Andrew Mente

Andrew Mente
McMaster University | McMaster · Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics

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120
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
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Iodine is a trace micronutrient that is critical for normal thyroid function and human health. Inadequate dietary intake is associated with cognitive impairment, infertility, growth retardation and iodine deficiency disorders in affected populations. Herein, we examined the prevalence of iodine deficiency in adults (median age of 61 years) based on...
Article
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The last decade has seen nearly 20 papers reviewing the totality of the data on saturated fats and cardiovascular outcomes, which, altogether, have demonstrated a lack of rigorous evidence to support continued recommendations either to limit the consumption of saturated fatty acids or to replace them with polyunsaturated fatty acids. These papers w...
Article
Full-text available
Several health organizations recommend low sodium intake (below 2.3 g/day, 5.8 g/day of salt) for entire populations, on the premise that lowering of sodium intake, irrespective of its level of intake, will lower blood pressure and, in turn, will result in a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. These guidelines were developed without effectiv...
Article
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Background There are few concise tools to evaluate dietary habits in men with prostate cancer in Canada. Objective To develop a short FFQ (SFFQ) in a cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods A total of 130 men with prostate cancer completed the SFFQ and a validated comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (CFFQ). Both questionnaires were adm...
Article
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Objective To evaluate the relation between intake of ultra-processed food and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 21 low, middle, and high income countries across seven geographical regions (Europe and North America, South America, Africa, Middle East, south Asia, South East Asia, and China). Partic...
Article
In Reply We thank Siegel and Tseng for their response to our article.¹ We refer the authors to our previous PURE publications where we provided definitions of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, including sudden cardiac death (SCD) (eg, see appendices in Dehghan et al² and Jenkins et al³). Briefly, in PURE, SCD was defined as death that...
Preprint
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Background To examine the association between dietary nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, total fats, saturated fatty acids [SFA], monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], and cholesterol) and various serum liquids in Chinese adults. Methods As a part of Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, 46,285 Ch...
Article
Background Dietary guidelines recommend limiting red meat intake because it is a major source of medium- and long-chain SFAs and is presumed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence of an association between unprocessed red meat intake and CVD is inconsistent. Objective The study aimed to assess the association of unprocessed...
Article
Importance Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown. Objective To examine whether the associations of fish consumption...
Article
Background Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population. Methods This analysis includes 137,851 part...
Article
Background & aims Although fruits and vegetable consumption has been shown to be associated with lower risks of mortality, cancers, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are limited data from China on the shape of the association. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between levels of fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with the ris...
Article
Objective: To investigate the associations of sodium excretion with blood pressure, mortality and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese population. Methods: We studied 39 366 individuals aged 35-70 years from 115 urban and rural communities in 12 centers across mainland China. Trained research staff conducted face-to-face interview to record baseli...
Article
Several blood pressure guidelines recommend low sodium intake (<2.3 g/day, 100 mmol, 5.8 g/day of salt) for the entire population, on the premise that reductions in sodium intake, irrespective of the levels, will lower blood pressure, and, in turn, reduce cardiovascular disease occurrence. These guidelines have been developed without effective inte...
Article
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Objective: Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Research...
Article
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The recommendation to limit dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake has persisted despite mounting evidence to the contrary. Most recent meta-analyses of randomized trials and observational studies found no beneficial effects of reducing SFA intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality, and instead found protective effects against s...
Article
Background: The association of nuts with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated mostly in Europe, the USA, and East Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world or from low- and middle-income countries. Objective: To assess the association of nuts with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: The P...
Article
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Objective Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. Methods The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of indivi...
Article
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Background: Eggs are a rich source of essential nutrients, but they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, some guidelines recommend limiting egg consumption. However, there is contradictory evidence on the impact of eggs on diseases, largely based on studies conducted in high-income countries. Objectives: Our aim was to assess the...
Article
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN International prospective cohort study. SETTING 18...
Article
Background: Global estimates of the effect of common modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality are largely based on data from separate studies, using different methodologies. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study overcomes these limitations by using similar methods to prospectively measure the effect of modifi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. Design International prospective cohort study. Setting 1...
Article
Background: Dietary guidelines recommend minimising consumption of whole-fat dairy products, as they are a source of saturated fats and presumed to adversely affect blood lipids and increase cardiovascular disease and mortality. Evidence for this contention is sparse and few data for the effects of dairy consumption on health are available from lo...
Article
Background: WHO recommends that populations consume less than 2 g/day sodium as a preventive measure against cardiovascular disease, but this target has not been achieved in any country. This recommendation is primarily based on individual-level data from short-term trials of blood pressure (BP) without data relating low sodium intake to reduced c...
Article
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We aim to evaluate the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with estimated urinary sodium (Na) and potassium(K) excretions, and their gram-to-gram Na/K ratio across various salt-diet regions during 2005-2009 in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 46,285 participants in China. A single fasting mor...
Article
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Background: The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods: We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rur...
Article
Background The relation between dietary nutrients and cardiovascular disease risk markers in many regions worldwide is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary nutrients on blood lipids and blood pressure, two of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries.
Article
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Background: The relation between dietary nutrients and cardiovascular disease risk markers in many regions worldwide is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary nutrients on blood lipids and blood pressure, two of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries...
Article
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Hypertension is considered the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but its control is poor worldwide. We aimed to assess the availability and affordability of blood pressure-lowering medicines, and the association with use of these medicines and blood pressure control in countries at varying levels of economic development. We an...
Article
Current global health policy goals include a 25% reduction in premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 2025. In this 2-part review, we provide an overview of the current epidemiological data on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), its risk factors, and describe strategies aimed at reducing its burden. In part 1, we examine the global epidemio...
Article
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Background: The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. Methods: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a larg...
Article
Background: The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods: We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The relation between dietary nutrients and cardiovascular disease risk markers in many regions worldwide is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary nutrients on blood lipids and blood pressure, two of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countrie...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Several international guidelines recommend the consumption of two servings of fruits and three servings of vegetables per day, but their intake is thought to be low worldwide. We aimed to determine the extent to which such low intake is related to availability and affordability. Methods: We assessed fruit and vegetable consumption using...
Article
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Background Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be increased by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 9p21 region of the genome. However, observational studies have shown that the deleterious effect of 9p21 SNPs on CVD might be offset by consuming a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables. This association may be driven by diet-influen...
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Background: Several studies reported a U-shaped association between urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to explore whether the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease events and a...
Article
Background: Information on actual sodium intake and its relationships with blood pressure (BP) and clinical events in South America is limited. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the relationship of sodium intake with BP, cardiovascular (CV) events, and mortality in South America. Methods: We studied 17,033 individuals, aged 35-70 years,...
Article
Dietary patterns containing nuts are associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality, and increased nut consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors including serum lipid levels. Recent studies have reported on the relationship between nut intake and CVD outcomes and mortality. Our objective was to systematically review t...
Article
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Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the...
Article
Background: Microflora-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) formation, which results from intake of choline and L-carnitine-rich food, shows promise as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations have not been examined in ethnically diverse populations. In a multiethnic population-based study of adults in Canada, we...
Article
Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), co...
Article
Background: Although salt intake derived from data on urinary sodium excretion in free-living populations has been used in public policy, a population study on urinary sodium excretion has not been done in Canada. We assessed dietary sodium and potassium intake using a 24-hour urine collection in a large survey of urban and rural communities from...
Article
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association of dietary factors and risk of cognitive decline in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Baseline dietary intake and measures of the Mini-Mental State Examination were recorded in 27,860 men and women who were enrolled in 2 international parallel trials of the ONTARGET (Ong...
Article
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Why South Asians are at increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases compared with other ethnic groups is not fully understood. Atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia - hypertriglyceridemia, elevated numbers of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) - is more common in South Asian...
Article
Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary b...
Article
Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium i...
Article
Iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities in children. Global health initiatives to ensure optimum nutrition thus require continuous monitoring of population-wide iodine intake as determined by urinary excretion of iodide. Current methods to analyze urinary iodide are limited by complicated sample pretreatm...
Article
Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressur...
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This article summarizes presentations from “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease,” a symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 26 April 2014. Presenters reviewed historic and current evidence on the rel...
Article
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Background: The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. Methods: We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excret...
Article
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Background: Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. Methods: We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a...
Article
Purpose of review: Current guidelines, based on extrapolations of observational studies or short-term relatively small clinical trials, recommend that daily sodium intake should be around 2 g/day or less. The assumption is that the relationship between sodium consumption and blood pressure (BP) levels is linear in all populations. Recent developme...
Article
Policy positions on salt consumption (based largely on the association of sodium and blood pressure [BP]) has remained unchanged since the 1970s, until recently. However, this is beginning to change as new evidence emerges. The evidence supports a strong association of sodium with BP and cardiovascular disease events in hypertensive individuals, th...
Article
Although 24-h urinary measure to estimate sodium and potassium excretion is the gold standard, it is not practical for large studies. We compared estimates of 24-h sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine (MFU) using three different formulae in healthy individuals. We studied 1083 individuals aged 35-70 years from the gene...
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fractures are a major health concern among the elderly. People at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at an increased risk for fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the individual and combined effect of the CVD risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity on fracture risk in a large sample of older individuals w...