej w przynajmniej dwóch znaczeniach. W ujęciu wąskim - przyjętym głównie w literaturze anglojęzycznej - integracja wiekowa odnosi się do takiej struktury ról społecznych w różnorodnych instytucjach, która umożliwia istnienie różnic, ale nie są one zależne ściśle od struktury wieku, tj. te...
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W literaturze przedmiotu określenie "kapitał" występuje zarówno w ujęciach funkcjonalnych, strukturalnych, normatywnych, jak i aksjologicznych. W naukach humanistycznych i społecznych pojęcie to rozumiane jest jako wartość odnoszona do czynnika ludzkiego. W naukach ekonomicznych kapitał to pojęcie węższe niż "zasób". Zasoby (np. surowce, materiały,...