Andrew Macfarlane

Andrew Macfarlane
City, University of London · Centre for Human Computer Interaction Design

BSc, MSc, PhD, FBCS, CENG, CITP

About

100
Publications
21,807
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1,158
Citations

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
Full-text available
Systematic literature reviews play a vital role in identifying the best available evidence for health and social care policy. The resources required to produce systematic reviews can be significant, and a key to the success of any review is the search strategy used to identify relevant literature. However, the methods used to construct search strat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Journalists are key information workers who have specific requirements from information systems to support the verification and exploration of information. We overview the DMINR tool that has been designed and developed to meet the needs of journalists through the examination of journalists information behaviour in a newsroom. We outline our co-des...
Article
With the promise of AI, the use of emerging technologies in journalism has gained momentum. However, the question of how such technologies can be interwoven with newsroom practices, values, routines, and socio-cultural experiences is often neglected. This article investigates the ways in which AI-driven tools are permeating newswork and design stra...
Article
Creativity and verification are intrinsic to high‐quality journalism, but their role is often poorly visible in news story creation. Journalists face relentless commercial pressures that threaten to compromise story quality, in a digital era where their ethical obligation not to mislead the public has never been more important. It is therefore cruc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Systematic literature reviews play a vital role in identifying the best available evidence for health and social care policy. The resources required to produce systematic reviews can be significant, and a key to the success of any review is the search strategy used to identify relevant literature. However, the methods used to construct search strat...
Article
Purpose Belkin and Robertson (1976a) reflected on the ethical implications of theoretical research in information science and warned that there was potential for abuse of knowledge gained by undertaking such research and applying it to information systems. In particular, they identified the domains of advertising and political propaganda that posed...
Article
Purpose A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups and contexts. Several models have been frequently applied in user studies, but are rarely included in research on participants with impairments. Models are purposeful when d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the current climate of shrinking newsrooms and revenues, journalists face increasing pressures exerted by the industry’s for-profit focus and the expectation of intensified output. While AI-enabled journalism has great potential to help alleviate journalists’ pressures, it might also disrupt journalistic norms and, at worst, interfere with their...
Article
This paper follows up from a previous study on this topic and outlines the second part of a wider, two-part study on the information seeking behaviour (ISB) of law students. Exploratory work was outlined in a previous publication ¹⁷ and there we found that although mobile technologies offered benefits to law students seeking information for their a...
Article
Full-text available
Recent technological developments have increased the use of machine learning to solve many problems, including many in information retrieval. Multimedia information retrieval as a problem represents a significant challenge to machine learning as a technological solution, but some problems can still be addressed by using appropriate AI techniques. W...
Article
Full-text available
Information seeking and access are essential for users in all walks of life, from addressing personal needs such as finding flights to locating information needed to complete work tasks. Over the past decade or so, the general needs of people with impairments have increasingly been recognized as something to be addressed, an issue embedded both in...
Poster
Full-text available
The use of AI technology can help to automate news verification workflows, while significantly innovating journalism practices. However, most existing systems are designed in isolation without interactive collaboration with journalists. `DMINR' project aims to bring humans-at-the-center of AI loop for developing a powerful tool that is sympathetic...
Conference Paper
Designing user studies in the interactive information retrieval (IIR) paradigm on people with impairments may sometimes require different methodological considerations than for other users. Consequently, there may be a tension between what the community regards as being a rigorous methodology against what researchers can do ethically with their use...
Conference Paper
Fiction authors and readers have traditionally interacted through the mediation of a 3rd party (e.g. a publisher or agent), at events such as book signings or author readings. Held in physical spaces (e.g. bookshops or libraries), these events enable authors to discuss their book, and readers to ask them questions. In recent years, online social ne...
Article
This paper outlines the first part of a wider, two-part study on the information behaviour of law students. The authors are Zaki Abbas, Andrew MacFarlane and Lyn Robinson. The background and motivation for the study have been described in a previous publication ¹ which reports the results of interviews with three academic law librarians. Our initia...
Conference Paper
A key problem in the field of search interfaces is dyslexic users interaction with the UI. Dyslexia is a widespread specific learning difficult (SpLD) (10% of any population is estimated to have this cognitive disability) which is under researched in the field of information retrieval. The focus here is an analysis of the User Interface (UI) for se...
Article
The skills and attributes required to become information literate have not been analysed from the perspective of information users with cognitive disabilities, such as dyslexia and this research seeks to begin to address this gap in the literature. The results of a pilot study involving fourteen participants, seven dyslexic and seven non-dyslexic a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Healthcare information professionals perform systematic literature reviews to gather the evidence needed to answer specific research questions and formulate policy. However, performing a systematic review is a resource-intensive and time consuming undertaking, often taking years to complete. Moreover, the output relies heavily on the quality of the...
Article
Purpose – Searching for appropriate images as part of a work task is a non-trivial problem. Journalists and copywriters need to find images that are not only visually appropriate to accompany the documents they are creating, but are acceptably priced and licensed. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A work-based s...
Article
Creative professionals in advertising, marketing, design and journalism search for images to visually represent a concept for their project. The main purpose of this paper is to present search facets derived from an analysis of documents known as briefs, which are widely used in creative industries as requirement documents describing information ne...
Article
Various kinds of knowledge organisation, such as thesauri, are routinely used to label or tag multimedia content such as images and music and to support information retrieval, i.e. user search for such content. In this paper, we outline why this is the case, in particular focusing on the semantic gap between content and concept based multimedia ret...
Conference Paper
We introduce a new application of transfer learning for training and comparing music similarity models based on relative user data: The proposed Relative Information-The-oretic Metric Learning (RITML) algorithm adapts a Maha-lanobis distance using an iterative application of the ITML algorithm, thereby extending it to relative similarity data. RITM...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sentiment analysis is an emerging discipline with many analytical tools available. This project aimed to examine a number of tools regarding their suitability for healthcare data. A comparison between commercial and non-commercial tools was made using responses from an online survey which evaluated design changes made to a clinical information serv...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Using Stebbins's concept of 'serious leisure' and Savolainen's concept of 'everyday life information practices', this study explores the information behaviour of music record collectors. Method. An ethnographic approach was used for the study; the main data collection instrument was in-depth, semi-structured interviews with eight reco...
Article
Smartphones have quickly become a key part of our daily lives. Over 70 percent of people in the UK own such a device and law students are no exception to this far-reaching trend1. The use of these devices has posed some significant questions on the extent of their impact on information seeking behaviour and in relation to information delivery of re...
Conference Paper
Classical information search behaviour models based on work task scenarios fail to explain common leisure search scenarios motivated by a hedonistic need rather than a defined information need. This paper presents work into such unstructured search driven by curiosity. In order to explore this hedonistic catalyst, a social media search application...
Article
Which is more important: the journey or the destination? Classical Interactive Information Retrieval (IIR) based on work-task scenarios usually puts the emphasis on the destination of the search (the results) with metrics such as precision and recall rather than the search journey. But social media, mobile devices and other pervasive technologies h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article presents the CASimIR framework for online experiments, its use for creating a music audio game, and initial results and analyses of the collected data. Gathering user data is essential to understand the semantics of music audio and CASimIR is a new open framework for creating games with a purpose and surveys to collect user data in the...
Article
Large image collections on the Web need to be organized for effective retrieval. Metadata has a key role in image retrieval but rely on professionally assigned tags which is not a viable option. Current contentbased image retrieval systems have not demonstrated sufficient utility on large-scale image sources on the web, and are usually used as a su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Newsworthy stories are increasingly being shared through social networking platforms such as Twitter and Reddit, and journalists now use them to rapidly discover stories and eye-witness accounts.We present a technique that detects “bursts” of phrases on Twitter that is designed for a real-time topic-detection system. We describe a time-dependent va...
Conference Paper
This paper examines the use of ontologies for defining query context. The information retrieval system used is based on the probabilistic retrieval model. We extend the use of relevance feedback (RFB) and pseudo-relevance feedback (PF) query expansion techniques using information from a news domain ontology. The aim is to assess the impact of the o...
Article
This paper examines the meaning of context in relation to ontology based query expansion and contains a review of query expansion approaches. The various query expansion approaches include relevance feedback, corpus dependent knowledge models and corpus independent knowledge models. Case studies detailing query expansion using domain-specific and d...
Article
A key aspect of searching is the ability of users to absorb information from documents read in order to resolve their task. One group of users who have problems with reading are dyslexic users, who due to underlying cognitive impairments in phonological processing and working memory, tend to read more slowly and make reading errors. The purpose of...
Article
Full-text available
Creative professionals search for music to accompany moving images in films, advertising, television. Some larger music rights holders (record companies and music publishers) organise their catalogues to allow online searching. These digital libraries are organised by various subjective musical facets as well as by artist and title metadata. The pu...
Article
Full-text available
SocialSensor will develop a new framework for enabling real-time multimedia indexing and search in the Social Web. The project moves beyond conventional text-based indexing and retrieval models by mining and aggregating user inputs and content over multiple social networking sites. Social Indexing will incorporate information about the structure an...
Chapter
A key issue in teaching and learning in information retrieval – particularly for library and information science students – is the gap in prior knowledge compared with the need for mathematics to conduct and evaluate searches. In this chapter, we examine the use of online Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) to support these types of students, and narr...
Article
Full-text available
When we talk about search, we talk about Google. Google has transformed our lives and even our everyday language (if we need to look up information on the latest BCS events, we 'Google' it). Yet only a decade ago few people had come across the term. The question is: where are we heading? What will search look like in 5, 10 or 50 years time? One w...
Book
Information Retrieval has become a very active research field in the 21st century. Many from academia and industry present their innovations in the field in a wide variety of conferences and journals. Companies transfer this new knowledge directly to the general public via services such as web search engines in order to improve their information se...
Article
Full-text available
Tony Russell-Rose CEng MBCS CITP, Udo Kruschwitz MBCS and Andrew MacFarlane CEng MBCS CITP, of the BCS Information Retrieval Specialist Group (IRSG), look at the changing face of search.
Article
Full-text available
Although known item searching for music can be dealt with by searching metadata using existing text search techniques, human subjectivity and variability within the music itself make it very difficult to search for unknown items. This paper examines these problems within the context of text retrieval and music information retrieval. The focus is on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pre-existing commercial music is widely used to accompany moving images in films, TV commercials and computer games. This process is known as music synchronisation. Professionals are employed by rights holders and film makers to perform creative music searches on large catalogues to find appropriate pieces of music for synchronisation. This paper d...
Article
Purpose – The term selection problem for selecting query terms in information filtering and routing has been investigated using hill-climbers of various kinds, largely through the Okapi experiments in the TREC series of conferences. Although these are simple deterministic approaches, which examine the effect of changing the weight of one term at a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss the classification of commercial popular music when large digital collections are organised for use in films. Design/methodology/approach – A range of systems are investigated and their organization is discussed, focusing on an analysis of the metadata used by the systems and choices giv...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to resolve a gap in the knowledge of how people with dyslexia interact with information retrieval (IR) systems, specifically an understanding of their information-searching behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – The dyslexia cognitive profile is used to design a logging system, recording the difference betwe...
Chapter
IntroductionWhy Parallel IR?Review of Previous WorkDistribution Methods for Inverted File DataTasks in Information RetrievalA Synthetic Model of Performance for Parallel Information RetrievalEmpirical Examination of Synthetic ModelSummary and Further ResearchExercisesReferences
Article
Purpose – Being an important data exchange and information storage standard, XML has generated a great deal of interest and particular attention has been paid to the issue of XML indexing. Clear use cases for structured search in XML have been established. However, most of the research in the area is either based on relational database systems or s...
Article
Understanding of mathematics is needed to underpin the process of search, either explicitly with Exact Match (Boolean logic, adjacency) or implicitly with Best match natural language search. In this paper we outline some pedagogical challenges in teaching mathematics for information retrieval (IR) to postgraduate information science students. The a...
Article
Full-text available
A literature review of pedagogical methods for teaching and learning information retrieval is presented. From the analysis of the literature a taxonomy was built and it is used to structure the paper. Information Retrieval (IR) is presented from different points of view: technical levels, educational goals, teaching and learning methods, assessment...
Article
We present an overview of the special issue in this paper. The main objective is to provide information for lecturers on how to improve the student experience, using current knowledge in the field. To this end we present an overview of six papers covering areas as diverse as tools and methods used to support teaching and learning, pedagogical chall...
Article
There are a number of combinatorial optimisation problems in information retrieval in which the use of local search methods are worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to show how local search can be used to solve some well known tasks in information retrieval (IR), how previous research in the field is piecemeal, bereft of a structure and methodo...
Article
Full-text available
While the use of music to accompany moving images is widespread, the information behaviour, communicative practice and decision making by creative professionals within this area of the music industry is an under-researched area. This investigation discusses the use of music in films and advertising focusing on communication and meaning of the music...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – If an information retrieval system is going to be of value to the user then it must give meaning to the information which matches the meaning given to it by the user. The meaning given to music varies according to who is interpreting it – the author/composer, the performer, cataloguer or the listener – and this affects how music is organi...
Article
A qualitative study of user information needs is reported, based on a purposive sample of users and potential users of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, a small specialist folk music library in North London. The study set out to establish what the users’ (both existing and potential) information needs are, so that the library’s online service...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While the use of music to accompany moving images is widespread, the information behaviour, communicative practice and decision making by creative professionals within this area of the music industry is an under-researched area. This investigation discusses the use of music in films and advertising focusing on communication and meaning of the music...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creative professionals search for digital music to accompany moving images using interactive information retrieval systems run by music publishers and record companies. This research-in-progress investigates creative professionals and intermediaries communication processes and information seeking and use behaviour with a view to making recommendati...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – An issue that tends to be ignored in information retrieval is the issue of updating inverted files. This is largely because inverted files were devised to provide fast query service, and much work has been done with the emphasis strongly on queries. This paper aims to study the effect of using parallel methods for the update of inverted f...
Article
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to put forward a structured mechanism for web search evaluation. The paper seeks to point to useful scientific research and show how information practitioners can use these methods in evaluation of search on the web for their users. Design/methodology/approach – The paper puts forward an approach which utilizes tra...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes research that aims to define the information needs of mobile individuals, to implement a mobile information system that can satisfy those needs, and finally to evaluate the performance of that sys- tem with end-users. First a review of the emerging discipline of geographic information retrieval (GIR) is pre- sented as backgroun...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding of mathematics is needed to underpin the process of search, either explicitly with Exact Match (Boolean logic, adjacency) or implicitly with Best match natural language search. In this paper I outline some pedagogical challenges in teaching mathematics for information retrieval to postgraduate information science students. The aim is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe the Centre for Interactive Systems Research’s participation in the INEX 2006 adhoc track. Rather than using a field-weighted BM25 model in INEX 2005, we revert back to using the traditional BM25 weighting function. Our main research aims in this year are to investigate the effects of document filtering (by considering onl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We consider the retrieval of XML-structured documents, and of passages from such documents, defined as elements of the XML structure. These are considered from the point of view of passage retrieval, as a form of document retrieval. A retrievable unit (an element chosen as defining suitable passages for retrieval) is a textual document in its own r...
Conference Paper
Keyword-based queries are an important means to retrieve information from XML collections with unknown or complex schemas. Relevance Feedback integrates relevance information provided by a user to enhance retrieval quality. For keyword-based XML queries, feedback engines usually generate an expanded keyword query from the content of elements marked...
Conference Paper
This paper describes an efficient method to construct reliable machine learning applications in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks by building ensemble based meta methods. We consider this problem in the context of distributed Web exploration applications like focused crawling. Typical applications are user-specific classification of retrieved Web content...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is the first year for the participation of the City University Centre of Interactive System Research (CISR) in the Expert Search Task. In this paper, we describe an expert search experiment based on window- based techniques, that is, we build profile for each expert by using informa- tion around the expert's name and email address in the docum...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At their heart, most if not all information retrieval models utilize some form of term frequency. The notion is that the more often a query term occurs in a document, the more likely it is that document meets an information need. We examine an alternative. We propose a model which assesses the presence of a term in a document not by looking at the...
Book
th These proceedings contain the refereed papers and posters presented at the 28 Annual European Conference on Information Retrieval (ECIR 2006), which was held at Imperial College London in South Kensington between April 10 and 12, 2006. ECIR is the annual conference of the British Computer Society’s Inf- mation Retrieval Specialist Group. The eve...
Article
Purpose – The generation of inverted indexes is one of the most computationally intensive activities for information retrieval systems: indexing large multi-gigabyte text databases can take many hours or even days to complete. We examine the generation of partitioned inverted files in order to speed up the process of indexing. Two types of index pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is the first year for the Centre for Interactive Systems Research participation of INEX. Based on a newly developed XML indexing and retrieval system on Okapi, we extend Robertson’s field-weighted BM25F for document retrieval to element level retrieval function BM25E. In this paper, we introduce this new function and our experimental method in...
Article
In this paper methods for both speeding up passage processing and examining more passages using parallel computers are explored. The number of passages processed are varied in order to examine the effect on retrieval effectiveness and efficiency. The particular algorithm applied has previously been used to good effect in Okapi experiments at TREC....
Article
This study explored how the expression of search facets and relevance feedback (RF) by users was related to search success in interactive and automatic query expansion in the course of the search process. Search success was measured both in the number of relevant documents retrieved, whether identified by users or not. Research design consisted of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To date there has been very little research conducted on the behaviour of music information retrieval (MIR) users, in spite of the immense popularity of free music retrieval systems available on the Internet. In this study we examine the issue of music seeking behaviour through the examination of users life style effect of three different age group...
Article
Open source software development is becoming increasingly popular as a way of producing software, due to a number of factors. It is argued in this paper that these factors may have a significant impact on the future of information retrieval (IR) systems, and that it is desirable that these systems are made open to all. Some problems are outlined th...
Conference Paper
It has been postulated that a method of selecting terms in either routing or filtering using relevance feedback would be to evaluate every possible combination of terms in a training set and determine which combination yields the best retrieval results. Whilst this is not a realistic proposition because of the enormous size of the search space, som...
Article