Andrew S London

Andrew S London
Syracuse University | SU · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

108
Publications
8,907
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4,213
Citations
Citations since 2017
26 Research Items
1350 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Full-text available
Background Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), the referent measure of aortic stiffness, is an established measure of vascular aging. In studies where cfPWV cannot be measured, alternative methods are needed to help promote research on vascular aging. This study examines the construct validity of a measure of PWV estimated from age and blo...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives The gold standard method for the assessment of vascular aging is carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). cfPWV can be estimated from two commonly assessed clinical variables—age and blood pressure. This analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the relationship between estimated pulse wave vel...
Article
We draw upon the life-course perspective and examine whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) moderates the age pattern of adult mortality using data from the 2007 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult File linked to National Death Index data through 2015. Overall, 7.0% of respondents died by 2015. Discrete-time haza...
Article
This chapter examines Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability (SCD) status and poverty among US veterans using data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS). Participation in the US Armed Forces simultaneously entails occupational exposure to military harm and access to military capital. SCD is different from other for...
Article
Military suicide prevention efforts would benefit from population-based research documenting patterns in risk factors among service members who die from suicide. We use latent class analysis to analyze patterns in identified risk factors among the population of 2660 active-duty military service members that the Department of Defense Suicide Event R...
Chapter
The military is a critical institutional influence on the life course. This chapter documents changes in American women’s ties to the military across cohorts, and explores how women’s direct and indirect connections to the military shape their lives, in general, and outcomes in later life, in particular. It documents historical trends in women’s mi...
Article
Background: An extensive public health literature associates military service with increased alcohol consumption and problematic drinking. However, few well-controlled population-based studies compare alcohol use among nonveterans and veterans with diverse military service experiences, and no such study examines everyday drinking. Methods: We use p...
Article
Veterans and Department of Veterans Affairs Service Use The National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics (2017a) estimates that there were 20.4 million living veterans in the United States during fiscal year 2016. Of those, most were older men, as women’s access to military roles was legally limited until relatively recently (Wilmoth & Lond...
Article
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Although veterans tend to have higher mortality rates than non-veterans, recent research suggests there is substantial heterogeneity in veteran mortality on the basis of various characteristics such as race, period of service, type of health insurance coverage, and service-connected disability status. This analysis extends the extant literature by...
Article
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Veterans have the opportunity to accrue health-promoting “military capital,” but they are also at risk of experiencing a “military hazard” effect that undermines later-life health and mortality outcomes. Given these possibly competing effects, there is substantial heterogeneity in physical and mental health among older male veterans. The health and...
Article
Research consistently reports a veteran mortality disadvantage relative to nonveterans, but has not considered the contribution of service-connected disability to this differential. We use data from the 1986 and 1989 National Health Interview Survey-2011 Linked Mortality Files ( N = 124,122) to estimate multivariate Cox regression models of the ass...
Article
Objective: To document inter- and intra-cohort changes in adult ADHD and examine whether changes vary by gender. Method: We analyze data from the 2007 and 2012 U.S. National Health Interview Survey. Results: The prevalence of ADHD among adults aged 18 to 64 years increased from 3.41% in 2007 to 4.25% in 2012. As expected, patterns of inter- and int...
Article
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A multiple causes perspective contends that economic development and poor health contributed to early 20th-century southern race-related differences in fertility. The authors link the 1910 IPUMS to the 1916 Plantation Census (1909 data), southern disease (malaria and hookworm), and sanitation indicators to examine fertility differentials, while acc...
Article
Military service has the potential to generate short-term, long-term, cumulating, and countervailing effects on health and mortality across the life course. Veterans have the opportunity to accrue health-promoting "military capital," but they are also at risk of experiencing a "military hazard" effect that undermines later-life health and mortality...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies examine veteran status differences in mortality, but none consider heterogeneity in military-veteran health care coverage. We use data from the 1997–2009 (2011) National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (N = 624,610) to estimate Cox regression models of the association between veteran status and mortality taking into ac...
Article
Objective: Informed by a social determinants of health framework, we investigate the relationship between self-reported ADHD diagnosis status and adult health, and whether observed associations are attenuated by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Method: Using 2007 National Health Interview Survey data ( N = 19,104), we present multivariate l...
Article
The dominant approach to studying historical race-related fertility differences has been to limit samples to first-married and younger women. We argue that studying historical race-related fertility differences in the context of remarriage is also important: remarriage and fertility patterns are both rooted in the biosocial conditions that produce...
Chapter
Although military service was common among US men born during the first half of the twentieth century, it is rarely examined explicitly or taken into account as a control variable in aging research. The lack of scholarly attention to the influence of military service on aging is due, in part, to insufficient nationally-representative data on milita...
Article
The military is described as a social context that contributes to the (re-)initiation or intensification of cigarette smoking. We draw on data from the 1985-2014 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) to conduct complementary sub-studies of the influence of military service on men’s smoking outcome...
Article
This study examines the relationship between self-reported ADHD and adult mortality over a four-year period, and whether ADHD is associated with underlying cause of death (accidents versus all others). If ADHD increases mortality risk through accidents, then interventions may be designed and implemented to reduce risk and prevent premature death. W...
Article
Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one's residence, could potentially affect a child's educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding...
Article
Full-text available
Between 1880 and 1910, fertility among African-American women dropped more precipitously than among white women, although black women’s sociodemographic profile generally would not have predicted that trend. According to one perspective, regional differences in the timing of voluntary fertility control accounted for discrepancies by race. According...
Article
Subpopulations have variable connections to specific institutions, such as the military, which can influence their use of social programs and access to resources. We use data from the 5-year (2008–2012) American Community Survey (ACS) public-use file to examine current Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) use by military service status:...
Article
Although there is substantial disability among veterans, relatively little is known about working-aged veterans' uptake of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Disability Compensation and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI). This study identifies levels of veteran participation in VA disability and/or DI benefit programs, examines transitions...
Article
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This analysis uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine whether veteran and disability statuses are jointly associated with household-level poverty and material hardship among older adults. Compared to households that do not include a person with a disability or veteran, disabled non-veteran households are more...
Chapter
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Body mass index (BMI) is an important health indicator that changes with age and may be shaped in important ways by prior military service. While a high proportion of older men in the United States served in the military, to date, there has been no longitudinal, population-representative study of veteran status differences in men’s mid- to late-lif...
Article
Surprisingly little population-based, social scientific research directly examines the association between veteran status and ever paying for sex although there are theoretical reasons to expect that such an association might emerge across the life course. In this article, we examined the relationship between veteran status and ever paying for sex...
Article
Adequate sleep is essential for health, social participation, and well-being. We use 2010 and 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (N = 35,602) to examine differences in sleep adequacy between: non-veterans; non-combat veterans with no psychiatric diagnosis or traumatic brain injury (TBI); combat veterans with no psychiatric diagnos...
Chapter
Purpose – To conduct an exploratory mixed-methods study of attitudes toward extramarital relationships in the context of spousal Alzheimer’s disease. Design – We present descriptive analyses of quantitative data from the National Social, Health, and Aging Project and of qualitative comments posted online by readers of newspaper articles that focus...
Article
Little research examines lack of health insurance among elderly Black immigrants in the US. We use data from the 2008 American Community Survey to describe variation in insurance coverage and conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses of uninsurance. Among elderly Blacks, 1.7 % of the US-born were uninsured, compared to 8.4 % of the Latin Am...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which men's later-life cognitive trajectories vary by veteran status. Method: We use Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data to estimate growth curve models examining men's later-life cognitive trajectories by veteran status, war service status, and period of service. Analyses control fo...
Article
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This study examines the association of sexual identity and gender among older clients with HIV at an AIDS service organization using the Andersen Model. Data confirm those aging with HIV exhibit high rates of age-associated illnesses 10 to 20 years before expected. They have fragile social networks that cannot supply the informal supports needed. T...
Article
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The expansion of e-government is reshaping how disadvantaged groups access the social safety net, yet very little is known about clients’ experiences with modernized systems. We examine client experiences applying to the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program in one state that has recently moved to an “online-only” system. Overall, more than h...
Article
Despite perceptions that infidelity is common among military and veteran populations, there is relatively little evidence documenting the prevalence of extramarital sex among persons with a history of military service or its consequences for marital stability. Using data from the 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey, we estimate multivariate...
Article
As this issue of the Future of Children makes clear, we have much yet to learn about military children and their families. A big part of the reason, write Anita Chandra and Andrew London, is that we lack sufficiently robust sources of data. Until we collect more and better data about military families, Chandra and London say, we will not be able to...
Article
We analyze long-term trends in past-year hallucinogen use among veterans as compared to nonveterans. This topic is theoretically strategic because the military adopted stringent and successful antidrug policies in the mid-1980s, which serves as a natural experiment to examine the potential long-term impact of comprehensive drug policies on illegal...
Article
Although there is substantial functional limitation and disability among veterans of all ages, relatively little is known about veterans’ uptake of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Disability Benefits and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI). This project uses data from the 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 Survey of Income and Program...
Article
This edited volume provides a comprehensive and critical review of what we know about military service and the life course, what we don't know, and what we need to do to better understand the role of military service in shaping people's lives. It demonstrates that the military, like colleges and prisons, is a key social institution that engages ind...
Article
Full-text available
Veterans are a sizable and policy-relevant demographic group in the United States, yet little is known about their economic well-being. Although having a work-limiting disability is known to be associated with material hardship, no known study compares material hardship between veteran households and nonveteran households or investigates whether wo...
Article
We explore racial differences in multigenerational living arrangements in 1910, focusing on trigenerational kin structures. Coresidence across generations represents a public function of the family, and we observe this across different ages or life-course stages through which adults came to be at risk for providing simultaneous household support fo...
Article
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The authors examine the interrelationships between work-related disability, veteran, and poverty statuses using data from the 1992–2004 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. They find that households with nondisabled veterans present have a lower likelihood of poverty, but that advantage is severely eroded when the veteran or an...
Article
Despite decades of research, little is known about the contours of material hardship and how the social processes underlying specific domains of hardship are similar and different. We use qualitative interview data to examine five different domains of material hardship: housing, bill-paying, food, medical, and clothing hardships. While mothers use...
Chapter
Current knowledge about aging is primarily based on cohorts that were born during the early part of the twentieth century. A substantial percentage of men in these cohorts, and subsequent cohorts who are currently middle aged, served in the military during war, peace, Cold War, or some combination thereof. Consequently, veterans are a sizeable demo...
Conference Paper
A growing body of research documents how early-life-course military service shapes various later-life outcomes and how heterogeneity in military service experiences matters. For those who serve during wartime, there are greater risks of physical injury and post-traumatic stress associated with combat exposure that can negatively affect a range of o...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines differences in the relationship between veteran status and men's trajectories of health conditions, activities of daily living limitations, and self-rated health. We use data on 12,631 men drawn from the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to estimate growth curve models that examine differences in health trajecto...
Article
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This paper examines the relationship between military service status (active duty, veteran, never served), sex, and six functional limitations/disabilities using data from the 5% sample of the 2000 U.S. Census. We estimate multivariate logistic regression models separately for men and women, and evaluate sex differences by comparing coefficients ac...
Article
This study examines whether maternal employment affects the health status of low-income, elementary-school-aged children using instrumental variables estimation and experimental data from a welfare-to-work program implemented in the early 1990s. Maternal report of child health status is predicted as a function of exogenous variation in maternal emp...
Article
We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,679 ) to examine the impact of men's past military service on the likelihood that a couple will marry within 5 years of a nonmarital birth. Logistic regression analyses showed that men's past military service increased marriage odds by 54% for couples with Black fathers even af...
Article
The authors use data from the 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey to examine the association between incarceration and living arrangements, net of a range of sociodemographic and early life characteristics. Relative to living with a spouse and child(ren), there is evidence that a history of incarceration is strongly associated with several...
Article
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We examine how changes in maternal work hours affect adolescent children’s school participation and performance outcomes using data from interviews in 1998 and 2001 with approximately 1,700 women who, in May 1995, were welfare-reliant, single mothers of adolescents living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty in Cuyahoga (Cleveland), Los Angeles...
Article
Welfare reformers sought to reduce “dependency,” or reliance on state-supported cash benefits and deployed a discourse of “self-sufficiency” to promote the legitimacy of efforts to remove welfare recipients from publicly funded cash assistance through either wage labor or marriage. We use longitudinal, qualitative interview data collected from 38 i...
Article
Researchers have made significant efforts to combine quantitative and qualitative methods in welfare reform policy research in the United States. This paper draws on several examples arising from the American experience to argue that mixed-methods research (particularly, but not exclusively, with integrated sampling, data collection, and data analy...
Article
The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) encouraged states to reduce welfare caseloads. Caseload reduction can be accomplished by promoting exit for work, marriage, or other private means of support and by diverting new applicants. Most research on caseload decline has focused on welfare-to-work outcomes; le...
Article
Significant racial disparities in health outcomes have been consistently documented in the United States. Life-course and population-health models are often used to explain these disparities, but they generally do not take incarceration effects into account. Incarceration may have direct effects on health, but it is more likely to indirectly affect...
Article
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This study uses a life-course framework and data from the Health and Retirement Study and the Study of Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest-Old to examine three hypotheses related to (dis)continuity in the effects of early-life disadvantage (African American race and low paternal education) and military service on later-life mortality. Speci...
Article
We use longitudinal, qualitative interview data collected from 38 initially we fare-reliant women in Cleveland, Ohio to examine the factors driving instability in child-care arrangements when women transitioned from welfare to work. Grounded theory analysis revealed that decisions about care were circumscribed by scarce social and economic resource...
Article
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Many welfare-reliant and working poor families experience difficulties making ends meet and thus must develop strategies to cope with competing demands for limited resources. Needs, resources, and the strategies low-income families use to negotiate competing priorities change as family circumstances and contextual conditions evolve in response to c...
Chapter
How can welfare and employment policies help families cope better as parents as they make the transition from welfare to employment? Our research addresses this question by integrating two very different, but complementary, lines of research—random assignment social experiments on the effects of welfare and employment programs on low-income adults...
Article
This paper examines sociodemographic and HIV-related factors associated with moving post-HIV diagnosis for non-care- and care-related reasons (versus never moving post-HIV diagnosis). Distinctions are made between those who move for informal care only, formal care only, or informal and formal care. Data come from the nationally representative US HI...
Article
Using data from 8 random assignment studies and employing meta-analytic techniques, this article provides systematic evidence that welfare and work policies targeted at low-income parents have small adverse effects on some school outcomes among adolescents ages 12 to 18 years at follow-up. These adverse effects were observed mostly for school perfo...
Article
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Four years into the implementation of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation, promising to “change welfare as we know it,” a critical question remains unanswered: How are formerly welfare-reliant families faring as they make the transition to work? Drawing on longitudinal, ethnographic data collected under the auspices of Manpower Demonstratio...
Article
Welfare reform and related policy changes have altered the context in which welfare-reliant women make choices about employment and family care. Using data from longitudinal qualitative interviews, we examined women's experiences of work-family tradeoffs and how they think their employment affected their children. Women identified multiple co-occur...
Article
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This study examined the influence of sociodemographic, clinical, and attitudinal variables on the use of alternative therapists by people in care for HIV. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of baseline data from the nationally representative HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study were conducted. Overall, 15.4% had used an alternative therapist, a...
Article
We examine the job aspirations of 80 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients in Cleveland and Philadelphia by drawing on data from in-depth, qualitative interviews conducted in 1997–98, well after the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was implemented but before time limits were reached. We show that t...
Article
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Using longitudinal, ethnographic data, the authors examine how the pursuit of self-sufficiency in the context of welfare reform may unintentionally encourage some women to develop alternative dangerous dependencies on abusive or potentially abusive men. In this article, the authors document how women ended up relying on men who have been abusive to...
Article
The objective of this study was to obtain accurate estimates of the prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the population represented by the HIV Costs and Services Utilization Study cohort. We constructed logistic regression models to predict DSM-IV diagnoses of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic, and dysthymia among a subsample of the...
Article
To establish population-based estimates of the prevalence of any alcohol consumption and heavy drinking among individuals who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to identify the factors associated with alcohol consumption and heavy drinking in this population. Data from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), a n...
Article
Full-text available
Many scholars have noted the theoretical importance of remarriage in twentieth-century American life (Burch 1995; Cherlin 1998; Furstenberg 1980; Glick 1980; Thornton 1977; Uhlenberg and Chew 1986), yet few historical studies have examined remarriage in the United States empirically. This gap in the literature is noteworthy for two reasons. First,...
Article
A study assessed Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) implementation and effects in Cuyahoga County between 1992-2000. It used field research, surveys and interviews of current and former welfare recipients, state and county welfare and employment records, and indicators of social and economic trends. Findings indicated Cuyahoga County re...
Article
Full-text available
A study of research was conducted to determine how welfare and work policies enacted in 1996 targeted at low-income parents have influenced their adolescent children. Using meta-analytic techniques, the research synthesis integrates survey data collected from parents in eight studies of 16 different welfare and employment programs, focusing on chil...
Article
To distinguish the effects of drug abuse, mental disorders, and problem drinking on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and highly active ART (HAART) use. Prospective population-based probability sample of 2,267 (representing 213,308) HIV-infected persons in care in the United States in early 1996. Self-reported ART from first (January 1997-July 1997) to...
Article
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There have been no previous nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders and drug use among adults receiving care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States. It is also not known which clinical and sociodemographic factors are associated with these disorders. We enrolled a nationally representat...
Article
The need for mental health and substance abuse services is great among those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but little information is available on services used by this population or on individual factors associated with access to care. Data are from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study, a national probability survey of 2864 HIV-in...
Article
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Historical demography documents that mother-only families were more common among African Americans than among Euro-Americans early in the twentieth century. We find direct evidence that African American males in both first and higher-order marriages were more likely to have (re)married previously married women and were more likely to have (re)marri...
Article
to evaluate the validity of the short form of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) in a nationally representative sample of persons in care for HIV disease in the US. in separate interviews, we administered four components of the CIDI-SF and the full UM CIDI to 1,489 persons ages 18 to 74 receiving ongoing medical care for HIV...
Article
Prior research has shown consistently that religiosity, as indexed by self-reported frequency of prayer, is associated positively with “niceness,” measured by interviewers’ratings of respondents’cooperativeness. We used data pooled from the 1983, 1988, and 1993 General Social Surveys to further examine the association between religiosity and nicene...
Article
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This paper examines utilization of paid and unpaid home health care using data from a nationally representative sample of HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in early 1996 (N = 2,864). Overall, 21.0% used any home care, 12.2% used paid care and 13.6% used unpaid care. Most (70.0%) users of home care received care from only one type of provi...
Article
This article examines the co-occurrence of correct and incorrect knowledge about documented and undocumented modes of HIV transmission among women of childbearing age in El Salvador, and the relationship between HIV transmission knowledge and perceived risk. Incorrect beliefs about HIV transmission co-occur at high levels with, and are largely inde...