Andrew Rasmussen

Andrew Rasmussen
Fordham University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

81
Publications
23,664
Reads
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3,609
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2012 - present
Fordham University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
March 2004 - May 2012
NYU Langone Medical Center
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Trauma researchers often make claims about the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across populations, and yet cross-cultural measurement invariance (MI) is rarely assessed. Nine youth samples with Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) responses were grouped based on sampling strategy used into two sets: representative (Denmark, the Faroe...
Article
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Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been hailed by some as the emblematic mental disorder of the COVID‐19 pandemic, assuming that PTSD’s life‐threat criterion was met de facto. More plausible outcomes like adjustment disorder (AD) have been overlooked. Methods: An online cross‐sectional survey was launched in the initial stage of t...
Article
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Aims Refugees and asylum-seekers are typically exposed to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in the context of war, persecution and displacement, which confer elevated risk for psychopathology. There are significant limitations, however, in extant approaches to measuring these experiences in refugees. The current study aimed to identify p...
Preprint
The shared decision-making (SDM) model is the optimal patient-centered approach to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities in primary care settings. This study examined decision-making preferences and the desire to be knowledgeable of health-related information of a multiheritage group of depressed older Latinx primary care patients. The primar...
Chapter
Research using qualitative methods has historically provided critical knowledge and scientific advances in the field of Clinical Psychology. Qualitative research methods offer unique perspectives and insights on psychological phenomena and the sociocultural contexts in which they are embedded. Qualitative methods of data collection are designed to...
Chapter
Accounting for cultural context in psychological assessment is a challenging endeavor, but one that is essential if the clinician is to provide accurate diagnoses and proceed with effective treatment plans. This chapter aims to provide some clarity to clinicians and researchers regarding how culture should be understood and addressed in assessment...
Article
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Cambridge Core - Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology - Working with Refugee Families - edited by Lucia De Haene
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Traumatic event checklists typically ask respondents to indicate whether they have experienced particular types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and then sum these endorsements to gauge cumulative trauma exposure. However, the sum of these endorsements indicates the variety of PTEs respondents have experienced rather than the count of exposur...
Article
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Background: The Zanmi Lasante Depression Symptom Inventory (ZLDSI) is a screening tool for major depression used in 12 primary care clinics in Haiti's Central Plateau. Although previously validated in a clinic-based sample, the present study is the first to evaluate the validity and clinical utility of the ZLDSI for depression screening in a schoo...
Article
Khat, a psychostimulant cultivated and commonly used in Eastern Africa and the Arabian penin-sula, has a longstanding history of use embedded within the cultures of these regions. Due to changing patterns of use and the adverse effects of dependence, khat has become a growing pub- lic health concern. Despite extensive findings regarding the detrime...
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This paper gives an overview of Vodou's history in Haiti and how Vodou informs Haitian mental health interventions.
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Background: Research on the impact of various types of stressors on refugee wellbeing may not readily inform those designing interventions about the supports that will be most helpful in particular settings. Composite variables used in psychosocial research that represent overarching types of stressors provide only vague information about interven...
Article
Immigration comes with rapid changes in social status that have effects on mental health. Research with nonimmigrant populations has identified relevant social status indicators, but these indicators are not sufficient to address changes that are uniquely relevant to immigrants. This study aimed to identify social status indicators that change duri...
Article
Borsboom et al. correctly note that the use of latent variable models in cross-cultural research has resulted in a futile search for universal, biological causes of psychopathology; however, this is not an inevitable outcome of such models. While network analytic approaches require further development, network models have the potential to better el...
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For over three decades confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been used to test the construct validity of models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The four symptom dimensions of PTSD in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) are based on CFA. Since the publication of DSM–5, the number of proposed f...
Chapter
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The literature on mental health in refugee and post-conflict populations has become quite sophisticated in modeling and measuring psychological distress. However, this has not been matched by development in approaches to measuring exposure to trauma. In this chapter we present three critiques of common practices that limit our understanding of refu...
Article
A growing body of literature indicates that the mental distress experienced by survivors of war is a function of both experienced trauma and stressful life events. However, the majority of these studies are limited in that they 1) employ models of psychological distress that emphasize underlying latent constructs and do not allow researchers to exa...
Article
Background: In response to recent documentation of symptom and subtype heterogeneity in major depressive disorder, we report on exploratory analyses of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) clinical-trial data to further describe heterogeneity in depression and test the hypothesis that citalopram treatment-outcome pat...
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This qualitative study compared West African immigrant parents’ and adolescents’ perspectives on parental monitoring of adolescents’ peer groups. Parents (n = 31) and adolescent children (n = 25) were interviewed using focus groups and individual interviews, and data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Parents expressed a general concer...
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Early research on the mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict focused primarily on the direct effects of exposure to war-related violence and loss. Largely overlooked in this war exposure model were the powerful effects of ongoing stressors related to the experience of displacement itself. An ecological model of refugee distress is p...
Article
The United States accepts more refugees than any other industrialized nation. As refugee populations grow, mental health professionals must implement culturally and ethnically appropriate strategies to assess and treat individuals from diverse backgrounds. Culture can exert a powerful and often misunderstood influence on psychological assessment, a...
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This research describes the development and findings of a literature review and analysis meant to inform the international torture and trauma treatment community. The review focuses on interventions that have been used among populations affected by torture, based on review of journals indexed in commonly used search engines. Work on the review bega...
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Conflict-affected populations are exposed to stressful events during and after war, and it is well established that both take a substantial toll on individuals' mental health. Exactly how exposure to events during and after war affect mental health is a topic of considerable debate. Various hypotheses have been put forward on the relation between s...
Article
In recent decades, there has been an increase in the number of West African immigrants to the USA and greater variation in the circumstances underlying their migration, including political persecution and forced migration. This multitude of migration pathways influences factors, such as trauma experiences, level of preparedness for migration, and f...
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Despite the central role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the measurement invariance of PTSD measures across culturally defined refugee subgroups. This leaves mental health workers in disaster settings with little to support inferences made using the results of stan...
Article
This study examined migration narratives of West African immigrants for the connections between experiences of loss and educational aspirations for their children. The qualitative design consisted of three interviews per family in which parents (N = 20, 12 families) were asked to narrate their families’ migration histories. Transcripts were analyze...
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In this paper, the authors elaborate on a model proposed in 2010 that identifies major sources of stress affecting mental health among war-affected populations.That model emphasized the importance of what was termed ‘daily stressors’, as well as direct exposure to war related violence, as predictors of mental health status The authors first summari...
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Developing mental health care capacity in postearthquake Haiti is hampered by the lack of assessments that include culturally bound idioms Haitians use when discussing emotional distress. The current paper describes a novel emic-etic approach to developing a depression screening for Partners in Health/Zanmi Lasante. In Study 1 Haitian key informant...
Article
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Background The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for...
Article
Among Mundt and colleagues’ (2014) criticisms of NET is that testing a particular intervention implies that it is meant to be delivered irrespective of systems of care. But trauma-focused treatments should be judged based on the specific problems they target; larger sets of problems are the purview of health systems research.
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Mental health professionals from North America and Europe have become common participants in postconflict and disaster relief efforts outside of North America and Europe. Consistent with their training, these practitioners focus primarily on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as their primary diagnostic concern. Most research that has accompanied...
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Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study's goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromes, culture-bound syndromes, and idioms of distress. The Syste...
Article
The current study employs a grounded theory approach to examine West African immigrants' resolution of parent-child conflict and intimate partner conflict. Data from 59 participants present an interactive social ecological framework, where a lack of resolution at one level results in attempts to resolve problems at higher levels. Four levels are id...
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While a growing body of literature addresses the psychological consequences of torture and war trauma, there are few empirical examinations of treatment for survivors of torture. This study offers a program evaluation of a comprehensive torture treatment program in New York City. We present literature surrounding the interdisciplinary “wraparound”...
Article
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Immigrants report more psychotic symptoms than native-born populations. This study used data from the U.S.-based, nationally representative and culturally validated National Latino and Asian American Study to investigate whether refugees are at higher risk of psychotic symptoms than voluntary migrants. In this study, refugee status predicted more p...
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Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigra...
Article
Objective: To examine the prevalence of self-reported head injury among treatment-seeking refugee survivors of torture, a population at high risk for such injuries. Participants: A total of 488 survivors of torture accepted at a torture treatment clinic between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011. Main measures: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire...
Article
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Although refugees are generally thought to be at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE), few studies have compared onset of PTSD and MDE between refugees and voluntary migrants. Given differences in migration histories, onset should differ pre- and postmigration. The National Latino and Asian Amer...
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This study examined the predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a clinical sample of 875 immigrant survivors of political violence resettled in the United States, with a specific aim of comparing the relative predictive power of pre-migration and post-migration experiences. Results from a hierarchical OLS regression indicated that pre...
Article
Immigrant parents' perceptions of child protective services may have important implications for their engagement in public institutions that are central to their children's well being. The current study examined West African immigrants' perceptions of child welfare authorities and the role of disciplining and monitoring in these communities' meanin...
Article
Providers who care for torture survivors may be at risk for secondary traumatic stress, yet there has been little documentation of the effects of repeated exposure to traumatic issues on their emotional health or exploration of the support systems and resources available to address their emotional needs. This study assessed the secondary stress exp...
Article
Although psychosocial programming is seen as essential to the humanitarian response to the Darfur conflict, aid groups lack culturally-appropriate assessment instruments for monitoring and evaluation. The current study used an emic-etic integrated approach to: (i) create a culturally-appropriate measure of distress (Study 1), and (ii) test the meas...
Article
Young minority mothers are particularly vulnerable to depression associated with community-level or contextual stressors such as violence exposure and ethnic discrimination. This study explores whether human and social capital act as buffers of the associations between such stressors and maternal depression. Among a sample of 230 urban, African Ame...
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Torture has been defined most precisely in legal contexts. Practitioners who work with torture survivors and researchers who study torture have frequently cited legal definitions, particularly those in the United States' Torture Victims Relief Act, the United Nations Convention against Torture, or the World Medical Association's Declaration of Toky...
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This paper seeks to bridge the divisive split between advocates of trauma-focused and psychosocial approaches to understanding and addressing mental health needs in conflict and post-conflict settings by emphasizing the role that daily stressors play in mediating direct war exposure and mental health outcomes. The authors argue that trauma-focused...
Article
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Research with survivors of torture has generated considerable variability in prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multiple risk and resilience factors may affect this variability, increasing or decreasing the likelihood of experiencing psychological distress. This study sought to investigate the effect of several such resilienc...
Article
The current review critically examines the body of torture research (N = 209), focusing on the definition and operationalization of the primary construct. Almost three-quarters (69.9%) of the studies reviewed did not reference any definition of torture. Few studies identified important contextual variables related to defining torture such as identi...
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The authors respond to concerns raised by Neuner (in this issue) regarding our recent paper examining the relationships among war exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings (Miller & Rasmussen, 2010). Here we examine the merits and potential hazards of providing specialized trauma treatments concurrently wit...
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Adolescent mothers and their children are particularly susceptible to witnessing or directly experiencing violence. Such violence exposure predicts maternal distress, parenting, and child behavior problems. The current study examined how mothers' depressive symptoms, aggression, harsh disciplinary practices, and home environment independently expla...
Article
Darfur refugees face hardships associated with chronic displacement, including lack of basic needs and safety concerns. Psychiatric research on refugees has focused on trauma, but daily stressors may contribute more to variance in distress. This article reports rates of past trauma and current stressors among Darfur refugees and gauges the contribu...
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The research on the determinants of mental health among refugees has been largely limited to traumatic events, but recent work has indicated that the daily hassles of living in refugee camps also play a large role. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for refugees nested within camp blocks, this exploratory study attempted to model stress...
Article
This study profiles the family-directed anger of traumatized Cambodian refugees, all survivors of the Pol Pot genocide (1975-1979), who were patients at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. We focus on the nuclear family (NF) unit, the NF unit defined as the patient's "significant other" (i.e. spouse or boyfriend/girlfriend) and children. Surve...
Article
Although teen court is the fastest growing alternative processing model in juvenile justice, there has been little systematic investigation of offenders' impressions of the process and no attempt to measure changes in delinquent behavior. This study employed a prospective longitudinal design to measure several impressions of teen court using a ques...
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This study examined the validity and utility of PTSD among 320 adults in Afghanistan. Findings support the validity of PTSD in this cultural context: PTSD symptoms were highly prevalent, shared common variance, and correlated as expected with exposure to traumatic stress. However, only limited support was found for the clinical utility of PTSD. Oth...
Article
Children of adolescent mothers are at increased risk of violence exposure and behavior problems, which have been linked to mothers' disciplinary practices. This study examines how the effect of young African American mothers' discipline on their preschool-age children's externalizing and internalizing behavior varies by mother and child violence ex...
Article
The lack of transparency in immigration detention in the United States has contributed to serious concerns about the fate of immigrants who are detained in the United States and require medical care. In particular, deficiencies in initial screening, chronic disease management (including referral to outside care), and pain management of detainees ha...
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Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, daily stressors were a better predictor than war exper...
Conference Paper
Since 2004, 65 detainees are acknowledged to have died in Immigration and Customs Enforcement(I.C.E.) custody but little is known about the circumstances surrounding these deaths. Immigration detention is the fastest growing form of incarceration in the United States, involving the detention of over 200,000 people annually and approximately 30,000...
Article
Each year thousands of Tibetans escape Chinese-controlled Tibet. The authors present findings on the experiences, coping strategies, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder) of 769 Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India (2003-2004). Distress increased significantly with greater trauma...
Article
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Torture survivors often report chronic debilitating physical and psychological distress. Prior research on the relationship between physical and psychological trauma suggests that the 2 are not independent. Injury sustained during torture may increase the likelihood of subsequent distress as either a moderator or mediator. For long-term psychopatho...
Article
Although trauma is widespread in Africa, Africans are unrepresented in the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors used confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire to model PTSD symptom structure in a sample of African refugees presenting at a U.S. torture treatment clinic. They tested four...
Article
Although a subjective component of trauma is commonly recognized in diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few studies that specifically address Criterion A2, and none addressing this issue among undocumented immigrants. We assessed 212 arriving undocumented immigrants with diverse trauma histories to investigate concordance bet...