Andrew Mcintosh

Andrew Mcintosh
Federation University Australia · Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention

PhD, MBiomedE, BAppSci(PT)

About

186
Publications
91,855
Reads
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7,210
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
3379 Citations
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Introduction
Dr McIntosh has over 20 years of academic, research and professional experience in biomechanics and ergonomics. The themes of the majority of his work are safety and injury prevention; topics such as, motorcycle and bicycle crash investigations, helmet performance in sport and transport, rollover crashes, train crash and railway incident investigation, human tolerance to impact, and human movement.
Additional affiliations
May 2013 - present
Federation University Australia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Adjunct appointment
October 2011 - present
Monash University (Australia)
Position
  • Adjunct Associate Professor (Research)
Description
  • Adjunct Appointment
September 2011 - August 2013
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Adjunct appointment
Education
March 1991 - October 1995
UNSW Sydney
Field of study
March 1988 - May 1991
UNSW Sydney
Field of study
  • Biomedical Engineering
March 1981 - July 1984
Cumberland College of Health Sciences
Field of study
  • Health Sciences - Physiotherapy

Publications

Publications (186)
Article
Active transport, including cycling, is promoted as an effective way of increasing children's physical activity and health. Parents can support children's riding by riding with them and it is important to address relevant safety issues. Little is known about parents' experience of safety-relevant aspects of riding with children. Participants in the...
Article
This paper examines the self-reported data from 1404 adult transport and recreational cyclists from New South Wales (Australia) on their experiences of behaviour they perceived to be intentionally aggressive in the previous week, from motor vehicle drivers (MVDs), pedestrians and other cyclists. The perception of aggression appears to be a common e...
Article
This paper investigates events in which cyclists perceive a cycling crash is narrowly avoided (henceforth, a near miss). A cohort of 2038 adult transport and recreational cyclists from New South Wales (Australia) provided self-reported prospectively collected data from cycling diaries to allow the calculation of an exposure-based rate of near misse...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to understand factors contributing to and directly causing sports injuries to improve the effectiveness and safety of sports skills. The characteristics of injury events must be evaluated and described meaningfully and reliably. However, many complex skills cannot be effectively investigated quantitatively because of ethical, techno...
Chapter
Helmets have been developed to be effective in preventing and/or reducing the severity of head injury for a number of activities, e.g. bicycle and motorcycle helmets. As a result of safety policies, health concerns and economics, both in terms of health costs and the supply of helmets, there is an understanding of impact exposure and helmet perform...
Book
Full-text available
This technically oriented book on medicine as applied to extreme sports offers broad coverage of the field extending well beyond the usual focus on major trauma and acute injuries. In addition to the injuries and diseases associated with individual extreme sports, this book also addresses the topics of psychology, dermatology, ophthalmology, infect...
Article
Background Currently, in Australia there are around 270,000 quad bikes (ATVs) and Side by Side Vehicles (SSVs) in use, an estimated 80,000 Quad bikes and SSVs in New Zealand, and an estimated 10 million Quad bikes and SSVs in the USA. Analysis of Australian Coronial data from 2001 to 2012 identified around 141 fatalities involving quad-bikes and SS...
Article
Full-text available
Background Concussion is common in the sporting arena and is often challenging to diagnose. The development of wearable head impact measurement systems has enabled measurement of head kinematics in contact sports. Objectives The objective of this systematic review was to determine the characteristics of head kinematics measured by an accelerometer...
Article
The aim of this case–control study was to determine if there is an association between vehicle panel damage and AIS3+ thoracic injuries. NASS CDS data from 2001 to 2012 was examined for single vehicle rollover crashes with occupants receiving serious thoracic injuries (cases) and those without thoracic injuries (controls). Vehicle panel damage for...
Article
Aim: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). Methods: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-...
Article
The simplified point mass, flail-space model was introduced in 1981 and is currently used in the United States, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand road safety barrier and fixtures standards as a method of assessing vehicle occupant injury risk in certification crash tests when an instrumented anthropomorphic crash test dummy is not used. Maximum...
Article
Full-text available
The grading of Australian junior and youth rugby union players has received substantial media attention in recent years. Media reports have focussed on size mismatches observed between players, especially players with Polynesian heritage, and the concerned parents who fear for the safety of their child owing to perceived mismatches. Although such c...
Article
Full-text available
The Waterfall train accident occurred on January 31, 2003 south of Waterfall station on the southern border of Sydney. The driver and six passengers were fatally injured in the accident. It was estimated that the Tangara train (G7) rolled over at a speed of 117 km/h on a left hand bend after the driver became incapacitated from a cardiac event. A S...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory and epidemiological research in Australian football, rugby league and rugby union has demonstrated that commercially available soft-shell padded headgear is currently ineffective in reducing the risk of concussion. However, modified headgear studies have demonstrated that significant improvements in impact energy attenuation performance...
Article
Objectives: The ability to determine risk management controls for quad bike use is confounded by limitations in crash and injury information. The aim of this paper is to identify the injury mechanisms, crash characteristics and contributing factors in fatal quad bike incidents in Australia by activity (recreation and work). Methods: An in-depth...
Article
Full-text available
Concussion is an injury of specific interest in collision and contact sports resulting in a need to develop effective preventative strategies. A detailed finite element model of the human head was used to approximate the regional distribution of tissue deformations in the brain by simulating reconstructions of unhelmeted concussion and no-injury he...
Article
To assess the impact energy attenuation performance of a range of headguards for combat sports. Seven headguards worn during combat sport training or competition, including two Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur (AIBA)-approved boxing models, were tested using drop tests. An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) rigid headfor...
Article
The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (As...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Serious head and cervical spine injuries have been shown to occur mostly independent of one another in pure rollover crashes. In an attempt to define a dynamic rollover crash test protocol that can replicate serious injuries to the head and cervical spine, it is important to understand the conditions that are likely to produce serious i...
Conference Paper
Rollover crashes are infrequent and account for approximately 2% to 3% of all vehicle crashes in the US annually. However, when they do occur they are more likely to result in a serious injury or fatality than some other types of crashes. In rollovers, the thorax has been identified as one of the three most frequently seriously injured body regions...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This supplemental report presents the results from the examination and analysis of most of those Australian fatalities and also of US fatality and serious injury data relating to Quad bikes and Side by Side Vehicles (SSVs). It forms an integral part of the Quad bike Performance Project funded by the WorkCover Authority of New South Wales (Australia...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Heads of Workplace Safety Authorities (HWSA) identified in 2011 Quad bike safety to be a major issue on farms in Australia and New Zealand. They stated that “In Australia, more than 64 per cent of quad bike deaths occur on farms and in the last 10 years there have been 130 quad bike fatalities across the country. In New Zealand, five people (on...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of Part 3 of the Quad Bike Performance Project (QBPP), i.e. the Rollover Crashworthiness of the Quad bikes and Side by Side Vehicles (SSVs) for the workplace that considers ground contact loads, SSV occupant retention and vehicle rider/driver crashworthiness protection. The entire testing program (Parts 1 to 3) wa...
Article
Head and orofacial injuries in sports are common, but serious injuries are rare. At present, there is substantial interest in concussion and its management in sport. Many sports give rise to the potential for the athlete to be struck in the head or face, often by relatively rigid high-speed projectiles or body parts. The bony contours of the face c...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the association between the pattern of roof damage resulting from a pure rollover crash and the incidence of serious head injuries (SHIs) for contained, restrained occupants. As part of a larger project with the goal of developing a dynamic crash test protocol for rollover occupant protection, these associations will help to de...
Article
Unlabelled: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in alpine skiing. It has been found that helmet use can reduce the incidence of head injuries between 15% and 60%. However, knowledge on optimal helmet performance criteria in World Cup alpine skiing is currently limited owing to the lack of biomechanical data from real crash s...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: One of the main requirements of a protective helmet is to provide and maintain appropriate and adequate coverage to the head. A helmet that is poorly fitted or fastened may become displaced during normal use or even ejected during a crash. Methods: Observations and measurements of head dimensions, helmet position, adjustment, and sta...
Article
Objectives Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Design Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoul...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: One of the main requirements of a protective bicycle helmet is to provide and maintain adequate coverage to the head. A poorly fitting or fastened helmet may be displaced during normal use or even ejected during a crash. The aims of the current study were to identify factors that influence the size of helmet worn, identify factors that...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Concussion is a prevalent brain injury in sport and the wider community. Despite this, little research has been conducted investigating the dynamics of impacts to the unprotected human head and injury causation in vivo, in particular the roles of linear and angular head acceleration. Setting Professional contact football in Australia. Par...
Chapter
There has been an increasing focus on the role of helmets in reducing the risk of concussion in sport. Helmets in some sports have a well-established effect on reducing the risk of moderate to severe head injury, but the additional potential for helmets that have satisfied that objective to prevent concussion is unclear. Furthermore, the risk of mo...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses linked police-reported road crash and hospitalisation datasets to establish the patterns of serious injury sustained by occupants of passenger vehicle rollover crashes in New South Wales, 2001 to 2011. A total of 10,876 casualties were identified that were injured in crashes where rollover was the primary event. The injury patterns...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The causes of fatal and serious injury in rollover crashes have yet to be fully identified. In particular, the dynamics of a vehicle at the time of injury are still unknown. With respect to a dynamic rollover occupant protection test protocol it is necessary to understand the range of initial test conditions required to assess the performance of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The complexity of a dynamic rollover test poses many challenges in the evaluation of its outcome and the prediction of serious injuries. The choice of an anthropomorphic test device (ATD), its initial position, restraint method, and included instrumentation can all affect the measurements made during a test. Further, impacts sustained by an ATD may...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To date, there is no standard vehicle rollover crashworthiness test procedure accepted by any regulatory authority that is capable of providing repeatable results in a similar manner to frontal and side impact crash tests. It appears that rigs based on the principles of the Jordan Rollover System (JRS) may be capable of replicating in a repeatable...
Article
Background: Concussion is a prevalent brain injury in sport and the wider community. Despite this, little research has been conducted investigating the dynamics of impacts to the unprotected human head and injury causation in vivo, in particular the roles of linear and angular head acceleration. Methods: The dynamics of no-injury head impact cases...
Article
This paper reports on a study that reviewed the European Standard EN 1317-8 for motorists crashing into barriers and the relevance to Australian motorcycle fatalities. The data collection and analysis of 78 Australian motorcyclist-into-barrier fatalities described here were used to justify the review. In Australia each year approximately 15 motorcy...
Article
Concussion is an injury of specific interest in collision and contact sports, resulting in a need to develop effective preventive strategies. A detailed finite element model of the human head was used to approximate the regional distribution of tissue deformations in the brain by simulating reconstructions of unhelmeted concussion and no-injury hea...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To assess the factors that contribute to head and neck dynamics in motorcycle crash simulation tests. Method: A series of laboratory tests was undertaken using an oblique impact rig. The impact rig included a drop assembly with a Hybrid III head and neck. The head struck the top surface of a horizontally moving striker plate. Head lin...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of energy dissipated away from or returned to a child falling onto a surface will influence fracture risk but is not considered in current standards for playground impact-attenuating surfaces. A two-mass rheological computer simulation was used to model energy flow within the wrist and surface during hand impact with playground surfaces,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An analysis of the head injuries sustained by fatally injured occupants in rollover crashes was conducted using the available online data from the Australian National Coronial Information System. All available autopsy, police reports, and findings were reviewed. Cases were selected for inclusion in the study if they could be identified as properly...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To assess the factors, including helmet use, that contribute to head linear and angular acceleration in bicycle crash simulation tests. Method: A series of laboratory tests was undertaken using an oblique impact rig. The impact rig included a drop assembly with a Hybrid III head and neck. The head struck a horizontally moving striker...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper details the injuries occurring in real world trip-over only rollover crashes, for seat belted and contained occupants, and assesses whether these injuries can be replicated using a Jordan Rollover System (JRS) crash test rig recently installed at Crashlab in Sydney. This research forms part of the Dynamic Rollover Occupant Protection (DR...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The structural performance of a vehicle has been shown to be associated with the likelihood of sustaining serious injury in passenger vehicle rollover crashes. With increasing interest in implementing interior safety features, such as side curtain airbags, to mitigate injury during rollover it is important to understand the response of the vehicle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are a number of major motorcycle helmet standards, e.g. AS/NZS 1698, DOT, JIS T 8133, Snell M2010 and UN/ECE 22. With international trade agreements, on-line purchasing, and motorcycling growth there is a need to assess whether there is scope for harmonising motorcycle helmet standards as well as specialising standards for specific environmen...
Article
Full-text available
The Jordan Rollover System (JRS) is a device designed, with minimal constraints, to simulate a dynamic trip-over rollover crash. It has been shown to perform with a high degree of repeatability in regards to test protocol inputs and vehicle performance outputs and is the test device of choice for three separate research facilities around the world....
Article
To critically review the evidence to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of protective equipment, rule changes, neck strength and legislation in reducing sport concussion risk. Electronic databases, grey literature and bibliographies were used to search the evidence using Medical Subject Headings and text words. Inclusion/exclusion criteria we...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Studies performed previously of seat-belted occupants in real-world passenger vehicle rollover-only crashes have identified the head as one of the body regions most often seriously injured. However, there have been few studies investigating how these head injuries occur in any detail. This study aims to investigate the characteristics a...
Article
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
Article
Around one in three contained and restrained seriously injured occupants in single-vehicle pure rollover crashes receive a serious injury to the thorax. With dynamic rollover test protocols currently under development, there is a need to understand the nature and cause of serious thoracic injuries incurred in rollover events. This will allow decisi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes how the Jordan Rollover System (JRS) dynamic test rig was adapted for research use in the New South Wales State government’s Crashlab® crash test facility used for Australian NCAP and regulatory crash testing. Development and installation of the University of New South Wales (UNSW) JRS was funded by the Australian Federal Gover...
Article
Around one third of serious injuries sustained by belted, non-ejected occupants in pure rollover crashes occur to the spine. Dynamic rollover crash test methodologies have been established in Australia and the United States, with the aims of understanding injury potential in rollovers and establishing the basis of an occupant rollover protection cr...
Article
Motorcyclists contribute significantly to road trauma around the world through the high incidence of serious injuries and fatalities. The role of roadside safety barriers in such trauma is an area of growing concern amongst motorcyclists, road authorities and road safety researchers and advocates. This paper presents a case series analysis of motor...
Article
Medical error taxonomies are used to report and analyse patient safety incidents. Medical error taxonomies can be generic or domain-specific. In comparing generic and domain-specific medical error taxonomies, the literature compares the information both type of taxonomies classify. There is little evidence the taxonomies have been compared in terms...
Article
The current study is part of a wider project examining the development of a version of TRACER-Rail (developed by the RSSB) for theAustralian rail context.As part of a wider project examining the reliability of error classification tools in rail, the current study examined the usability of the newly developedTRACER-RAV (Technique for the Retrospecti...
Article
The international market for sports equipment is enormous. One component of that market is explicitly equipment to prevent injury, and ideally all equipment should enable performance without causing injury. This paper will describe a biomechanical approach to the design of equipment to prevent sports injury. Elements in this approach include unders...
Article
Background There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. Objective To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of...
Article
Full-text available
Pedal and motorcycle helmets offer a high level of protection to the wearer’s head. There is a need to review and assess the performance offered by helmets, so that helmet design and test standards can be optimized. One input into this process is crash reconstruction. Helmeted crash cases can be collected and examined, leading to insights into impa...
Article
Full-text available
Currently-available jockey helmets are typically assessed against performance standards which cater to equestrian helmets for all horse riding activities; however, severe impacts and head injuries in horse racing have become the focus of concern. The EN 14572 High Performance Helmets for Equestrian Activities Standard included a series of high ener...
Article
Full-text available
Concussion is a prevalent injury in collision and contact sports, but the biomechanics of concussion has mainly been assessed for helmeted head impacts. Concussion and no-injury cases had previously been reconstructed using rigid body simulations from a larger video database of unhelmeted head impact cases from Australian rules football, rugby unio...
Conference Paper
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal