Andrew james Mackinnon

Andrew james Mackinnon
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | LLNL

PhD

About

530
Publications
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18,836
Citations

Publications

Publications (530)
Article
We report an increase in MeV energy bremsstrahlung x-ray production using compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) compared to flat solid targets during relativistic laser-plasma experiments on a 140 J, 150 fs laser system using an f/40 focusing optic. CPC enhanced targets show a >3× increase in high energy x-ray production over planar foil targets....
Article
Full-text available
In a burning plasma state 1–7 , alpha particles from deuterium–tritium fusion reactions redeposit their energy and are the dominant source of heating. This state has recently been achieved at the US National Ignition Facility ⁸ using indirect-drive inertial-confinement fusion. Our experiments use a laser-generated radiation-filled cavity (a hohlrau...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining a burning plasma is a critical step towards self-sustaining fusion energy¹. A burning plasma is one in which the fusion reactions themselves are the primary source of heating in the plasma, which is necessary to sustain and propagate the burn, enabling high energy gain. After decades of fusion research, here we achieve a burning-plasma st...
Preprint
An experimental program is currently underway at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to compress deuterium and tritium (DT) fuel to densities and temperatures sufficient to achieve fusion and energy gain. The primary approach being investigated is indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where a high-Z radiation cavity (a hohlraum) is hea...
Article
Compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) cone targets have been shown to produce increased MeV photons on the NIF-ARC by 10× over flat targets. Multiple x-ray frames can potentially be generated by firing the NIF-ARC's beamlets into distinct cone targets at few nanosecond relative delays. This requires that the cone targets with delayed beams are not...
Article
Inertial confinement fusion implosions designed to have minimal fluid motion at peak compression often show significant linear flows in the laboratory, attributable per simulations to percent-level imbalances in the laser drive illumination symmetry. We present experimental results which intentionally varied the mode 1 drive imbalance by up to 4% t...
Article
We report on the increase in the accelerated electron number and energy using compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) targets from a short-pulse (∼150 fs), high-intensity (>1018 W/cm2), and high-contrast (∼108) laser-solid interaction. We report on experimental measurements using CPC targets where the hot-electron temperature is enhanced up to ∼9 tim...
Article
Recent inertial confinement fusion measurements have highlighted the importance of 3D asymmetry effects on implosion performance. One prominent example is the bulk drift velocity of the deuterium–tritium plasma undergoing fusion (“hotspot”), vHS. Upgrades to the National Ignition Facility neutron time-of-flight diagnostics now provide vHS to better...
Article
To study matter at extreme densities and pressures, we need mega laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility as well as creative methods to make observations during timescales of a billionth of a second. To facilitate this, we developed a platform and diagnostic to characterize a new point-projection radiography configuration using two...
Article
Full-text available
We present experimental studies of inverted-corona targets as neutron sources at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Laser beams are directed onto the inner walls of a capsule via laser-entrance holes (LEHs), heating the target interior to fusion conditions. The fusion fuel is provided either as a wall liner, e.g., de...
Article
The advanced radiographic capability located at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses high intensity, short pulse lasers to create bright photon sources for diagnosing high energy density experiments. There are radiographic needs for a multi-frame time-resolved MeV gamma diagnostic for experiments on the NIF with sub-nanosecond resolution. A se...
Article
Achieving a high conversion efficiency into relativistic electrons is central to short-pulse laser application and fundamentally relies on creating interaction regions with intensities ≫1018W/cm2. Small focal length optics are typically employed to achieve this goal; however, this solution is impractical for large kJ-class systems that are constrai...
Article
Full-text available
A scaling study of short-pulse laser-driven proton and electron acceleration was conducted as a function of pulse duration, laser energy, and laser intensity in the multi-picosecond (ps) regime (∼0.8 ps–20 ps). Maximum proton energies significantly greater than established scaling laws were observed, consistent with observations at other multi-ps l...
Article
Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) can significantly affect the energy coupling and symmetry of direct-drive implosions. We report on a series of direct-drive shots with 2.1 mm outer diameter capsules conducted on NIF for diagnostic development and calibration in which the wavelength separation ( Δ λ) between the inner and outer cone beams was varie...
Article
Full-text available
The implosion efficiency in inertial confinement fusion depends on the degree of stagnated fuel compression, density uniformity, sphericity, and minimum residual kinetic energy achieved. Compton scattering-mediated 50–200 keV x-ray radiographs of indirect-drive cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility capture the dynamic evolution of...
Article
We determine the strength of laser shock-compressed polycrystalline diamond at stresses above the Hugoniot elastic limit using a technique combining x-ray diffraction from the Linac Coherent Light Source with velocity interferometry. X-ray diffraction is used to measure lattice strains, and velocity interferometry is used to infer shock and particl...
Article
Full-text available
The gas and ice giants in our solar system can be seen as a natural laboratory for the physics of highly compressed matter at temperatures up to thousands of kelvins. In turn, our understanding of their structure and evolution depends critically on our ability to model such matter. One key aspect is the miscibility of the elements in their interior...
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Full-text available
We present measurements of the nucleation rate into a diamond lattice in dynamically compressed polystyrene obtained in a pump-probe experiment using a high-energy laser system and in situ femtosecond x-ray diffraction. Different temperature-pressure conditions that occur in planetary interiors were probed. For a single shock reaching 70 GPa and 30...
Article
Picosecond-scale laser interactions with non-imaging, compound parabolic concentrator targets have enabled strongly relativistic ponderomotive effects such as hard x-ray sources generation, multi-MeV proton acceleration and positron production using a marginally relativistic intensity laser.
Article
Neutron spectra from secondary H3(d,n)α reactions produced by an implosion of a deuterium-gas capsule at the National Ignition Facility have been measured with order-of-magnitude improvements in statistics and resolution over past experiments. These new data and their sensitivity to the energy loss of fast tritons emitted from thermal H2(d,p)H3 rea...
Article
The behavior of silicon carbide (SiC) under shock compression is of interest due to its applications as a high-strength ceramic and for general understanding of shock-induced polymorphism. Here we use the Matter in Extreme Conditions beamline of the Linac Coherent Light Source to carry out a series of time-resolved pump-probe x-ray diffraction meas...
Article
Indirect drive converts high power laser light into x-rays using small high- Z cavities called hohlraums. X-rays generated at the hohlraum walls drive a capsule filled with deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel to fusion conditions. Recent experiments have produced fusion yields exceeding 50 kJ where alpha heating provides ~3× increase in yield over PdV work...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the high-pressure behavior of polyethylene (CH2) by probing dynamically-compressed samples with X-ray diffraction. At pressures up to 200 GPa, comparable to those present inside icy giant planets (Uranus, Neptune), shock-compressed polyethylene retains a polymer crystal structure, from which we infer the presence of significant cova...
Article
A standard technique for generating a burst of hard x rays (above 30 keV) is to use ultra high intensity lasers incident on a target. The strong laser field causes rapid electron oscillations which then generate hard x rays via bremsstrahlung. We have demonstrated a new technique for optimizing the conversion efficiency of laser light to hard x ray...
Article
We present results for the ionic structure in hydrocarbons (polystyrene, polyethylene) that were shock compressed to pressures of up to 190 GPa, inducing rapid melting of the samples. The structure of the resulting liquid is then probed using in situ diffraction by an x-ray free electron laser beam, demonstrating the capability to obtain reliable d...
Article
The next-generation Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer, called MRSt, will provide time-resolved measurements of the deuterium-tritium-neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These measurements will provide critical information about the time evolution of the fuel assembly, hot-spot formation, and nu...
Article
We describe the use of a robust new 1-D like implosion platform at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] to study the effect of convergence on mix and shape. Previous experiments suggest that nuclear yields and ion temperature degrade with increased convergence [M. D. Cable et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2316...
Article
Full-text available
In indirectly-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions, supra-thermal M-band (>2 keV) radiation from principally 4–3 resonance line transitions generated during laser irradiation at the peak power of Au hohlraum walls can preheat the fusion capsule and reduce compressional pressure. Higher Z, un-lined depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums were...
Article
Producing a burning plasma in the laboratory has been a long-standing milestone for the plasma physics community. A burning plasma is a state where alpha particle deposition from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions is the leading source of energy input to the DT plasma. Achieving these high thermonuclear yields in an inertial confinement fusion...
Article
A series of cryogenic, layered deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions have produced, for the first time, fusion energy output twice the peak kinetic energy of the imploding shell. These experiments at the National Ignition Facility utilized high density carbon ablators with a three-shock laser pulse (1.5 MJ in 7.5 ns) to irradiate low gas-filled (0.3 mg...
Article
Full-text available
Diamond formation in polystyrene (C8H8)n, which is laser-compressed and heated to conditions around 150 GPa and 5000 K, has recently been demonstrated in the laboratory [Kraus et al., Nat. Astron. 1, 606–611 (2017)]. Here, we show an extended analysis and comparison to first-principles simulations of the acquired data and their implications for pla...
Article
Experiments and analysis in the 2 years since the 2015 Target Fabrication Meeting have resulted in further evolution of the requirements for high-performance layered implosions. This paper is a status update on the experimental program and supporting modeling, with emphasis on the implications for fabrication requirements. Previous work on the caps...
Article
The effects of hydrocarbon reactions and diamond precipitation on the internal structure and evolution of icy giant planets such as Neptune and Uranus have been discussed for more than three decades. Inside these celestial bodies, simple hydrocarbons such as methane, which are highly abundant in the atmospheres, are believed to undergo structural t...
Article
Understanding hydrodynamic phenomena driven by fast electron heating is important for a range of applications including fast electron collimation schemes for fast ignition and the production and study of hot, dense matter. In this work, detailed numerical simulations modelling the heating, hydrodynamic evolution, and extreme ultra-violet (XUV) emis...
Article
We report on the most recent and successful effort at controlling the trajectory and symmetry of a high density carbon implosion at the National Ignition Facility. We use a low gasfill (0.3 mg/cc He) bare depleted uranium hohlraum with around 1 MJ of laser energy to drive a 3-shock-ignition relevant implosion. We assess drive performance and we dem...
Article
Indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility to investigate the performance of the hohlraum drive as a function of hohlraum gas fill density by imploding high-density-carbon capsules using a 2-shock laser pulse. Measurements characterized the backscatter behavior, the production of hot elec...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrodynamic mix of the ablator into the DT fuel layer and hot spot can be a critical performance limitation in inertial confinement fusion implosions. This mix results in increased radiation loss, cooling of the hot spot, and reduced neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we have developed a simple model that infers the level of contaminatio...
Conference Paper
Current inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] are attempting to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using x-ray drive by imploding spherical targets containing hydrogen-isotope fuel in the form of a thin cryogenic layer surrounding a cen...
Article
This paper reviews scientific results from the pursuit of indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and describes the program's forward looking research directions. In indirect drive on the NIF, laser beams heat an x-ray enclosure called a hohlraum that surrounds a spherical pellet. X-ray radiation ablates the surface of the p...
Article
Room temperature or “warm” (273 K) indirect drive hohlraum experiments have been conducted on the National Ignition Facility with laser energies up to 1.26 MJ and compared to similar cryogenic or “cryo” (∼20 K) experiments. Warm experiments use neopentane (C5H12) as the low pressure hohlraum fill gas instead of helium, and propane (C3H8) to replace...
Article
An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosion...
Conference Paper
The HED 2-Shock implosion campaign was developed on the National Ignition Facility as a relatively robust and well-beha ved nearly one-dimensional, low convergence, symmetric platform by employing a very high foot temperature and a large case-to-capsule (hohlraum-to-capsule) ratio. The results of these experiments investigating capsule implosion ph...
Conference Paper
The Near Vacuum Campaign on the National Ignition Facility has sparked an interest on the nature of the gold/carbon interface at high velocity (400 km/s), high electron temperature (2 keV), low-electron density (1e21). Indeed radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using the code HYDRA have been unable to accurately reproduce the experimental shape of t...
Article
Full-text available
The matter in extreme conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a new tool enabling accurate pump-probe measurements for studying the physical properties of matter in the high-energy density (HED) physics regime. This instrument combines the world's brightest x-ray source, the LCLS x-ray beam, with high-power lasers consis...
Article
Controlling the symmetry of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions remains a key challenge. Increasing the ratio of the hohlraum diameter to the capsule diameter (case-to-capsule ratio, or CCR) facilitates symmetry tuning. By varying the balance of energy between the inner and outer cones as well as the incident laser pulse length, w...
Article
Full-text available
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) relies on a suite of nuclear diagnostics to measure the neutronic output of experiments. Neutron time-of-flight (NTOF) and neutron activation diagnostics (NAD) provide performance metrics of absolute neutron yield and neutron spectral content: spectral width and non-thermal content, from which implosion physical...
Article
The near vacuum campaign on the National Ignition Facility has concentrated its efforts over the last year on finding the optimum target geometry to drive a symmetric implosion at high convergence ratio (30×). As the hohlraum walls are not tamped with gas, the hohlraum is filling with gold plasma and the challenge resides in depositing enough ener...
Article
We introduce a new quasi 1-D implosion experimental platform at the National Ignition Facility designed to validate physics models as well as to study various Inertial Confinement Fusion aspects such as implosion symmetry, convergence, hydrodynamic instabilities, and shock timing. The platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity through...
Article
Full-text available
The goals of the Mix Campaign are to determine how mix affects performance, locate the "mix cliff", locate the source of the mix, and develop mitigation methods that allow performance to be increased. We have used several different drive pulse shapes and capsule designs in the Mix Campaign, to understand sensitivity to drive peak power, level of co...
Article
Full-text available
An improved the set of nuclear diagnostics on NIF measures the properties of the stagnation plasma of implosions, including the drift velocity, areal density (ρr) anisotropy and carbon ρr of the compressed core. Two types of deuterium-tritium (DT) gas filled targets are imploded by shaped x-ray pulses, producing stagnated and burning DT cores of ra...
Article
Full-text available
Streaked 1-dimensional (slit imaging) radiography of 1.1 mm radius capsules in ignition hohlraums was recently introduced on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and gives an inflight continuous record of capsule ablator implosion velocities, shell thickness and remaining mass in the last 3-5 ns before peak implosion time. The high quality data del...
Article
Full-text available
Direct-drive-implosion experiments from both OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are critical to gain confidence in ignition predictions on the NIF. Adequate performance of hydrodynamically scaled 1.8-MJ ignition designs must be obtained on OMEGA at 26 kJ. Implosions on the NIF must be used to identify and mitigate the effect of laser-pl...
Article
In hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions on the National Ignition Facility, suprathermal hot electrons, generated by laser plasma instabilities early in the laser pulse (“picket”) while blowing down the laser entrance hole (LEH) windows, can preheat the capsule fuel. Hard x-ray imaging of a Bi capsule surrogate and of the hohlr...
Article
A thin-glass-shell, D3He-filled exploding-pusher inertial confinement fusion implosion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been demonstrated as a proton source that serves as a promising first step towards development of a monoenergetic proton, alpha, and triton backlighting platform at the NIF. Among the key measurements, the D3He-proton e...
Article
Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio,...
Article
Full-text available
In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D(3He,p)4He and D(T,n)4He occur, as the primary fusion products 3He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (∼5–100 mg/cm2), the secondary D-3He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the...
Article
High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a d...
Article
Full-text available
To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry...
Article
In this talk, we will discuss the progress towards ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Northern California. We will cover the some of the setbacks encountered during the progress of the research at NIF, but also cover the great advances that have been made including the achievements o...
Article
Full-text available
Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density car...
Article
Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] have explored driving high-density carbon ablators with near-vacuum hohlraums, which use a minimal amount of helium gas fill. These hohlraums show improved efficiency relative to conventional gas-filled hohlraums in terms of minimal backscat...
Article
Charged-particle spectroscopy is used to assess implosion symmetry in ignition-scale indirect-drive implosions for the first time. Surrogate D3He gas-filled implosions at the National Ignition Facility produce energetic protons via D+3He fusion that are used to measure the implosion areal density (ρR) at the shock-bang time. By using protons produc...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-...
Article
Indirect-drive implosions with a high-density carbon (HDC) capsule were conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to test HDC properties as an ablator material for inertial confinement fusion. A series of five experiments were completed with 76-μm-thick HDC capsules using a four-shock laser pulse optimized for HDC. The pulse delivered a tot...