Andrew D Richardson

Andrew D Richardson
Northern Arizona University | NAU

Ph.D.

About

343
Publications
110,037
Reads
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38,863
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
Northern Arizona University
Position
  • Professor
July 2009 - June 2017
Harvard University
Position
  • Professor
Education
September 1998 - May 2003
Yale University
Field of study
September 1996 - May 1998
Yale University
Field of study
September 1988 - May 1992
Princeton University
Field of study

Publications

Publications (343)
Article
The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon ((14) C) 'bomb spike' as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenera...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long...
Article
Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are triggered by environmental cues, but whether they are distributed uniformly throughout the stem is not well documented. The spatial distribution of IADFs could help us understand variations in cambial sensitivity to environmental cues throughout the tree. We investigate how IADF distribution varies radi...
Article
Full-text available
A long‐standing goal of ecology has been to understand the cycling of carbon in forests. This has taken on new urgency with the need to address a rapidly changing climate. Forests serve as long‐term stores for atmospheric CO2, but their continued ability to take up new carbon is dependent on future changes in climate and other factors such as age....
Preprint
How variations in carbon supply affect wood formation remains poorly understood in particular in mature forest trees. To elucidate how carbon supply affects carbon allocation and wood formation, we attempted to manipulate carbon supply to the cambial region by phloem girdling and compression during the mid- and late-growing season and measured effe...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthesis by terrestrial plants represents the majority of CO 2 uptake on Earth, yet it is difficult to measure directly from space. Estimation of gross primary production (GPP) from remote sensing indices represents a primary source of uncertainty, in particular for observing seasonal variations in evergreen forests. Recent vegetation remote...
Article
Full-text available
The ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) was launched to the International Space Station on 29 June 2018 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary science focus of ECOSTRESS is centered on evapotranspiration (ET), which is produced as Level‐3 (L3) latent heat flux (LE) data p...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and resulting differences in ecosystem N and phosphorus (P) ratios are expected to impact photosynthetic capacity, i.e. maximum gross primary productivity (GPPmax). However, the interplay between N and P availability with other critical resources on seasonal dynamics of ecosystem productivity remain largely unk...
Article
Full-text available
Projected changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence spring and autumn vegetation phenology and hence the length of the growing season in many ecosystems. However, the sensitivity of green‐up and senescence to climate remains uncertain. We analyzed 488 site years of canopy greenness measurements from deciduous forest broadle...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Photosynthesis by terrestrial plants represents the majority of CO<sub>2</sub> uptake on Earth, yet it is difficult to measure directly from space. Estimating Gross Primary Production (GPP) from remote sensing indices is a primary source of uncertainty, in particular for observing seasonal variations in evergreen forests. Recent vegetatio...
Article
Urbanization has caused environmental changes, such as urban heat islands (UHIs), that affect terrestrial ecosystems. However, how and to what extent urbanization affects plant phenology remains relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the changes in the satellite-derived start of season (SOS) and the covariation between SOS and temperature (R...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring vegetation phenology is critical for quantifying climate change impacts on ecosystems. We present an extensive dataset of 1783 site-years of phenological data derived from PhenoCam network imagery from 393 digital cameras, situated from tropics to tundra across a wide range of plant functional types, biomes, and climates. Most cameras ar...
Article
•Many plant phenological events are sensitive to temperature, leading to changes in the seasonal cycle of ecosystem function as the climate warms. To evaluate the current and future implications of temperature changes for plant phenology, researchers commonly use a metric of temperature sensitivity, which quantifies the change in phenology per degr...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant water-use efficiency (WUE)—the ratio of carbon assimilation to water loss—has increased in recent decades. Although rising atmospheric CO2 has been proposed as the principal cause, the underlying physiological mechanisms are still being debated, and implications for the global water cycle remain uncerta...
Article
This paper describes the formation of, and initial results for, a new FLUXNET coordination network for ecosystem-scale methane (CH 4 ) measurements at 60 sites globally, organized by the Global Carbon Project in partnership with other initiatives and regional flux tower networks. The objectives of the effort are presented along with an overview of...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the greenhouse gases largely responsible for anthropogenic climate change. Natural plant and microbial metabolic processes play a major role in the global atmospheric budget of each. We have been studying ecosystem-atmosphere trace gas exchange at a sub-boreal forest in the northeaste...
Article
Full-text available
• Key message Dynamic global vegetation models are key tools for interpreting and forecasting the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic variation and other drivers. They estimate plant growth as the outcome of the supply of carbon through photosynthesis. However, growth is itself under direct control, and not simply controlled by the amou...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature is a primary environmental control on ecological systems and processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The surface temperature of organisms is often more relevant for ecological processes than air temperature, which is much more commonly measured. Surface temperature influences—and is influenced by—a range of biological, phys...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon dynamics within trees are intrinsically important for physiological functioning, in particular growth and survival, as well as ecological interactions on multiple timescales. Thus, these internal dynamics play a key role in the global carbon cycle by determining the residence time of carbon in forests via allocation to different tissues and...
Data
APPENDIX S1. Site characteristics of the PhenoCam sites used in the present study.
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the Study We investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation phenology with phenometrics derived from PhenoCam imagery. Specifically, we evaluated the Bioclimatic Law proposed by Hopkins, which relates phenological transitions to latitude, longitude, and elevation. Methods “Green‐up” and “green‐down” dates—representing the...
Article
Full-text available
Snow is important for local to global climate and surface hydrology, but spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the extent of snow cover make accurate, fine-scale mapping and monitoring of snow an enormous challenge. We took 184,453 daily near-surface images acquired by 133 automated cameras and processed them using crowdsourcing and deep learning t...
Data
PhenoCam sites used in the analysis and their characteristics. ‘Number of Images’ refers to the number of images used at each site that did not have a crowd consensus label of ‘bad image’. (CSV)
Data
Filenames for the 2013 images with gold standard classifications. See [33] to access the original images. (CSV)
Data
View from the PhenoCam at Paradise Jackson Visitor Center, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. (TIF)
Data
Filenames for the 172,927 good images used in the analyses and their crowd consensus labels. See [33] to access the original images. (CSV)
Data
SVM output weights for determining snow vs. no snow from the last (fc7) layer of the trained Places365-VGG model. (CSV)
Data
Confusion matrices for crowdsource consensus, CNN-SVM models, and MODIS data product. (PDF)
Article
Global change is shifting the seasonality of vegetation in ecosystems around the globe. High‐frequency digital camera imagery, and vegetation indices derived from that imagery, is facilitating better tracking of phenological responses to environmental variation. This method, commonly referred to as the “phenocam” approach, is well‐suited to several...
Article
Full-text available
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), the stored products of photosynthesis, building blocks for growth and fuel for respiration, are central to plant metabolism, but their measurement is challenging. Differences in methods and procedures among laboratories can cause results to vary widely, limiting our ability to integrate and generalize patterns i...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) for growth and survival in woody plants, we know little about whole‐tree NSC storage. The conventional theory suggests that NSC reserves will increase over the growing season and decrease over the dormant season. Here, we compare storage in five temperate tree species to determine the size...
Article
Full-text available
Plants store nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs), such as sugars and starch, to use as carbon and energy sources for daily maintenance and growth needs as well as during times of stress. Allocation of NSCs to storage provides an important physiological strategy associated with future growth and survival, and thus understanding the seasonal patterns...
Article
Full-text available
Remote sensing of radiative indices must balance spatially and temporally coarse satellite measurements with finer-scale, but geographically limited, in-situ surface measurements. Instruments mounted upon an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can provide small-scale, mobile remote measurements that fill this resolution gap. Here we present and validate...
Article
Full-text available
Tree-grass ecosystems are widely distributed. However, their phenology has not yet been fully characterized. The technique of repeated digital photographs for plant phenology monitoring (hereafter referred as PhenoCam) provide opportunities for long-term monitoring of plant phenology, and extracting phenological transition dates (PTDs, e.g., start...
Article
Full-text available
Shifts in vegetation phenology are a key example of the biological effects of climate change1-3. However, there is substantial uncertainty about whether these temperature-driven trends will continue, or whether other factors-for example, photoperiod-will become more important as warming exceeds the bounds of historical variability4,5. Here we use p...
Poster
Full-text available
Near-surface remote sensing and in situ photography are powerful tools to study how climate change and climate variability influence vegetation phenology and the associated seasonal rhythms of green-up and senescence. The rapidly-growing PhenoCam network has been using in situ digital repeat photography to study phenology in almost 500 locations ar...
Article
Land surface phenology (LSP) has been widely retrieved from time series of various satellite instruments in order to monitor climate change and ecosystem dynamics. However, any evaluation of the quality of LSP data sets is quite challenging because the in situ observations on a limited number of individual trees, shrubs, or other plants are rarely...
Article
Despite decades of research, gaining a comprehensive understanding of carbon (C) cycling in forests remains a considerable challenge. Uncertainties stem from persistent methodological limitations and the difficulty of resolving top-down estimates of ecosystem C exchange with bottom-up measurements of individual pools and fluxes. To address this, we...
Article
In deciduous forests, spring leaf phenology controls the onset of numerous ecosystem functions. While most studies have focused on a single annual spring event, such as budburst, ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and transpiration increase gradually after budburst, as leaves grow to their mature size. Here, we examine the “velocity of green-u...
Article
Insect outbreaks can significantly influence carbon (C) and water balances of forests. Forest tent caterpillars (FTC) (Malacosoma disstria Hübner) are one of the most prominent insects found in aspen forests in Canada and have the potential to considerably influence regional C and water fluxes. In the summer of 2016, an FTC infestation occurred in...
Article
Temperate and boreal conifer forests are dormant for many months during the cold season. Climate change is altering the winter environment, with increased temperature, altered precipitation, and earlier snowmelt in many locations. If significant enough, these changes may alter patterns of dormancy and activity of evergreens. Here we studied the fac...
Article
Heterotrophic respiration (Rh), microbial processing of soil organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2), is a major, yet highly uncertain, carbon (C) flux from terrestrial systems to the atmosphere. Temperature sensitivity of Rh is often represented with a simple Q10 function in ecosystem models and earth system models (ESMs), sometimes accompanied by...
Article
Full-text available
Phenology is a valuable diagnostic of ecosystem health, and has applications to environmental monitoring and management. Here, we conduct an intercomparison analysis using phenological transition dates derived from near-surface PhenoCam imagery and MODIS satellite remote sensing. We used approximately 600 site-years of data, from 128 camera sites c...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is also highly sensitive to climate change and variability. Here we present a series of datasets, together consisting of almost 750 years of observations, characterizing vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems...
Article
Phenology is a first order control on productivity and mediates the biophysical environment by altering albedo, surface roughness length and evapotranspiration. Accurate and transparent modelling of vegetation phenology is therefore key in understanding feedbacks between the biosphere and the climate system. 2.Here, we present the phenor R package...
Article
Forest phenology is a multi-scale phenomenon, arising from processes in leaves and trees, with effects on the ecology of plant communities and landscapes. Because phenology controls carbon and water cycles, which are commonly observed at the ecosystem scale (e.g. eddy flux measurements), it is important to characterize the relation between phenopha...
Poster
Full-text available
Near-surface remote sensing and in situ photography are powerful tools to study how climate change and climate variability influence vegetation phenology and the associated seasonal rhythms of green-up and senescence. The rapidly-growing PhenoCam network has been using in situ digital repeat photography to study phenology in almost 500 locations ar...
Article
Full-text available
Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of the effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems and controls the timing of key ecosystem functions including photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerial drone imagery and photogrammetric techniques promise to advance the study of phenology by enabling the creation of distortion-free orthomosaics of pl...
Article
Time series of vegetation indices (e.g. normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]) and color indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate [GCC]) based on radiometric measurements are now available at different spatial and temporal scales ranging from weekly satellite observations to sub-hourly in situ measurements by means of near-surface remote se...
Article
Clouds and aerosols increase the fraction of global solar irradiance that is diffuse light. This phenomenon is known to increase the photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) of closed-canopy vegetation by redistributing photosynthetic photon flux density (400-700. nm) from saturated, sunlit leaves at the top of the canopy, to shaded leaves deeper...
Article
Full-text available
Near surface (i.e., camera) and satellite remote sensing metrics have become widely used indicators of plant growing seasons. While robust linkages have been established between field metrics and ecosystem exchange in many land cover types, assessment of how well remotely-derived season start and end dates depict field conditions in arid ecosystems...
Article
Long-term, continuous digital camera imagery and tower-based radiometric monitoring were conducted at a representative hardwood forest site in the Northeastern United States, part of the AmeriFlux network. In this study, the phenological metrics of the leaf area index (LAI), plant area index (PAI) and associated transition dates (e.g., timing of th...
Article
Satellite derived vegetation indices (VIs) are broadly used in ecological research, ecosystem modeling, and land surface monitoring. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), perhaps the most utilized VI, has countless applications across ecology, forestry, agriculture, wildlife, biodiversity, and other disciplines. Calculating satellite d...
Article
Over the last two decades, satellite-derived estimates of biophysical variables have been increasingly used in operational services, requiring quantification of their accuracy and uncertainty. Evaluating satellite-derived vegetation products is challenging due to their moderate spatial resolution, the heterogeneity of the terrestrial landscape, and...