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Andrew Meulenberg

Andrew Meulenberg
Science for Humanity Trust, Inc. · -

PhD in nuclear physics

About

131
Publications
21,521
Reads
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866
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - June 2013
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2000 - September 2005
Draper Laboratory
Position
  • Principal Investigator
June 1995 - present
HiPi Consulting
Position
  • Consultant
Description
  • Spacecraft solar-power systems Cold fusion

Publications

Publications (131)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
After analyzing, in the literature, deep orbit results of relativistic quantum equations, we studied them in a semi-classical way, by looking for a local minimum of total energy of an electron near the nucleus, while respecting the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation (HUR). Now, while using new information thanks to semi-classical computations, we come...
Chapter
Full-text available
We look into the difficult question of electron deep orbits (EDOs) in the hydrogen atom. Introductory chapters show these orbits as “anomalous” (usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations; their interest for LENR; the principal negative arguments found in the literature; how it is possible to resolve the questions raised; and som...
Preprint
Full-text available
A model of the atomic orbitals is described considering a classical argument that does not presume the integer values of electron-orbital angular momentum proposed by Bohr. A model of the atomic orbitals is described considering a classical argument that includes the photon fields as part of the total hydrogen atom. Assuming only the known properti...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation updates our on-going work on the theoretical basis for Electron Deep Orbits (EDO) in the relativistic QM equations. Previous semi-classical studies (search for a local minimum of energy) provide a lot of useful informations correcting the imperfections of the initial Dirac EDO's for finite nucleus case. Particularly, we can now de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We address a number of questions relating to the progress of our study on the relativistic-electron deep orbits (EDOs): (1) How to combine different EM potentials having two possible versions (attractive and repulsive), while rejecting unrealistic energies? (2) What about the angular momentum of the deep electrons? How is the Heisenberg Uncertainty...
Preprint
Full-text available
When mass is defined as a function of electrostatic potential energy and the unit charge is defined as a strong resonance of the electromagnetic field, then the creation and annihilation of electron-positron pairs may be viewed as continuous relativistic processes rather than as 'mystical' quantum transitions between different energy states. Charge...
Presentation
Full-text available
"On Highly Relativistic Deep Electrons," presented at ICCF21-Fort Collins (Co, USA)-June 2018. This annotated ppt presentation addresses a number of questions relating to the progress of our study on the relativistic-electron deep orbits (EDOs): - How to combine different EM potentials having two possible versions (attractive and repulsive), while...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The relativistic Schrodinger (Klein-Gordon or K-G) and Dirac equations predict deep electron orbits with radii in the femto-meter range; but, they do not predict how electrons can get there or what happens when/if they do. In prior papers, we have explored the nature of deep-orbit solutions of the relativistic equations and of the resulting femto-a...
Preprint
Full-text available
In previous works, we analyzed and countered arguments against the deep orbits, as discussed in published solutions. Moreover, we revealed the essential role of Special Relativity as source of electron deep orbits (EDOs). We also showed, from a well-known analytic method of solution of the Dirac equation, that the obtained EDOs have a positive ener...
Article
The concept of non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) has been demonstrated to be a successful approach to describe the displacement damage effects in silicon materials and devices. However, some discrepancies exist in the literature between experimental damage factors and theoretical NIELs. ⁶⁰Co gamma rays having a low NIEL are an interesting particle so...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the previous works, we discussed arguments for and against the deep orbits, as exemplified in published solutions. So we considered the works of Maly and Va'vra on the topic, the most complete solution available and one showing an infinite family of EDO solutions. In particular, we deeply analyzed their second of these papers, where they conside...
Article
Full-text available
The application of Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in estimating the impact of electron, proton, and heavy ion irradiations on Gallium Arsenide is presented in this paper. The NIEL for deuteron, alpha particle, lithium ion and oxygen ion is computed using the SR-NIEL and NEMO codes. The NIEL calculations are compared with the introduction rate of d...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explicitly point out the reasons why Special Relativity must be considered as the source of electron deep orbits, and dominates their behavior. We show that the cause is the quadratic form of the relativistic expression of energy, and this clearly appears when we explicitly develop the relativistic Schrödinger equation and compare...
Article
In GaAs material, the radiation-induced degradations are demonstrated to vary according to the Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL). But some discrepancies are still observed between experimental degradation measurements and predicted NIELs. The used displacement threshold energy (Td) varies, from one author to another, from 10 eV up to 25 eV. A measure...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work continues our previous works, on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDO) and on other works about deep orbits. A first part recalls the known criticism aga...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs). In a first part we quickly recall the known criticism against the EDO and how we...
Conference Paper
Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined ‘field’ otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons’ constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photon...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses the interference of photons with themselves and the conditions under which a specific resonance creates the entangled electron/positron pair. Analysis of the forces and potentials in the interaction between photons has raised the issue of oscillating charge as the source of the alternating electric and magnetic fields comprisin...
Conference Paper
Two adjacent coherent light beams, 180° out of phase and traveling on adjacent, parallel paths, remain visibly separated by the null (dark) zone from their mutual interference pattern as they merge. Each half of the pattern can be traced to one of the beams. Does such an experiment provide both "which way" and momentum knowledge? To answer this que...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Platform: What physical attributes separate EM waves, of the enormous band of radio to visible to x-ray, from the high energy narrow band of gamma-ray? From radio to visible to x-ray, telescopes are designed based upon the optical imaging theory; which is an extension of the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral. Do we understand the physical proper...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper addresses the interference of photons with themselves and the conditions under which a specific resonance creates the entangled electron/positron pair. Analysis of the forces and potentials in the interaction between photons has raised the issue of oscillating charge as the source of the alternating electric and magnetic fields comprisin...
Article
The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environm...
Article
Full-text available
This article documents some condensed matter nuclear science work where contemporary physics models are re-examined, extended and/or supplemented. Primarily for DD fusion: (1) ability of two low-energy protons or deuterons to penetrate their mutual Coulomb barrier; (2) production of heat far in excess of that possible based on the measured particul...
Article
Waves carry energy, force and momentum. Therefore, colliding wave trains have the physical capacity to interact and to form and maintain standing waves. Standing waves form in liquids, gases, electrical circuits, and electromagnetic (EM) waves. Because wave behavior exists, irrespective of media type, we have investigated the possibility that waves...
Article
The mathematical model of light, using the simple summation of sine waves, gives excellent predictive capabilities for light. It predicts the results of the interactions for components of light, e.g., photons. However, it cannot provide a valid physical model of their interactions or of the photons themselves. This paper attempts to provide such a...
Article
The size stability of the photon has been a puzzle for many decades. However, the self-focusing of a laser beam in matter may provide some guidance to this problem. A conceptual basis for this effect will be accompanied by calculations based on the laser models. It does not necessarily fit. Nevertheless, it leads to better models. The notion of a s...
Article
Full-text available
With mounting global network connectivity, the issue of intrusion has achieved importance, promoting active research on efficient Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Artificial Immune System (AIS) is a new bio-inspired model which is applied for solving various problems in the field of information security. Because of its unique features, (self-lear...
Article
Full-text available
Phishing email is one of the major problems of today's Internet, resulting in financial losses for organizations and annoying individual users. Numerous approaches have been developed to filter phishing emails, yet the problem still lacks a complete solution. In this paper, we present a survey of the state of the art research on such attacks. This...
Article
Full-text available
This note provides a pictorial description of several new concepts in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and thereby provides an image for both theoreticians and experimentalists to better grasp the differences with the old. Recent work on the concept of a 'linear hydrogen molecule within a lattice defect' is emphasized by showing how the interato...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive evidence exists for cold fusion to produce transmutation products as well as excess heat. This paper deals with the palladium-deuteride (PdD) structure that is generally modeled with a deuterium-to-helium (D + D ⇒ 4He) cold-fusion process. How this process results in transmutation is based on the extended-lochon model that predicts deep-o...
Conference Paper
Comparing to the traditional communication mechanism overlay networks offer an enhanced alternative for content delivery in terms of flexibility, scalability, and ease of deployment. In order to maximize the benefits of overlay networks flexible and scalable methods for content transmission and content representation are needed. This paper proposes...
Article
Full-text available
The number of polymorphic and new worms on the Internet is increasing rapidly. Worm infections cause traffic overloads in office networks and congestion of Internet links by replicating itself and hurting the affected companies by causing data loss and damage. Traditional signature-based worm detection systems fail to detect polymorphic and new, pr...
Article
Full-text available
Various proposed space elevators may bypass the financial and environmental limits on rocket technology, but all have their own problems. A Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) rotovator-based space-elevator version called “sling-on-a-ring” may overcome them. This mass-lifting system uses the spatial stability of an orbital ring, accessorized for transfer and sto...
Article
Full-text available
This paper continues the development of a concept for a low-earth-orbit-based optic-fiber-communication system that may ameliorate some limitations of present space communications systems. Starting with an assumption that a circum-terra ring can be deployed in LEO, a high-bandwidth, optical-fiber-based, communication system has been proposed as the...
Article
Maxwell did not believe in photons. However, his equations lead to electro-magnetic field structures that are considered to be photonic by Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED). They are complete, relativistically correct, and unchallenged after nearly 150 years. However, even though his far-field solution has been considered as the basis for photons, as t...
Article
Dowling and Gea-Benacloche (1992) proved mathematically that "...under certain circumstances, it is possible to consistently interpret interference as the specular reflection of two electromagnetic waves off each other..." Combining experiment, model, and logic, we confirm this statement. Contrary to the supposition that electromagnetic waves/photo...
Article
Full-text available
We seek physical mechanisms underlying a model of the interaction of light with light (and with matter) by examining the process of photon creation. A model of the atomic orbitals and optical transitions is described considering a classical argument that does not presume the integer values of electron-orbital angular momentum proposed by Bohr. Assu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Avoiding collision of nano-particles during manipulation operations and selecting the best route and lowest Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) movement are major concerns in the area of nano-space. To apply the lowest force on the cantilever from fluid environment forces, we try to minimize AFM movements. Our proposed method calculates the optimum routi...
Article
This paper continues the development of a concept for a low-earth-orbit-based optic-fiber-communication system that may ameliorate some limitations of present space communications systems. Starting with an assumption that a circum-terra ring can be deployed in LEO, a high-bandwidth, optical-fiber-based, communication system has been proposed as the...
Article
A Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) rotovator-based space-elevator version called "Sling-on-a-Ring™" is a mass-lifting system using the spatial stability of an Earth-orbiting ring, accessorized for transfer and storage of momentum and electrical power. Long sling assemblies (∼600 km) periodically descend into the atmosphere (to ∼13 km). At perigee, the sling's...
Article
A Low-Earth-Orbit-based space-elevator system, 'Sling-on-a-Ring™,' is proposed as the crucial developmental stage of the LEO Archipelago. Being a LEO-based heavy-mass lifter, rather than earth- or GEO-based, it is much less massive and therefore less costly than other proposed space-elevators. With the advent of lower-cost, higher-mass transport to...
Article
Full-text available
In heavily (deutcrated or hydrogenated) palladium, some of the crystallinity is lost. As a consequence, the localized phonon modes of the crystal/damaged-region interface have a much higher frequency than the host. These high-frequency modes create electrostatic fields that interact strongly with electrons of the local atoms. A resulting instantane...
Article
Full-text available
An electron pair (lochon) in a deep hydrogen 'naught' orbit (n = 0) has similarities to muonic hydrogen in that it has a small orbital radius that allows the protons in molecular hydrogen to be very much closer together than is possible in a normal molecule. There are also significant differences between lochon- and muon-catalyzed fusion (e.g., one...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a LEO-based communication system that is built by deploying circum-terra, optic fibers connecting hundreds of small (perhaps) phased-array-communications and RF-signal-transfer antennas around the earth on multiple rings. The proposed LEO-earth connection will be through microwave links (Ku or low-Ka band) and many of the ISL's through t...
Article
Mans quest to get into space is hindered by major problems (e.g., system-development and capital costs, expense of putting mass into orbit, trapped-radiation belts, and environmental impact of a large increase in rocket launches). A multi-purpose low-earth-orbit system of rings circling the earth the LEO ARCHIPELAGOTM is proposed as a means of solv...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal to electric energy conversion with thermophotovoltaics relies on radiation emitted by a hot body, which limits the power per unit area to that of a blackbody. Microgap thermophotovoltaics take advantage of evanescent waves to obtain higher throughput, with the power per unit area limited by the internal blackbody, which is n<sup>2</sup> hig...
Article
Full-text available
Near-field energy coupling between two surfaces may arise from frustrated total-internal-reflectance and from atomic dipole-dipole interaction. Such an exchange of energy, if at resonance, greatly enhances the radiation transfer between an emitter and a photovoltaic converter. Computational modeling of selected, but realizable, emitter and detector...
Article
Full-text available
Our study shows that the cross-section for fusion improves considerably if d-d pairs are located in linear (one-dimensional) chainlets or line defects. Such non-equilibrium defects can exist only in a solid matrix. Further, solids harbor lattice vibrational modes (quanta, phonons) whose longitudinal-optical modes interact strongly with electrons an...
Article
Full-text available
A quantum-mechanical formulation of energy transfer between closely-spaced surfaces is given. Coupling between the two surfaces arises from the atomic dipole-dipole interaction involving transverse-photon exchange. The exchange of photons at resonance greatly enhances the radiation transfer. The spacing (distance) dependence is derived for the quan...
Article
In this paper, we propose a new concept of a rotovator based space elevator system called "sling-on-a-ring™". The system would consist of a high-tensile-strength equatorial circum-terra conductive fiber, associated solar-power and station-keeping units and a rotating sling module. The long sling assembly would rotate through the ring-bound mass-lif...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electrical parameters were extracted from the analysis of dark and illuminated I-V curves from Si cells irradiated with 40 & 50 MeV Li ions. Non-penetrating radiation (including 25-Mev backside-Li ions) was compared with penetrating-radiation effects.
Article
Full-text available
Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 and 40 MeV lithium ions. Dark-IV analysis (with and without illumination) reveals differences in the effects of such irradiation on the different cell types
Article
Full-text available
Lochons (local charged bosons or local electron pairs) can form on D+ to give D- (bosonic ions) in Palladium Deuteride in the solid state. Such entities will occur at special sites or in linear channel owing to strong electron-phonon interaction or due to potential inversion on metallic electrodes. These lochons can catalyze D- - D+ fusion as a con...
Article
Full-text available
Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 & 40 MeV Li ions. Illuminated (AM0 condition) and unilluminated I-V curves reveal that the effect of high-energy Li ion irradiation has produced similar effects to that of proton irradiation. However, an additional, and different, defect mechanism is suggested to dominate in the heavier-io...
Article
Full-text available
A quantum-mechanical formulation of energy transfer between closely spaced surfaces is given. Coupling between the two surfaces arises from the atomic dipole-dipole interaction involving transverse-photon exchange. The exchange of photons at resonance enhances the radiation transfer. The interaction between two surfaces, separated by a gap, is foun...
Article
Full-text available
Models to account for the observed experimental results for low-energy nuclear reactions in palladium-deuteride systems are presented along with calculated results. The crucial idea is a mechanism of improved probability for the needed penetration of the Coulomb barrier for a D-D reaction. This facilitation occurs, in general, with the formation of...
Article
Full-text available
Silicon operating in a vacuum is a good candidate thermal emitter since it has a high melting point (1680 K). The semiconductor bandgap, which can provide selective emission, adds to the potential for high operating temperature and, therefore, high radiated power. We present the detailed emitter theory, along with both theoretical and experimental...
Article
Geostationary satellites have had sections of their high-voltage GaAs (and perhaps silicon) solar arrays fail abruptly on orbit. The recent (1997/8) occurrence of the problem was shown to correlate highly with active Geomagnetic-substorm activity (of the type that can result in spacecraft charging events) and thus was attributed to electrostatic di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geostationary satellites have had sections of their high-voltage GaAs (and perhaps silicon) solar arrays fail abruptly on orbit. The recent (1997/8) occurrence of the problem was shown to correlate highly with active Geomagnetic-substorm activity (of the type that can result in spacecraft charging events) and thus was attributed to electrostatic di...
Article
As part of the space qualification effort for blue-red reflecting coverslides designed for use with GaAs solar cells, the first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with 4 types of multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce operating temperature, has produced some unexpected results. Importa...
Article
This paper presents an overview of the near-earth, space-radiation environment, its effects on space craft that must exist in it, and means of quantifying and reducing these effects. Other aspects of the space environment are touched on for completeness and because they can impact both the consequences of radiation damage and the damage itself. Of...
Article
The paper presents an analysis of SEU data obtained from memory devices on the CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) spacecraft. It provides a dynamic picture of the newly identified second peak of the trapped proton belt in the equatorial region between approximately 2.0-2.8 Earth radii. In previous work, it was stated that inje...
Article
Full-text available
Improvements to GaAs solar array performance, from the use on solar cell coverslides of several reflecting coatings that reject unusable portions of the solar spectrum, are quantified. Blue-red-rejection (BRR) coverslides provide both infrared reflection (IRR) and ultraviolet rejection (UVR). BRR coverslides were compared to conventional antireflec...
Article
Full-text available
The first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce solar array operating temperature, has produced some unexpected and important results. Two results, independent of the coverslide coatings, are of particular importance in terms of the predictabili...
Article
Full-text available
A 4000 hour experiment, conducted in late 1992 through mid 1993, confirmed earlier results on the ultraviolet damage effects in covered solar cells of various types being used, or proposed for use, in INTELSAT programs. Two different UV test systems were used to identify systematic errors and to study the effects of UV source-bulb age on degradatio...
Article
A team of Phillips Laboratory, COMSAT Laboratories, and Sandia National Laboratories plans to demonstrate state-of-the-art laser-beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites. The demonstrations will utilize the 1.5-m diameter telescope with adaptive optics at the AFPL Starfire Optical Range (SOR) and a ruby laser provided by the Air Force and Sa...
Article
Full-text available
Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cel...
Article
Full-text available
The workshop on new silicon cells held during SPRAT12 is summarized. A smaller than average group attended this workshop reflecting the reduction in research dollars available to this portion of the photovoltaics community. Despite the maturity of the silicon technology, a core of the group maintained an excitement about new developments and potent...
Article
Six experiments at COMSAT Labs (since the early '80's) have consistently shown higher UV degradation rates for DAR coated cells when the tests are extended beyond 1000 hours. Results for degradation at 10 years, extrapolated from data at 3000 hours, exceeds 10%. Lesser degradation rates are observed for DAR coated textured cells. Data and models wi...
Article
Radiation damage to high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, and its effect on electrical characteristics, are discussed. Radiation from cobalt 60 gamma and nuclear reactor sources was used on microwave and millimeter-wave monolithic circuits to determine total dose sensitivity. Heavy ions (15-MeV silicon) were used to evaluate other po...
Article
Four-pole microstrip bandpass filters have been fabricated using both postannealed and in-situ-grown thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O. The 4-GHz, 3% bandwidth filters exhibit, at 77 K, a passband insertion loss as low as 0.3 dB, compared with the 2.8-dB loss of similar gold metallic filters at the same temperature. These results demonstrate that complex pas...
Article
Heavy ion radiation effects were studied in GaAs FETs, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), and high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). Degradation of GaAs FETs, MMICs, and HEMTs occurred at about 10<sup>9</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> for 14.5-MeV Si and at 10<sup>12 </sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> for 2-MeV protons. Carrier removal resulting from...
Article
It is concluded from a thermochemical analysis that the steady-state excess heating observed in calorimetric experiments1 is attributable to the heat of formation of liquid D2O resulting from recombination of D2 and O2 gases generated in the electrolytic cell. The recombination is catalyzed by both electrodes and the extent of the reaction increase...
Article
A thorough analysis has been made of electron- and proton- damaged GaAs solar cells suitable for use in space. It is found that, although some electrical parametric data and spectral response data are quite similar, the type of damage due to the two types of radiation is different. An I - V analysis model shows that electrons damage the bulk of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufacturers were irradiated with 10-MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All of the GaAs cell types performed similarly th...
Article
To elucidate the effects of radiation on GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), radiation-induced changes in DC parameters of test FETs and in the measured microwave performance of MMICs were compared. Changes in material parameters determined from the DC results were used to model the observed microwave performance degradation. In...
Conference Paper
A versatile microwave/millimeter-wave characterization technique using cylindrical resonance cavities has been implemented which allows measurement of the absorption and sheet resistivity of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) powders, films, and bulk samples. Copper and YBa2Cu307_x (1-2-3) powders were compared with bulk samples to provide input...
Article
The use of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) to produce radiation-hard MOS structures applicable to long-term spacecraft is described. The advantages offered by the low processing temperature of PECVD (350 C, as compared to 900-1200 C for thermal growth) are discussed; details of the present PECVD setup are given; and the characteri...
Article
Damage to GaAs devices from energetic electrons is shown to rise very rapidly above 600 keV. Therefore, methods of dosimetry that are more sensitive to low-energy electrons (i.e., that determine deposited energy rather than atomic displacement) could be inappropriate for GaAs. For example, a 1-MeV electron irradiation requires an order-of-magnitude...