Andrzej Grzybowski

Andrzej Grzybowski
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn · Department of Ophthalmology

Professor of Ophthalmology

About

749
Publications
369,724
Reads
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5,546
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2011 - October 2015
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Position
  • Chair

Publications

Publications (749)
Article
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This study evaluated tear film and ocular surface parameters in patients after cataract surgery. Methods: a prospective clinical study included 48 eyes of 48 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification performed by one surgeon. Tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer’s I test, Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometry and in vivo laser scanning confocal...
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PurposeTo review the association between children's behavioral changes during the restriction due to the pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the development and progression of myopia.DesignA literature review.Method We looked for relevant studies related to 1) children's behavioral changes from COVID-19 restriction and 2) children's myop...
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Poland has never had a widespread diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening program and subsequently has no purpose-trained graders and no established grader training scheme. Herein, we compare the performance and variability of three retinal specialists with no additional DR grading training in assessing images from 335 real-life screening encounters an...
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In the last decade, we have witnessed substantial progress in our understanding of corneal biomechanics and architecture. It is well known that diabetes is a systemic metabolic disease that causes chronic progressive damage in the main organs of the human body, including the eyeball. Although the main and most widely recognized ocular effect of dia...
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Introduction: The purpose was to compare two flexible regimens of intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) with fixed dosing every 8 weeks, beyond the first year of treatment, in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). VIOLET was a 100-week, randomized, Phase IIIb, non-inferiority study in patients with center-involving DME previously treated with I...
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Pharmacological treatment of presbyopia may be an alternative for those who want a spectacle-free scenario and an easy-to-use method with lower risk of irreversible ocular adverse events. There are two main agents, miotics and lens softeners, investigated as agents for the pharmacological treatment. Miotic agents treat presbyopia by creating a pinh...
Article
Background It is possible that preservative-free eye drops can be contaminated. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of microbial contamination of preservative-free hospital-prepared anti-infective eye drops and investigate factors that contribute to contamination. This finding may help to raise awareness of this problem to medical hea...
Article
Typhus has been present in Central Europe and Russia since the 19th century; however it was not until 1918 that it became an epidemic problem in Poland. Poverty, general devastation, unsanitary living conditions, and the extensive spread of the disease forced the Polish government to organize effective measures to improve the population's health. O...
Article
Objectives To evaluate myopia risk factors, mainly outdoor exposure and reading habits, in a country with low prevalence of myopia (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). Methods Consecutive children interviewed in a clinical private practice setting were autorefracted under cycloplegia with cyclopentolate 1%. Their parents consented to fill a questio...
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Introduction: To investigate the risk factors for myopia progression in primary school children and build prediction models by applying machine learning to longitudinal, cycloplegic autorefraction data. Methods: A total of 2740 children from grade 1 to grade 6 were examined annually over a period of 5 years. Myopia progression was determined as...
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Background: To assess the impact of study-at-home during the COVID-19 pandemic on myopia development in Chinese schoolchildren. Methods: This historical cohort involved two groups with a total of 154 children. The exposed group was formed from 77 children aged 8 to 10 years who studied at home in the 7-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic (fol...
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Background We undertook a Grand Challenges in Global Eye Health prioritisation exercise to identify the key issues that must be addressed to improve eye health in the context of an ageing population, to eliminate persistent inequities in health-care access, and to mitigate widespread resource limitations. Methods Drawing on methods used in previou...
Article
The ocular symptoms of COVID-19 are rare, however, the most common is conjunctivitis. Retinal changes, including dilated veins, tortuous blood vessels, intraretinal hemorrhages, and cotton balls are much less common. In addition, there may be swelling of the eyelids, their irritation, most often in combination with conjunctival hyperemia. Moreover,...
Article
Resumen Objetivos Evaluar los factores de riesgo de la miopía, principalmente la exposición al aire libre y los hábitos de lectura, en una región con baja prevalencia de miopía (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina). Métodos Los niños entrevistados consecutivamente entre febrero y marzo de 2020 fueron refraccionados bajo cicloplejía con ciclopent...
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Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease. Early diagnosis of this disease can support treatment and reduce the effects of pathophysiological processes. A significant problem in the diagnosis of glaucoma is limited access to the tested material. Therefore, intensive research is underway to develop biomarkers for fast, noninvasive, and reliable testing....
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Macular edema (ME) is associated with various conditions; however, the main causes of ME are retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and diabetes. Laser photocoagulation, formerly the gold standard for the treatment of ME, has been replaced by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) intravitreal injections. Despite its efficiency, this treatment r...
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Bronisława Brandla Fejgin was a Polish-born Jewish female physician. Among Fejgin’s numerous articles in the field of microbiology, her later work was almost entirely devoted to phage research. Although not equally famous as the phage pioneers from Western Europe, F.W. Twort and F. d’Herelle, Fejgin’s contribution to phage research deserves proper...
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Purpose of review: Endophthamitis following intraocular surgery is rare using current antiseptic techniques, such as single application of 5% povidone-iodine to the ocular surface and adjuvant topical or intracameral antibiotics. Challenges remain, however, including increased multidrug-resistant bacterial endophthalmitis, increased fungal endopht...
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Purpose To characterize the features of hydrophilic intraocular lenses (IOLs) important in the clinical context of expected prolonged duration time of the IOL within the eye. Design Perspective. Methods Discussion includes possible factors and mechanisms associated with hydrophilic IOLs’ susceptibility to calcification and posterior capsule opaci...
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Background and Objectives: to evaluate whether a set of questions after a routine cataract surgery can predict unexpected findings and avoid an unnecessary follow-up visit. Materials and Methods: single-center, prospective, cohort study included 177 routine cataract surgery cases of two experienced surgeons between November 2019 and December 2020....
Chapter
The chapter presents the overview of the present achievements and applications of artificial intelligence in medicine, including the possible benefits for future medicine. It also presents the increase in published scientific studies using artificial intelligence in medicine in last decade. The regulation frameworks for medical devices, including A...
Chapter
Over the last four decades the number of people living with diabetes has more than quadrupled from 108 million in 1980 to an estimated 422 million in 2014. At the same time diabetes prevalence among adults has almost doubled to 8.5% [1]. Future projections estimate that, by 2035, 592 million people will have diabetes, with the largest rise in low-...
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This study assessed the causes of visual impairment over a decade in Buenos Aires City. This is a retrospective case series where we reviewed the database of visual disability certificates issued by the Buenos Aires City Ministry of Health between 2009 and 2017. In Argentina, visual disability is defined as a visual acuity = 20/200 in the better ey...
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The 100 most-cited papers on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were analysed using a bibliographic study. The bibliographic databases of the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge were searched, limited to research articles published between 1965 and 2020 in peer-reviewed journals. The papers were ranked in order of number of ci...
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IntroductionThe choice of surgical treatment for chronic, persistent and large full-thickness macular holes (FTMH) continues to be undefined and challenging, as some of these cases remain refractory to the treatment. We report the efficacy of combination of inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique (IILMFT) and subretinal application of th...
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Cataract is the leading cause of visual impairment, and posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is the most common long-term complication of modern cataract surgery, which can cause severe visual impairment after surgery. The proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) stimulated by...
Article
It has been widely accepted that ergot is a fungal disease caused by infection with the parasitic Claviceps purpurea leading to the development of typical black kernels n the plant. Ingestion of infected rye grains containing ergot alkaloids—usually in the form of contaminated rye bread—causes poisoning, also known as ergotism. The negative impacts...
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This study evaluates the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and total macular volume (TMV) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in treatment naïve patients with the clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and different multiple sclerosis (MS) types. A total of 126 patients (15 CIS, 65 relapsing-remitting MS, 14 secon...
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In the presence of the ever-increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), the prevalence of diabetic eye disease (DED) is also growing. Despite many improvements in diabetic care, DM remains a leading cause of visual impairment in working-age patients. So far, prevention has been the best way to protect vision. The sooner we diagnose DED, the mor...
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Purpose: To assess whether aqueous flare is related to an increased risk of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following uneventful cataract surgery in nondiabetic and diabetic patients. Methods: A post hoc analysis of five consecutive randomized clinical trials in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Finland. Aq...
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Purpose : To elucidate strategies for and controversies surrounding the use of anti-inflammatory medications after uneventful cataract surgery, with a focus on the prevention of irreversible vision loss due to cystoid macular edema (CME). Design : Perspective. Methods : Expert commentary on the management of inflammation after cataract surgery. D...
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Background: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is expected to increase. This will put an increasing strain on health care resources. Recently, artificial intelligence-based, autonomous DR screening systems have been developed. A direct comparison between different systems is often difficult and only two such comparisons have been publishe...
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Dry eye disease causes ocular discomfort and visual disturbances. Older adults are at a higher risk of developing dry eye disease as well as needing for ophthalmic surgery. Anterior segment surgery may induce or worsen existing dry eye symptoms usually for a short-term period. Despite good visual outcomes, ocular surface dysfunction can significant...
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(1) Background: Intravitreal injections (IVIs) are the most commonly performed intraocular procedure worldwide. Ensuring correct learning is essential to avoid complications. Our purpose was to develop an internationally valid tool to assess skill in performing IVIs. (2) Methods: A panel of six content experts designed a rubric for assessing the IV...
Article
The 100 most cited papers on retinal detachment (RD) were analysed using a bibliographic study. The bibliographic databases of the ISI Web of Knowledge were searched, limited to research articles published between 1965 and 2020 in peer-reviewed journals. The papers were ranked in order of number of citations since publication. Ninety of the 100 mos...
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The prevalence of myopia is increasing extensively worldwide. The number of people with myopia in 2020 is predicted to be 2.6 billion globally, which is expected to rise up to 4.9 billion by 2050, unless preventive actions and interventions are taken. The number of individuals with high myopia is also increasing substantially and pathological myopi...
Article
Introduction: Vitreoretinal surgical techniques have evolved during the last decades due to the development and evolution of pars plana vitrectomy. The introduction of modern vitrectomy is credited to Robert Machemer (1933-2009). The aim of this review is to characterize the early developments of vitreous removal. Methodology: We used the PubMed...
Article
Regarding the early history of laser, it is generally accepted that the technique of retinal light photocoagulation was first pioneered by Gerd Meyer‐Schwickerath in 1949. The renowned German ophthalmologist developed the technique to obtain clinically useful results and is worldwide considered the father of retinal photocoagulation. Nevertheless,...
Article
Aim: To evaluate the refractive and long-term outcome of eyes filled with silicone oil (SO) undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery (PCS). Methods: This retrospective study evaluated patients with SO tamponade who were scheduled for PCS. Results: Subjects (n=26) were followed for 29.5±13.9mo after cataract surgery. The median spherical...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of deep learning (DL) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) as a plateau iris prediction model. Design: We used a cross-sectional study of the development and validation of the DL system. Methods: We conducted a collaboration between a referral eye c...
Chapter
Endophthalmitis is a severe complication of ophthalmic surgery. The incidence of postcataract endophthalmitis (POE) in several European countries varies, however the most recent reports confirmed its rate under 0.1%. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis depends mostly on the clinical findings. The symptoms may vary according to the severity of inflamma...
Book
This book provides a wide-ranging overview of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms in ophthalmology. Expertly written chapters examine AI in age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy screening. AI perspectives, systems and limitations are all care...
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Objective: To evaluate diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening via deep learning (DL) and trained human graders (HG) in a longitudinal cohort, as case spectrum shifts based on treatment referral and new-onset DR. Methods: We randomly selected patients with diabetes screened twice, two years apart within a nationwide screening program. The reference...
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Neurodegeneration plays a significant role in the complex pathology of diabetic retinopathy. Evidence suggests the onset of neurodegeneration occurs early on in the disease, and so a greater understanding of the process is essential for prompt detection and targeted therapies. Neurodegeneration is a common pathway of assorted processes, including a...
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Abstract Dr. Gnanasekaran et al. reported the bactericidal activity of various concentrations of povidone iodine (PI) solution in an agar plate experiment of respiratory flora. The study design and the pharmacokinetic properties of PI solution ensured that dilute PI would not be effective in this study. These results may not replicate the typical c...
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The involvement of macular preganglionic elements’ function, during the neurodegenerative process of multiple sclerosis (MS), is controversial. In this case-control observational and retrospective study, we assessed multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses from 41 healthy Controls, 41 relapsing-remitting MS patients without optic neuritis (ON...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effect of topical dexamethasone versus ketorolac versus combined dexamethasone-ketorolac after phacoemulsification on choroidal thickness (CT). Setting: A tertiary university-based hospital Design: Prospective non-randomized comparative case series Methods: Ninety-two eyes of 92 patients were assigned to the three groups aft...
Article
The debate on role of 'simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery' (SBCS) continues. The world population has exponentially increased during last fifty years and average human lifespan has increased by a decade during the last century. This translates to ever increasing geriatric population with its inherent problem of preventable blindness because of...
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Background: To determine whether patients with severe vision impairment due to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) benefit from bilateral cataract surgery in terms of vision-related quality of life (QoL). Methods: A prospective interventional single-center study. Ten patients with severe vision impairment due to advanced bilateral AM...
Article
Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) is characterized by intraoperative floppiness or billowing of the iris, progressive miosis, and iris prolapse through the surgical wounds. It was originally reported about fifteen years ago, which was later identified to be closely associated with tamsulosin, the most commonly used α1 adrenoceptor antagoni...
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Where and when cataract surgery started have been a mystery. Indian tradition and the Persian author Zarrin-Dast attributed the procedure to the Indians, while pseudo-Galen suggested an Egyptian origin. Certain idiosyncratic practices are common to early Greek and Sanskrit descriptions of cataract couching, e.g., the requirement for maturity of the...
Article
The opacifications of intraocular lenses (IOLs) can significantly impact patients visual quality. Despite the identification of specific risk factors, manufacturing changes, opacifications are not eliminated. Likewise, more attention in recent studies was paid to possible new risk factors, however one of the most important purposes of the studies r...
Article
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness, especially in western countries, and will substantially burden society and the world's health care system. Patients with late AMD often accompany a progressive loss of central vision, which will heavily influence the quality of life and associated with increased risk of functio...
Article
Improved surgical techniques have led to an increase in the number of outpatient ophthalmic procedures. In spite of decreased surgical times and overall improved outcomes, endophthalmitis remains one of the most severe complications of ophthalmic surgery. Although there are well known risk factors for postoperative endophthalmitis, some prophylaxis...
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Background: Acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), with subretinal fluid (SRF) resolving spontaneously within a few months from disease onset, has been considered as a benign and self-limiting disease for many years. This study sought to discover if a short presence of SRF can result in morphological and functional damage to the retina. Mat...