Andrew K. Koeser

Andrew K. Koeser
University of Florida | UF · Gulf Coast Research and Education Center

PhD

About

149
Publications
39,863
Reads
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1,138
Citations
Introduction
Currently I am working on creating failure prediction models based a series of storm-related datasets collected while working on a USDA Forest Service Grant. I am continuing my work on the impact of the assessor on tree risk assessments, determining which factors increase/decrease urban tree growth and longevity, and identify how construction and root management affect whole-tree stability. I am also working on a landscape palm identification book.
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - June 2020
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 2010 - April 2013
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Crop Sciences (Biometry and Horticulture)
September 2006 - May 2008
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences
September 2001 - December 2005
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point
Field of study
  • Urban Forestry

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
Research that illuminates causes of urban forest storm damage is valuable for planning and management. However, logistical and safety concerns often delay post-storm surveys in urban areas; thus, surveys may include observations with unverified sources of damage. While this uncertainty is often ignored, it can make up a high proportion of the numbe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Highway rights-of-ways (ROWs, or verges) contain multiple stressors which can influence tree growth, including compacted soils, soils with little topsoil, poor drainage, air and soil pollutants, construction activities, and de-icing salts in cold climates. Yet highway ROWs often provide ample planting space for growing trees, which can...
Article
Full-text available
Trees make our cities and urban areas more livable. Trees provide many benefits, known as ecosystem services, to residents. Cities often make management plans and care for their trees to increase the benefits provided by their urban forests. These plans often include goals to increase tree cover. This study assessed tree cover in 300 Florida (U.S.A...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the abundance of tree diversity in the natural world, and generally high tree species richness in urban areas, urban forests continue to be dominated by a limited number of species. As socio-ecological systems, urban forests are shaped by historical and current management efforts and decision-making of a wide range of human actors. Drawing...
Article
Full-text available
Urban trees are often more sun- and wind-exposed than their forest-grown counterparts. These environmental differences can impact how many species grow–impacting trunk taper, crown spread, branch architecture, and other aspects of tree form. Given these differences, windthrow models derived from traditional forest production data sources may not be...
Article
When professionals assess tree risk, they must consider the potential consequences associated with a branch or whole tree striking a person, vehicle, or structure. This process requires an assessor to determine the diameter and fall distance of a tree part and then gauge the likely damage to a target if failure occurred. The ability to accurately e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urban trees are often more sun-and wind-exposed than their forest-grown counterparts. These environmental differences can impact how many species grow-impacting trunk taper, crown spread, branch architecture, and other aspects of tree form. Given these differences, wind-throw models derived from traditional forest production data sources may not be...
Preprint
Full-text available
While many practitioners and experts understand the risks associated with low urban tree diversity, they often lack the ability to rectify issues they encounter on their own. The current system of tree production and procurement is complex – shaped by market pressures, nursery and site constraints, local governance, and differing professional objec...
Article
Long-term, multi-decade research on planted tree survival in urban settings is sparse. One understudied urban environment is highway rights-of-way (ROW), lands adjacent to high-speed, unsignalized roadways. We conducted a re-inventory of tree planting cohort in northern Illinois, U.S. on a 48 km-long highway near Chicago which were 10-, 21-, and 30...
Article
Full-text available
As urban development increases in density, the space to grow urban trees becomes more constrained. In heavily developed areas, small stature trees can be planted to reduce both above- and below-ground conflicts with infrastructure elements. However, even these species can interfere with pavement when placed in extremely confining conditions. In thi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long-term, multi-decade research on planted tree survival in urban settings is sparse. One understudied urban environment is highway rights-of-way (ROW), lands adjacent to high-speed, unsignalized roadways. We conducted a re-inventory of tree planting cohort in northern Illinois, U.S. on a 48 km-long highway near Chicago which were 10-, 21-, and 30...
Article
Most tree risk assessment methods task the assessor with the evaluation of a tree’s likelihood of impact (i.e. likelihood a target is present during failure) when determining the probability that an adverse event will occur. While this is generally accomplished qualitatively based on visual cues; during the 15 to 20 minutes an assessor is at a loca...
Article
Full-text available
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based o...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forests provide critical environmental benefits, but the resilience of these socio-ecological systems to stresses like pest and disease outbreaks relies on tree health and diversity. Despite this, low species diversity continues to be a challenge in urban forest management. Using a participatory research approach in central Florida (United St...
Technical Report
Arborist News CEU Article with some research notes on key aspects of tree planting. From the October 2022 issue. Cite: Koeser, A.K., R.J. Hauer, and J. Miesbauer. 2021. Boldly Planting for the Next Generation. Arborist News 30(5):12-19.
Preprint
Full-text available
Research Highlights: • Allometric equations explain minimum planting widths for small stature trees. • Trunk flare diameter is related to species, stem diameter, and measurement height • Cost savings for increased planting widths were created for sidewalk replacement. • Minimum planting width provided for planners, urban foresters, and engineers. A...
Article
Arborists, urban foresters, and other tree care professionals commonly use visual risk assessment methods to evaluate tree safety. Most methods used by professionals have three main inputs: likelihood of impact, likelihood of failure, and consequences of failure. In assessing the latter, the size of the tree part expected to fail and its fall dista...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based o...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between wind and trees control energy exchanges between the atmosphere and forest canopies. This energy exchange can lead to the widespread damage of trees, and wind is a key disturbance agent in many of the world's forests. However, most research on this topic has focused on conifer plantations, where risk management is economically i...
Article
Many cities actively manage their urban trees in an effort to increase canopy coverage, manipulate species and size distributions, and maximize associated environmental and social benefits. As development is one of the most significant factors limiting tree abundance and health, many local governments have enacted policies or ordinances which attem...
Article
Full-text available
While efforts to standardize urban forest inventory data have occurred, the information collected from community to community remains quite variable. In this study, we conducted a global review of peer-reviewed and published research that collected tree inventory data to assess what information is being collected. In addition to this review, we als...
Article
Full-text available
Responses to water stress were measured for sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum Marshall) sources from Oklahoma (Caddo sugar maple), Missouri, Tennessee, Ontario, and a black maple (Acer saccharum subsp. nigrum F. Michx.) source from Iowa. Seedling sources were selected for differences in temperature and precipitation of their geographic o...
Article
Professional judgment is derived from a person’s intuition, training, and level of expertise. When exploring the influence that expertise has on the process of tree risk assessment, it is helpful to approach the topic in relation to its impact across various related fields and disciplines. This paper reviews the effects of arboricultural and tree r...
Article
Full-text available
When balled-and-burlapped trees are planted, a decision must be made regarding whether the wire basket, burlap, and other packing materials should be removed (completely or partially) or retained. While past research has failed to show a significant impact of either approach with regard to initial growth and establishment, many professionals still...
Preprint
Full-text available
Responses to water stress were measured for sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum Marshall) sources from Oklahoma (Caddo sugar maple), Missouri, Tennessee, Ontario and a black maple (Acer saccharum subsp. nigrum F. Michx.) source from Iowa. Seedling sources were selected for differences in temperature and precipitation of their geographic or...
Article
While often considered “open grown,” urban trees are often found in relatively close proximity to neighboring trees, buildings, and other elements of urban infrastructure. These spatial arrangements may provide wind protection during severe weather events such as hurricanes. Beyond this very local scale, urban tree abundance and condition are often...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Interactions between wind and trees control energy exchanges between the atmosphere and forest canopies. This energy exchange can lead to the widespread damage of trees and wind is a key disturbance agent in many of the world’s forests. However, most research on this topic has focused on conifer plantations, where risk management is economically...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We conducted an aerial canopy analysis of Florida's 29 metro- and micropolitan regions and calculated carbon sequestration , stormwater mitigation, and air pollution filtration benefits using the USDA Forest Service's iTree Canopy ecosystem service model.
Article
This new 13-page article combines canopy coverage data from all of Florida's metropolitan and micropolitan areas with ecological models developed by the USDA Forest Service to calculate several key benefits of urban trees and an approximation of their monetary value. Benefits of urban trees include carbon sequestration/storage, air pollution filtra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Describes a method for determining planting width requirements for urban trees to prevent damage to nearby infrastructure like curbs and sidewalks. Includes tables with values for species common to Florida as well as general equations that can be used for a wider range of species in North America and beyond.
Article
Trees provide urban landscapes with shade, beauty, and habitat. They can also help lessen the effects of flooding and urban heat buildup while storing carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. When planted in the wrong place, however, trees can damage urban infrastructure. To maximize the benefits provided by urban trees, we need better-informed tree...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Extension article describing how to identify underutilized species which have the potential to thrive in urban areas.
Article
Full-text available
Urban tree diversity is important when attempting to create a healthy, beneficial, and resilient urban forest. Having a variety of trees can increase the aesthetic value for residents and create habitats for plants and animals. Some common street trees currently in the landscape are not site-appropriate and create infrastructure damage. By planting...
Article
The provision of ecosystem services is a prominent rationale for urban greening, and there is a prevailing mantra that 'trees are good'. However, understanding how urban trees contribute to sustainability must also consider disservices. In this perspective article, we discuss recent research on ecosystem disservices of urban trees, including infras...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many cities actively manage their urban trees in an effort to increase canopy coverage, manipulate species and size distributions, and maximize associated environmental and social benefits. As development is one of the most significant factors limiting tree abundance and health, many local governments have enacted policies or ordinances which attem...
Preprint
Highlights  Tree diversity changes as the scale changes  Little change in street tree species has occurred over 40 years  The majority of street trees in a community can be explained for by 4 to 6 species Abstract: Integrating tree species diversity into urban forest management can help create resilient tree populations. In this study, the abund...
Article
Integrating tree species diversity into urban forest management can help create resilient tree populations. In this study, the abundance of trees within families, genera, and species levels was determined through a system developed to evaluate the diversity of urban street trees at different scales. Municipal foresters were asked to report the six...
Preprint
Full-text available
Revisiting a past study of wire basket removal and retention for balled-and-burlapped trees. In this paper, we look at longer-term impacts of growth as well as assessing whole tree stability using static pull tests.
Article
Visual risk assessment remains the primary means of gauging urban tree safety and is a key facet of storm preparation and response. While past research has investigated the reproducibility of risk assessment methodologies (i.e., precision), few, if any, studies truly address the accuracy of current inspection practices — especially with regard to t...
Article
Full-text available
Trees in residential landscapes provide many benefits, but can injure persons and damage property when they fail. In hurricane-prone regions like Florida, USA, the regular occurrence of hurricanes has provided an opportunity to assess factors that influence the likelihood of wind-induced tree failure and develop species failure profiles. We assesse...
Preprint
Full-text available
Trees in residential landscapes provide many benefits, but can injure persons and damage property when they fail. In hurricane-prone regions like Florida, USA, the regular occurrence of hurricanes has provided an opportunity to assess factors that influence the likelihood of wind-induced tree failure and develop species failure profiles. We assesse...
Conference Paper
Transplanted trees are exposed to numerous stresses from the time they leave the nursery until their eventual establishment in the landscape. If environmental conditions are unfavorable and adequate care are not provided after planting, trees can enter a period of reduced growth commonly referred to as "transplant shock." In an effort to isolate th...
Chapter
Deeply planted trees are commonly observed in the urban landscape. However, the effect of deep planting on tree stability is not well documented. Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Patmore') trees were planted at three different depths in research plots and established for nine years. We then conducted static pull tests to evaluate the consequences...
Article
Tree roots often come in conflict with elements of the built environment, particularly when planted in limited soil locations. For street trees located between roadways and sidewalks, minimum planting width requirements can be calculated to prevent large supporting roots from lifting or growing over paved surfaces. In this study, we used diameter a...
Chapter
Full-text available
The effects of street, curb, and sidewalk construction on tree growth, health, and survival were studied in Milwaukee, WI, United States. Three periods were used to contrast the implementation of tree preservation during construction: (1) a limited developed program period prior to 1989, (2) an intermediate program of development and refinement Str...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: The structural diversity of an urban forest affects ecosystem service provision, and can inform management, planning, as well as policy. Trunk diameter at breast height (DBH) is amongst the most common measures of tree structure due to its ease of measurement and strong relationships with other structural and non-structur...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a study conducted on trees risk assessed prior to Hurricane Matthew (tropical storm strength by the time it hit our study trees). We had two main research goals: 1. Predict failure using the various tree inventory/risk assessment data collected, and 2. See if professional arborists could effectively predict tree failure before a storm.
Article
Full-text available
A long-term research study in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA investigated how construction (i.e., repairs to streets, curbs, and sidewalks) affected tree condition, survival, and growth compared to control trees outside construction zones and effects of a tree preservation program on reducing construction impacts. This study is divided into three period...
Article
Integrating tree species diversity into urban forest management can help create resilient tree populations. In this study, the abundance of trees within families, genera, and species levels was determined through a system developed to evaluate the diversity of urban street trees at different scales. Municipal foresters were asked to report the six...
Article
Trees are often deeply planted as a result of nursery and landscape practices. While past research has investigated the impact of deep planting on tree growth and survival, its impact on whole-tree stability is not well documented. Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Patmore') trees were planted at three different depths in research plots and establ...
Article
Full-text available
Technical transfer article in Arborist News for an associated literature review published in Arboriculture & Urban Forestry
Article
Full-text available
A long-term research study in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA investigated how construction (i.e., repairs to streets, curbs, and sidewalks) affected tree condition, survival, and growth compared to control trees outside construction zones and effects of a tree preservation program on reducing construction impacts. This study is divided into three period...
Article
Conflicts between trees and infrastructure installation or repair occur frequently in the urban environment and may result in damage to or complete removal of tree roots. We monitored the responses of trees to linear root cutting and examined the effects of the presence of a road within tree root zones. Mature Quercus virginiana Mill. trees (n=31)...
Article
While cities across the United States are developing urban forest plans to capitalize on a myriad of ecosystem services provided by trees, the tools that are used to support this planning do not necessarily meet the needs and achieve the desired results of these municipal initiatives. This paper highlights the disconnect between how planners and ac...
Article
Full-text available
Tree survival is a performance metric for urban forestry initiatives, and an understanding of the factors that influence mortality can help managers target resources and enhance survival. Furthermore, urban tree planting investments depend on tree survival to maximize ecosystem services. In this literature review, we categorized factors commonly as...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forests are often heavily populated by street trees along right-of-ways (ROW), and monitoring efforts can enhance municipal tree management. Terrestrial photogrammetric techniques have been used to measure tree biometry, but have typically used images from various angles around individual trees or forest plots to capture the entire stem while...
Article
Many cities around the world have set ambitious urban tree canopy cover goals, with the expectation that urban forests will provide ecosystem services as functional green infrastructure. Numerous studies have examined intra-city spatial patterns in urban tree canopy (UTC) and found that UTC relates to socioeconomic indicators and urban form. Additi...
Article
Full-text available
The topic of wire basket removal during planting remains an area of contention among nursery growers, landscapers, and arborists who work with balled-and-burlapped planting material. Those in favor of removal fear that the burlap and wire surrounding a tree's root ball will impede root regrowth and eventually lead to the girdling of any roots that...
Article
Palms (family Arecaceae) can make up a significant portion of the urban forest in the climates where they are viable. Despite this, they are rarely included in the urban forest growth and longevity literature. One difficulty associated with including palms in research is an absence of a standard means for characterizing tree health or condition. Wh...
Article
Full-text available
Roadside trees provide benefits to drivers such as traffic calming, roadway definition, and driver stress reduction. However, trees are also one of several roadway infrastructure elements commonly involved in single-vehicle crashes. In this study, Florida Highway Saftey and Motor Vehicle records were analyzed to: evaluate the relative frequency of...
Article
Full-text available
In the presence of a target, tree failures have the potential to damage property, disrupt services, or threaten public safety. Worldwide, several qualitative methods have been developed to provide a systematic approach for tree risk assessment and management. The consistency and accuracy of these methods, the values placed on the tree in question a...
Article
Trees in the urban environment are affected by anthropogenic activities that have the potential to negatively affect tree function, health, and growth. The provision and maintenance of new underground utilities, footpaths, and street furniture all have the potential to result in conflicts with tree root systems leading to root severance. Traditiona...