Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight
The University of Winchester

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89
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Full-text available
Alternative pet foods may offer benefits concerning environmental sustainability and the welfare of animals processed into pet foods. However, some worry these may compromise the welfare of pets. We asked 2,639 dog guardians about one dog living with them, for at least one year. Among 2,596 involved in pet diet decision-making, pet health was a key...
Article
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The forced swim test ( FST ) is a controversial rodent test that has been used for decades, mainly in depression studies. The severity of the procedure makes it ethically questionable and its validity has also been questioned. In this paper we contribute new data to this debate. We identified original research papers related to Major Depressive Dis...
Article
Full-text available
Animals have been considered an indispensable tool to teach about the functioning of living organisms, to obtain skills necessary for practicing human and veterinary medicine, as well as for acquiring skills for caring for and conducting experiments on animals in laboratories. However, the efficacy of this practice has been questioned in the last d...
Article
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Humane alternatives to harmful educational animal use include ethically-sourced cadavers, models, mannequins, mechanical simulators, videos, computer and virtual reality simulations, and supervised clinical and surgical experiences. In many life and health sciences courses, however, traditional animal use persists, often due to uncertainty about th...
Article
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most severe depression type and one of the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Animal models are widely used to understand MDD etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment, but the efficacy of this research for patients has barely been systematically evaluated. Such evaluation is important given the resource consu...
Article
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The current paradigm for biomedical research and drug testing postulates that in vitro and in silico data inform animal studies that will subsequently inform human studies. Recent evidence points out that animal studies have made a poor contribution to current knowledge of Major Depressive Disorder, whereas the contribution of in vitro and in silic...
Research
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY New Zealand’s internationally famous ‘clean, green’ image has been threatened in recent decades by its agricultural practices. Greenhouse gas emissions, polluted waterways, soil erosion and compaction, deforestation, and habitat and biodiversity loss are some of the main problems caused by livestock farming. New Zealand has one...
Article
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most severe form of depression and the leading cause of disability worldwide. When considering research approaches aimed at understanding MDD, it is important that their effectiveness is evaluated. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of original studies on MDD by rating their contributions to subsequent medica...
Article
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Simple Summary: Legislation and guidelines governing biomedical research with humans and non-human primates (NHPs) rely on different ethical frameworks. In this paper we argue that the main ethical framework used to assess and justify NHP experimentation is inadequate for its purpose. We propose a change of framework that we believe would benefit N...
Article
Dedicated clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) that make use of models, mannequins and simulators, are being increasingly established in medical and veterinary schools. These have been commonplace in medical schools for more than two decades, but their incorporation within the teaching of veterinary curricula has occurred much more recently. In 2007...
Article
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Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several as...
Article
THIS series gives readers the opportunity to consider and contribute to discussion of some of the ethical dilemmas that can arise in veterinary practice. Each month, a case scenario is presented, followed by discussion of some of the issues involved. In addition, a possible way forward is suggested; however, there is rarely a cut-and-dried answer i...
Article
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Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in...
Article
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Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for com...
Article
THIS series gives readers the opportunity to consider and contribute to discussion of some of the ethical dilemmas that can arise in veterinary practice. Each month, a case scenario is presented, followed by discussion of some of the issues involved. In addition, a possible way forward is suggested; however, there is rarely a cut-and-dried answer i...
Article
Full-text available
IN their letter entitled ‘Bovine TB in the pilot badger cull zone in Gloucestershire’ (VR, February 21, 2015, vol 176, p 208), Blowey and others claim that data derived from veterinary practices serving some farmers within the pilot badger cull zone in Gloucestershire show significant declines in bovine TB reactors. They appear to suggest the pilot...
Article
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Safeguarding animal welfare is an important aspect of the day-to-day work of almost all veterinarians; however, only some choose to pursue specific postgraduate qualifications in this area. Andrew Knight describes some of the routes to specialisation that are available around the world, highlighting in particular how suitably experienced individual...
Article
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Andrew Knight is a European veterinary specialist in animal welfare science, ethics and law who speaks regularly on animal welfare issues at universities and conferences internationally. Here, he describes how his career has developed, along with his interest in cryptozoology
Article
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THE recently published short communication by Roberts and others (2014) describing an unusual cluster of cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic cats in Berkshire relates to events some 12 months ago, although because of the perceived risk to human health, the report has created something of a media storm. While we would not wish to und...
Conference Paper
Introduction/Background: The use of teaching models in medical education is useful to decrease learner anxiety, allow for repeated practice of steps in a procedure, development of motor skills over time, and to spare use of animals or human subjects. Models were solught that would have relative fidelity while simultaneously being cost effective, an...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such...
Article
Full-text available
THIS series gives readers the opportunity to consider and contribute to discussion of some of the ethical dilemmas that can arise in veterinary practice. Each month, a case scenario is presented, followed by discussion of some of the issues involved. In addition, a possible way forward is suggested; however, there is rarely a cut-and-dried answer i...
Article
Full-text available
WE were very concerned to see the statement from the BVA on November 5 indicating its agreement with the Chief Veterinary Officer's (CVO's) advice to ministers justifying extensions to the pilot badger culls in Somerset and Gloucestershire. There is significant concern among scientists with considerable expertise in the impact of culling badgers o...
Article
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IN view of the controversial removal of Munhuwepasi Chikosi's name from the RCVS Register, for actions including the failure to attend to an injured animal for one hour, we would appreciate it if the RCVS could please issue clear and unequivocal guidance on the duration of suffering permitted in a wild animal as a result of veterinary neglect, befo...
Article
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THE letter from Ranald Munro ( VR , June 8, 2013, vol 172, p 617), chair of the Independent Expert Panel (IEP) charged with overseeing the development of humaneness assessment protocols for the pilot badger culls and ensuring the robustness of data collection and analysis, and information Defra has so far released, both …
Article
Full-text available
Introduction/Background: The use of teaching models in medical education is useful to decrease learner anxiety, allow for repeated practice of steps in a procedure, development of motor skills over time, and to spare use of animals or human subjects. Models were solught that would have relative fidelity while simultaneously being cost effective, an...
Article
Full-text available
My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answ...
Article
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This article provides an empirically based, interdisciplinary approach to the following two questions: Do animals possess behavioral and cognitive characteristics such as culture, language, and a theory of mind? And if so, what are the implications, when long-standing criteria used to justify differences in moral consideration between humans and an...
Chapter
Unanswered questions about the precise psychological abilities of laboratory animals inevitably result in a degree of uncertainty about the nature and magnitude of the suffering likely to result from invasive procedures and protocols. It has been theorised that only those species with brain structures such as a cerebral cortex and thalamus and the...
Chapter
Few, if any, educational disciplines have stronger justifications for invasive animal use than veterinary education. Veterinarians must be familiar with the clinical signs of diseases, which might be proposed as a justification for inflicting those diseases on laboratory animals. They must be able to perform a variety of clinical and surgical proce...
Chapter
Evaluated overall, the 27 systematic reviews and additional studies examined in Chapters 5 and 6 do not support the widely held assumptions of animal ethics committees and of those advocating animal experimentation that such research is generally beneficial in the development of human therapeutic interventions and the assessment of human toxicity....
Chapter
This chapter summarises strategies aimed at achieving reduction (decreased numbers) and refinement (decreased suffering) of laboratory animal use, and the potential for synergistic or, occasionally, detrimental effects when multiple 3Rs strategies are implemented concurrently.
Chapter
Scientific interest in non-animal alternatives has been reflected by their ongoing development and formal validation, and by the establishment of several international centres and university departments dedicated to this work (Leist et al. 2008a). In 1981 a Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing was established at the John Hopkins University Blo...
Chapter
Biomedical research using laboratory animals is highly controversial. Advocates frequently claim such research is vital for preventing, curing, or alleviating human diseases (e.g. Brom 2002, Festing 2004a), that the greatest achievements of medicine have been possible only due to the use of animals (e.g. Pawlik 1998), and that the complexity of hum...
Chapter
Due to limited human toxicity data, the identification and regulation of exposure to potential human toxins has traditionally relied heavily on animal studies. However, systematic reviews have indicated that animal studies lack utility for this purpose in the fields of carcinogenicity (at least five reviews: Tomatis & Wilbourn 1993, Haseman 2000, H...
Chapter
Increasing social concern about invasive animal use in biomedical research and toxicity testing has driven the evolution of legislation and related regulations in many countries and regions. Such regulations seek to restrict laboratory animal use to only those instances where non-animal alternatives are considered scientifically inadequate, for inv...
Chapter
Stress is ‘the effect produced by external (i.e., physical or environmental) events or internal (i.e., physiologic or psychologic) factors … which induce an alteration in an animal’s biologic equilibrium’ (i.e. state of homeostasis). Stressors are adverse stimuli resulting in stress, and distress is ‘an aversive state in which an animal is unable t...
Chapter
Most animal experimentation is intended to benefit human beings. To assess the merits of such research, one must weigh the likely human benefits against the probable costs to the animals involved. The potential offered by alternative methodologies should also be considered.
Chapter
The nature and magnitude of impacts experienced by laboratory animals depend on a wide range of factors. These typically include level of invasiveness of procedures; neurological and cognitive capacity, and developmental stage, of the animals used; extent of analgesic (pain-killer) and anaesthetic use; degree of domestication of the species involve...
Chapter
The adverse impacts of invasive animal use in biomedical education are not limited to the animals used. Adverse impacts may also be experienced by students. These may include long-term health impacts, impacts on learning, and impacts on the development of attitudes towards animal welfare.
Article
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Highly polarised viewpoints about animal experimentation have often prevented agreement. However, important common ground between advocates and opponents was demonstrated within a discussion forum hosted at www.research-methodology.org.uk in July-August 2008, by the independent charity, SABRE Research UK. Agreement existed that many animal studies...
Article
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The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild--as many older research chimpanzees once were--and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially...
Article
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Widespread reliance on animal models during preclinical research and toxicity testing assumes their reasonable predictivity for human outcomes. However, of 20 published systematic reviews examining human clinical utility, located during a comprehensive literature search, animal models demonstrated significant potential to contribute toward the deve...
Article
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Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway wit...
Article
Full-text available
Animal use resulting in harm or death remains common within veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, 'ethically-sourced cadavers,' such as from animals euthanized for...
Article
Full-text available
The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published...
Article
Full-text available
The scientific and logistical limitations incurred by the use of animal models of humans within bio- medical research and toxicity testing are substantial, and increasingly recognized; as is social concern about, and consequent regulatory restriction of, laboratory animal use. In defiance of these factors, such use remains enormous. Based on best e...
Article
Full-text available
The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive "Scopus" biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for publish...
Article
Full-text available
Biomedical research on captive chimpanzees incurs substantial nonhuman animal welfare, ethical, and financial costs that advocates claim resultin substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge. However, demonstrating minimal contribution toward the advancement of biomedical knowledge generally, subsequent papers did not cite 49.5% (47/95), of 95...
Article
Full-text available
Animal use resulting in harm or death has historically played an integral role in veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, ''ethically-sourced cadavers'' such as from...
Article
Full-text available
The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing, and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive 'Scopus' biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for publis...
Article
Full-text available
The 2001 European Commission proposal for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) aims to improve public and environmental health by assessing the toxicity of, and restricting exposure to, potentially toxic chemicals. The greatest benefits are expected to accrue from decreased cancer incidences. Hence the accurate identi...
Article
Full-text available
Due to limited human exposure data, risk classification and the consequent regulation of exposure to potential carcinogens has conventionally relied mainly upon animal tests. However, several investigations have revealed animal carcinogenicity data to be lacking in human predictivity. To investigate the reasons for this, we surveyed 160 chemicals p...
Article
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Conventional animal carcinogenicity tests take around three years to design, conduct and interpret. Consequently, only a tiny fraction of the thousands of industrial chemicals currently in use have been tested for carcinogenicity. Despite the costs of hundreds of millions of dollars and millions of skilled personnel hours, as well as millions of an...
Article
For many years, animal welfare organisations have taken the lead in bringing about improvements in animal welfare, as well as helping to change attitudes towards animals. Unfortunately, the veterinary profession has often lagged behind in its support for reform. It is vital therefore that veterinary training includes a good grounding in animal welf...
Article
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The regulation of human exposure to potentially carcinogenic chemicals constitutes society's most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. Environmental contaminants of greatest concern within the USA are listed in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) chemicals database. However, of the 160 IR...
Article
The regulation of human exposures to potential carcinogens constitutes society's most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. However, for environmental contaminants of greatest U.S. concern, we found that in most cases (58.1% ; 93/160) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered the animal data inadequate to support a classific...
Article
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Animal tests yield misleading resultsFOR Despite President Nixon's War on Cancer, launched in 1971, and billions of dollars spent since then, cancer remains the second-leading killer of Americans. Around 40% of us will get cancer, and half of us will die from it.1 This cease-less tide of human suffering starkly questions the effectiveness of our st...
Article
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Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and man-hours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this d...
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Article
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Public attitudes toward animal welfare have improved with growing social affluence, and veterinarians are increasingly expected to be informed about animal welfare in a broader sense than health alone. However, animal welfare has not been a traditional component of the veterinary curriculum. To help address this lack, the World Society for the Prot...
Article
Full-text available
Biomedical research on captive chimpanzees incurs substantial animal welfare, ethical and financial costs, which advocates claim yield substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge. However, of 95 experiments randomly selected from a population of 749 published worldwide between 1995 and 2004, 49.5% (47/95) were not cited by any subsequent paper...

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