Andrew Vigotsky

Andrew Vigotsky
Northwestern University | NU · Department of Biomedical Engineering

Master of Science

About

87
Publications
247,394
Reads
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1,626
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - present
Northwestern University
Position
  • Fellow
September 2016 - January 2019
Northwestern University
Position
  • Fellow
September 2015 - May 2016
Hospital for Special Surgery
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2016 - June 2021
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Statistics
September 2016 - June 2021
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Biomedical Engineering
August 2016 - March 2020
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Biomedical Engineering

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a popular research tool in sport and rehabilitation sciences. Common study designs include the comparison of sEMG amplitudes collected from different muscles as participants perform various exercises and techniques under different loads. Based on such comparisons, researchers attempt to draw conclusions concerning...
Article
Full-text available
Joint stiffness is often measured to make inferences about the stiffness of muscle groups, but little can be gleaned about individual muscles. Decomposing the muscular origins of joint stiffness may inform treatment targets for conditions like spasticity. To complement joint stiffness, shear wave ultrasound elastography has been used to estimate th...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe improbable data patterns in the work of Barbalho et al.
Article
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Previous research reports suggest greater baseline variability is associated with greater pain relief in those who receive a placebo. However, studies that evidence this association do not control for confounding effects from regression to the mean and natural history. In this report, we analyzed data from two randomized clinical trials (Placebo I...
Article
Full-text available
Surface electromyography amplitudes are commonly measured in acute sports and exercise science studies to make inferences about muscular strength, performance, and hypertrophic adaptations that may result from different exercises or exercise-related variables. Here, we discuss the presumptive logic and assumptions underlying these inferences, focus...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of studies claim to decode mental states using multi-voxel decoders of brain activity. It has been proposed that the fixed, fine-grained, multi-voxel patterns in these decoders are necessary for discriminating between and identifying mental states. Here, we present evidence that the efficacy of these decoders might be overstated. A...
Article
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Towards the goal of obtaining non-invasive biomarkers reflecting the anterior cruciate ligament’s (ACL) loading capacity, this project aimed to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method facilitating the measurement of ACL elongations during the execution of knee stress tests. An MRI-compatible, computer-controlled, and pneumatically d...
Article
Full-text available
Pain relief, or a decrease in self-reported pain intensity, is frequently the primary outcome of pain clinical trials. Investigators commonly report pain relief in one of two ways: using raw units (additive) or using percentage units (multiplicative). However, additive and multiplicative scales have different assumptions and are incompatible with o...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertrophy can be operationally defined as an increase in the axial cross-sectional area of a muscle fiber or whole muscle, and is due to increases in the size of pre-existing muscle fibers. Hypertrophy is a desired outcome in many sports. For some athletes, muscular bulk and, conceivably, the accompanying increase in strength/power, are desirable...
Article
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IntroductionThe opiate epidemic has severe medical and social consequences. Opioids are commonly prescribed in patients with chronic pain, and are a main contributor to the opiate epidemic. The adverse effects of long-term opioid usage have been studied primarily in dependence/addiction disorders, but not in chronic pain. Here, we examine the added...
Preprint
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The size principle is a theory of motor unit (MU) recruitment that suggests MUs are recruited in an orderly manner from the smallest (lower threshold) to the largest (higher threshold) MUs. A consequence of this biophysical theory is that, for isometric contractions, recruitment is dependent on the intensity of actual effort required to meet task d...
Article
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Aim The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the injury risk and the acute (AL) to chronic (CL) workload ratio (ACWR) by substituting the original CL with contrived values to assess the role of CL (i.e., the presence and implications of statistical artefacts). Methods Using previously published data, we generated a contrived A...
Article
Objectives Lower body power declines with age and is associated with decreased physical function in older adults. However, the majority of the tools available to measure power are expensive and require considerable space and expertise to operate. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliability, and measurement error of a sit-to-st...
Preprint
Full-text available
High-profile studies claim to assess mental states across individuals using multi-voxel decoders of brain activity. The fixed, fine-grained, multi-voxel patterns in these "optimized" decoders are purportedly necessary for discriminating between, and accurately identifying, mental states. Here, we present compelling evidence that the efficacy of the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent discussions in the sport and exercise science community have focused on the appropriate use and reporting of effect sizes. Sport and exercise scientists often analyze repeated-measures data, from which mean differences are reported. To aid the interpretation of these data, standardized mean differences (SMD) are commonly reported as a descri...
Article
Full-text available
Head motion is a major confounding factor impairing the quality of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In particular, head motion can reduce analytical efficiency, and its effects are still present even after preprocessing. To examine the validity of motion removal and to evaluate the remaining effects of motion on the quality of the...
Preprint
Recent discussions in the sport and exercise science community have focused on the appropriate use andreporting of effect sizes. Sport and exercise scientists often analyze repeated-measures data, from whichmean differences are reported. To aid the interpretation of these data, standardized mean differences(SMD) are commonly reported as description...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between osteoarthritis (OA) pain and brain properties remains minimally understood, although anatomical and functional neuroimaging studies suggest that OA, similar to other chronic pain conditions, may impact as well as partly be determined by brain properties. Here, we studied brain grey matter (GM) properties in OA patients sched...
Article
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It has been proposed that superior muscle hypertrophy may be obtained by training muscles predominant in type I fibers with lighter loads and those predominant in type II fibers with heavier loads. Purpose: To evaluate longitudinal changes in muscle strength and hypertrophy of the soleus (a predominantly slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (muscl...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Opioid prescriptions for treatment of pain in emergency departments (EDs) are associated with long-term opioid use. The temporal pattern of opioid prescribing in the context of the opioid epidemic remains unknown. Objective To examine the temporal pattern of opioid prescribing within an ED for varying pain conditions between 2009 and 20...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the presence and implications of statistical artefacts created by a commonly used indicator of injury risk in both research and practice: the ratio between acute workload (AL) and chronic workload (CL), named ACWR. Methods: Using previously published data, we generated a contrived ACWR by dividing the AL by f...
Article
Full-text available
The primary means of disseminating sport and exercise science research is currently through journal articles. However, not all studies, especially those with null findings, make it to formal publication. This publication bias towards positive findings may contribute to questionable research practices. Preregistration is a solution to prevent the pu...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) combined with no-load isometric actions (iso-holds) during the inter-set recovery period versus RT that involves passive inter-set rest on muscular strength, muscular hypertrophy, and muscular endurance in resistance-trained men. Twenty-seven resistance-trained male volunteers were ran...
Preprint
Dankel & Loenneke (2019) recently presented a new approach to identifying subgroups in parallel group study designs. Here, we briefly discuss our statistical concerns with proposed approach. We reveal that the error rates of the Danke-Loenneke approach are much higher than the claimed 5%, and that these error rates are dependent on numerous factors...
Article
Full-text available
Biomechanics principally stems from two disciplines, mechanics and biology. However, both the application and language of the mechanical constructs are not always adhered to when applied to biological systems, which can lead to errors and misunderstandings within the scientific literature. Here we address three topics that seem to be common points...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable and has consistently been shown to morphologically respond to exercise training. Skeletal muscle growth during periods of resistance training has traditionally been referred to as skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and this manifests as increases in muscle mass, muscle thickness, muscle area, muscle volume, and muscle...
Preprint
The primary means for disseminating sport and exercise science research is currently through journal articles. However, not all studies, especially those with null findings, make it to formal publication. This publication bias towards positive findings may contribute to questionable research practices. Preregistration is a solution to prevent the pub...
Article
Full-text available
Different stance widths are commonly utilized when completing the barbell back squat during athletic general preparedness training. Width manipulation is thought to influence sagittal plane stimuli to the hip and knee extensors, the primary extensor musculature in the squat. However, how width manipulation affects frontal plane stimuli is less unde...
Article
Abstract Iacono, AD, Vigotsky, AD, Laver, L, and Halperin, I. Beneficial effects of small-sided games as a conclusive part of warm-up routines in young elite handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—The aim of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and traditional warm-up strategies on the mechanical, ph...
Conference Paper
Heavy barbell back squatting is commonly seen as an essential general preparedness exercise for the hip and knee extensors[1]. Posited as a functional exercise, it encompasses similar kinematics to many athletic movements, including acceleration and change of direction. Moreover, anecdotes argue that a narrower squat stance is more transferable to...
Conference Paper
Shear-wave (SW) ultrasound elastography is both a clinical and research tool that is increasingly being used to quantify the material properties of muscle. However, how SW velocity relates to stiffness changes on the joint- and musclelevels is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate pl...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The relationship between changes in muscle size and strength may be affected by both measurement and statistical approaches, but their effects have not been fully considered or quantified. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to explore how different methods of measurement and analysis can affect inferences surrounding the relat...
Preprint
Full-text available
In theory, everything in biomechanics stems from two disciplines, physics and biology. While a number of papers, editorials, letters to the editor, and even a review have addressed the misapplication of mechanical principles, the misapplication of the basic principles of physics in the field of biomechanics continues. There are three principles, sp...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using an internal versus external focus of attention during resistance training on muscular adaptations. Thirty untrained college-aged men were randomly assigned to an internal focus group (INTERNAL) that focused on contracting the target muscle during training (n = 15) or an external focu...
Preprint
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of small sided games (SSG) and traditional warm-up strategies on the mechanical, physiological, and perceptional responses of handball players. Using a randomized and counterbalanced design, 12 elite male handball players completed a general 8 min warm-up which was concluded with an 8 min section of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Self-massage is a ubiquitous intervention similar to massage, but performed by the recipient his or herself rather than by a therapist, most often using a tool (e.g. foam roller, roller massager). Self-massage has been found to have wide range of effects. It is particularly known for increasing flexibility acutely, although not always....
Article
Full-text available
Supporting athletes’ need for autonomy, by allowing them to make choices concerning one or more training variables, can be used as an effective coaching strategy by strength and conditioning (S&C) professionals. However, this coaching strategy has received little attention in the S&C field, despite being extensively studied in the fields of sport p...
Article
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Previous investigations of strength have only focused on biomechanical or psychological determinants, while ignoring the potential interplay and relative contributions of these variables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological variables to the prediction of maximum...
Preprint
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a popular research tool in sports and rehabilitation sciences. Common study designs include the comparison of sEMG amplitudes collected from different muscles as participants perform various exercises and techniques under different loads. Based on such comparisons, researchers attempt to draw conclusions concernin...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise and sport sciences continue to grow as a collective set of disciplines by investigating a broad array of basic and applied research questions. Despite the progress, there is room for improvement. A number of problems pertaining to reliability and validity of research practices hinder advancement and the potential impact of the field. These...
Article
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Background: Foam rolling (FR) is a ubiquitous intervention utilized for the purposes of acutely increasing range of motion without subsequent decreases in performance. Thus, it is commonly used during the peri-workout period; that is, before, during, or after an athletes’ workout. Objective: This study investigated how different foam rolling durat...
Article
Full-text available
Controversy exists as to whether different dynamic muscle actions produce divergent hypertrophic responses. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the hypertrophic effects of concentric versus eccentric training in healthy adults following regimented resistance traini...
Article
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It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence l...
Article
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Objectives: To compare the ergogenic effects of back squats, deadlifts, and hip thrusts. Design: Pilot randomized-controlled trial Methods: In order to determine the feasibility of such a large training study, a pilot study was carried out with 26 male and female participants (age = 22.15 ± 2.2 years; height = 180.17 ± 8.37 cm; body mass = 87.27 ±...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Foam rollers, or other similar devices, are a method for acutely increasing range of motion, but in contrast to static stretching, do not appear to have detrimental effects on neuromuscular performance. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different volumes (60 and 120 seconds) of foam rolling of the ham...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) is a battery of tests designed to assess movement competency; the overhead deep squat test, specifically, has been shown to be an accurate predictor of overall FMS™ scores. Self-massage (SM) is a ubiquitous warm-up utilized to increase joint range of motion and, therefore, may be effective for impro...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance train-ing (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 1...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Kinetics and kinematics have been the focus of a lot of research throughout the years, and technological advances have contributed towards advanced monitoring and analysing of motion. Focusing on Trendelenburg Gait, an abnormal gait, a personalisation framework for monitoring and evaluating the movement is proposed in this paper based on a number o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. Methods: Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: A squat-only group (SQ) that...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare activation of the upper body musculature during the barbell bench press at varying training intensities. METHODS: Twelve young, resistance-trained men performed sets of the bench press to momentary muscular failure with two different loads: a high-load (HIGH) set at 80% of 1RM and a low-load (LOW)...
Article
Full-text available
The modified Thomas test was developed to assess the presence of hip flexion contracture and to measure hip extensibility. Despite its widespread use, to the authors’ knowledge, its criterion reference validity has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion reference validity of the modified Thomas test for mea...